top.mail.ru

P

Archive:

2017

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2017 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov G. V.
Methodical aspects of forming of the mechanism of strategic management by food security
The general disadvantages of strategic management of food security are analyzed in the article (weak scientific character and reliability of forecasting systems, forecasting for enlarged periods with no adjustments for changing circumstances, contradictions between spheres of AIC and other sectors at interaction, etc.), as well as determining conditions that should be taken into account when designing a strategic management system (limited possibilities for AIC diversification, demand low elasticity for agricultural products, high degree competition, etc.). The mechanism for implementation of strategic management process for arrangement and application of the food system was developed. The proposed mechanism provides for a number of efficient management methods and functions in a cross view from higher hierarchical structures to agroindustrial enterprises and subdivisions thereof, as well as criteria and indicators for achieving target efficiency at different management levels. The novelty of these criteria consists in both the quantitative interpretation, and in scientific and methodological characteristics of each indicator. The key strategies are formulated for development of a business entity; the aims, objectives and content are identified. Each type of strategy in the hierarchy has its own target orientation and specific content. According to the orientation and content, the functions and methods of management are formulated, as well as management services responsible for implementation are identified.

Full textBajgot M. S., Akhramovich V. S.
Diversification of agricultural export: problems and perspectives
Penetration to foreign markets of any level of development involves overcoming of existing foreign trade barriers created primarily to protect the domestic market from unfair competition from exporters or to limit excessive import. Therefore, one of the most significant external factors having effect on the ability to achieve export potential is conditions for access to the importing countries’ markets. Within the study carried out, we systematized the conditions determining access to importing countries’ markets of Belarusian agricultural products and foodstuffs in two groups (tariff and non-tariff), identifying the main barriers: customs tariffs; rules of customs clearance; administrative formalities; quantitative import restrictions; barriers having effect on the price of imported goods; technical regulation measures; standardization and certification of products; financial nature measures. Based on the features revealed of imported products regulation peculiarities in foreign countries, as well as analysis of economic conditions for access of Belarusian agricultural products and foodstuffs to foreign markets, proposals have been made for diversification of export of agricultural products and foodstuffs of Belarus.

Full textKazakevich I. A.
Easy-term loan as a measure of AIC state support within the EAEU and WTO
One of the main directions of international economic integration is equal conditions for development of market relations based on healthy competition. The most important condition for development of integration processes is close approach of AIC support mechanisms. It requires member countries to undertake obligations to fix and reduce support measures that have a distorting effect on trade, which in turn requires development of effective approaches for its reduction. In this regard, development of approaches to increase efficiency of state participation in the loan mechanism for agrarian sector based on study of world experience becomes particular relevant. The article presents the results of studying the current loan system for AIC in Belarus, analysis of applicable legislation in the field of easy-term loan in agriculture, amount of loans and rates taking into account the results of economic activity, allowed to identify the main problems in this field and causes thereof. It was determined that low efficiency, as well as a constant loan debt growth reduces the solvency of agricultural organizations and does not allow to completely use the opportunities provided by the loan market of Belarus. Directions of development of loan system are substantiated with the use of budgetary funds in conditions of international economic integration. The proposed approaches will allow to reduce budget expenditures and newly attracted investment loans in agriculture, and increase their efficiency. The novelty of the proposed approaches is in the fact that the risks of the project’s implementation efficiency at the initial stage are borne by the producers themselves, which will help to avoid inefficient application of budget funds and increase responsibility of the companies.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textLapa V. V., Ivakhnenko N. N.
Fertilisation of arable soils in Belarus and balances of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium
Perfect system of application of mineral and organic fertilizers is the main factor for obtaining high level agricultural crop yield with the required quality parameters. The article presents the results of data analysis obtained in dynamics over the last 6 rounds of large-scale agrochemical soil survey in the Republic of Belarus for the period of 1986–2015: for introduction of mineral and organic fertilizers for agricultural crops on arable soils; balance (balance intensity) of supply and removal of nutrients on arable soils is determined; performance of agricultural crops on arable soils is presented. Dynamics of agrochemical indicators of soils arable layer (content of humus, P2O5, K2O, pHKCl) for 2009–2015 is also analyzed. It is determined that on average in 2006–2015 in Belarus mineral fertilizers have been used at the same level, although since 2012 there is a tendency to decrease of this index, mostly due to phosphorus fertilizers. Perfect level of mineral fertilizers application on arable soils of the Republic of Belarus is determined in the amount of minimum 260–280 kg/ha of NPK to obtain agricultural crop products at the level of 50 c f.u./ha. The conducted analysis of application of mineral (nitrogen, potassium and phosphoric fertilizers) and organic fertilizers in regions and in entire republic, determination of nutrients balance in soil is of great importance for further prediction of yields and maintenance of soil fertility, implementation of required doses of mineral and organic fertilizers taking into account the required performance of agricultural crops for the near future.

Full textVildflush I. R., Tsyganov А. R., Murzova О. V., Tsuyko S. R.
Efficiency of new fertilizers and growth regulators forms applications for cultivation of winter wheat, hulless and chaffy oat
The article presents materials of experiments with winter wheat (Bogatko and Suite varieties), as well as with chaffy oat (Zapavet variety) and hulless oat (Gosha variety) on sod-podzolic light loamy soil of the North-Eastern part of Belarus. The effect of new compound fertilizer with microelements for pre-sowing application on yield and quality of winter wheat grain, hulless and chaffy oat is studied. It was developed by the Institute of Soil Science and Agrochemistry, as well as liquid compound fertilizer Adob Med (Poland), new compound microfertilizers based on microelement and plant growth regulator MicroSteam – Med L and MicroSil – Med L (Belarus), water-soluble compound fertilizer Nutrivant Plus (Israel) and plant growth regulator Ecosil. The maximum yield of winter wheat grain of Bogatko (74.5 c/ha) and Suite (75.9 c/ha) varieties was at combination of 30 t/ha of manure with application of N20P64K140 + N70 + N40 + N40. Nitrogen fertilizers significantly increased the content of crude protein and crude gluten in the winter wheat grain. The positive effect on increase in crude protein content in the wheat grain of Bogatko and Suita varieties was determined with application of plant growth regulator Ecosil and some fertilizers Adob Med and Ecolist Grains on the background of N20P64K140 + N70 + N40 + N40. The content of crude gluten in grain of both varieties of wheat increased significantly with the use of the plant growth regulator Ecosil, as well as microfertilizer Adob Med, compound fertilizers Ecolist Grains, MicroSteam – Med A and MicroSil – Med L. Chaffy oat of Zapavet variety proved to be more responsive to fertilization - the grain yield was higher than in case with hulless oat of Gosha variety. Application of microfertilizer Adob med on the background of the maximum doses of mineral fertilizers N80P70K120+N40 карб allowed to obtain the highest yield of oat grain (58.0 c/ha), in this variant of the experiment the maximum crude protein content was 14.5 and 17.2 % for hulless and chaffy oat, respectively.

Full textLikhatsevich A. P.
Generalized mathematical model for analyzing obtained results of agronomic experiments
Structural mathematical model of environment impact on agricultural crops performance is tested. Theoretical curve and experimental data of Belarus and Russia have high statistical indicators of matching what proves model accuracy. Generalized crop model is suitable for various conditions and specifies results of experiments which accuracy rises by considering wide range of productivity factors during multiple field experiment. Scheme of agronomic experiment measures environment impact on crop and includes two main productivity factors – plant nutrition and moisture provision. Soil fertility and fertilizer rates provide plant nutrition. Moisture provision depends on water physical soil qualities and precipitation; in the case of irrigation initial soil moisture is a key condition. To establish how productivity factors affect the crop, the general scheme of field experiments shall contain variants of an obviously high fertilizer rates which dose increase will not stimulate further crop growth in experimental condition. Generalized mathematical model of productivity based on such experiments optimizes distribution of resources in agriculture and allows us to schedule (program) yields.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textBarulin N. V.
Strategy for sturgeon breeding in the Republic of Belarus
One of the most important ways for intensification of production nowadays is transition to new particularly valuable species of fish. Taking into account the ongoing demand for sturgeon products (caviar and meat), aquaculture is practically the only direction allowing to satisfy the market demands for these products. At the same time, each of the producer countries sets certain priorities for which the species structure of reared sturgeon species is being determined, various technologies are applied and corresponding market preferences are formed. The paper presents the main provisions of unified strategy for development of sturgeon breeding in the Republic of Belarus, developed on the basis of modern world knowledge and achievements of Belarusian scientists. The main narrow-profile technological features are described for such fields as caviar sturgeon breeding, meat sturgeon breeding, artificial reproduction and restoration of natural populations. It is shown that at the modern stage two lines are traced – obtaining sturgeon caviar and as a method of compensating the missing fishing resources and growing material for replenishment of natural resources, other directions are of adjacent character and complement the designated ones. Operating fishing enterprises related to sturgeon breeding are analyzed. The main tasks are defined, the main provisions of sturgeon breeding development strategy in the Republic of Belarus are proposed taking into account the current state of production capacity. The proposed strategy for sturgeon breeding development can serve as the basis for implementing measures on practical development of the industry.

Full textAgeyets V., Koshak Z., Koshak A.
Problems and prospects of biologically full feed for fish in the Republic of Belarus
Development of aquaculture in recent decades demonstrates rapid growth. In a number of countries the volume of bred fish already exceeds the volume of caught fish from natural reservoirs. In this regard there is a need to develop efficient feed products, as well as develop technologies for fish feed production. In the Republic of Belarus, the formulations and technologies are already developed for production of feeds for carp of different ages, young salmon and sturgeon fish, as well as requirement specifications for these feeds. At present, developments are in progress for therapeutic and preventive compound feeds against bacterial infections of carp fish, researches and development of new raw materials components. The further development of the fish industry of the republic depends on high-quality and biologically complete compound feeds. The article considers peculiarities of freshwater fish feeding. The main directions of research in the field of development and improvement of compound feeds for fish are outlined, the main of which are the development of new types of modern raw materials and improvement of production technology thereof. Recommendations are proposed for development of waste free technologies for processing raw food products with obtaining high-tech feed products of domestic production, namely fry compound feeds by microgranulation and microextruding methods, which will allow to reduce the country’s dependence on imported compound feeds.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textPetrovets V. R., Kurzenkov S. V., Grekov D. V., Dudko N. N.
Classification of disc coulters according to technological and design parameters
When cultivating agricultural crops, pre-sowing tillage and sowing are of primary importance. The quality of these operations is determined by the choice of technological means and technical condition, adjustment and alignment, as well as compliance with all the agrotechnical requirements. Nowadays foreign and local seeding machines are often equipped with disc combined coulters. These units allow to combine operations of soil preparation, intrasoil application of initial dose of phosphorus fertilizers and sowing of agricultural crops. This article presents structural and morphological classification of coulters in 2 basic, 12 constructive and 6 engineering features. Application of this classification table is presented for description of purpose and characteristics of sowing operating units, as well as formation of digital indication record for them. The possibility of reproducing digital information about seeding operating unit in the form of variety of its characteristics is considered under specific examples of the existing combined disc coulters. The advantage of this classification table in comparison with the available ones is that its structure and form allow to easily supplement the features characterizing the studied operating unit without changing the algorithm for digital code generation. The proposed classification of combined disc coulters will contribute to a deeper solution of problems of synthesis and analysis of these operating units, will allow to use the digital coding to describe the entire diversity of features thereof.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textShamoninа A. I., Khochenkov A. A., Khodosovsky D. N., Tanana L. A., Pestis M. V.
Chemical composition and properties of cooked pork for production baby food depending on the composition feed ration
Meat is one of the most important products for baby food. To assess the quality of meat raw materials for baby food products, the following indicators are considered: organoleptic, chemical, hygienic and technological. Meat processing is accompanied by complex physical and chemical, biochemical and mechanical processes. For prediction of meat raw materials behavior during technological processing, a number of functional and technological indicators are used, objectively reflecting its quality. The results of studies of cooking and technological qualities are presented (pH, boiling capacity, moisture retention capacity, cooking and technological indicator), as well as organoleptic parameters of pork for baby food production obtained from young pigs grown at pig breeding complexes, characterized by the same technology of pigs management, but have fundamental difference in livestock feeding. It was determined that the perfect variant of fattening for meat production meeting the requirements for raw materials for baby food is noted when using complete diet compound feeds based on local grain forage (triticale and barley) and when replacing a part of imported soybean and sunflower meal with rapeseed meal. It is shown that increase in slaughter weight of animals when sold to a meat plant allows to improve both the cooking and technological qualities, which are especially important at foodstuffs production. It is noted that use of local rapeseed feeds for pigs feeding instead of imported meals provides high cooking and technological qualities of pork for baby food production. It was determined that meat of animals fattened mainly on local feeds had high tasting ratings (4.8–5.0 points). Thus, using high-quality meat raw materials makes it possible to produce tasty and useful products for baby food that completely comply with hygienic standards without using the entire range of technological and flavor additives.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Petr Ivanovich Alsmik (To the 110th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Anatoliy Pavlovich Likhatsevich (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Fedor Ivanovich Privalov (To the 60th Anniversary of Birthday)

© 2015 Belarus Agricultural Library  Правильный CSS! Правильный RSS!
Яндекс цитирования Rating All.BY Яндекс.Метрика