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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2017 №3

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textBatova N.N.
Evolution and modern trends of competition economic policy development
In modern conditions of dynamic development of the market environment, deployment of informatization and globalization processes, and tightening of economic confrontation of companies, development of framework conditions for efficient competition and ensuring on this basis the current and long-term business competitiveness takes on particular significance. Competitive policy plays a significant role for solving this problem, which under modern economic conditions is one of the most important tools for economic processes state management aimed at formation and development of highly efficient economy with a significant growth potential and allowing to solve the whole range of social and economic problems. The results of studying the foreign experience in development and nature of the main provisions of antimonopoly and competition laws are presented in the article, and the main stages of its evolution are outlined. It was determined that qualitative changes in the world economy, active globalization and informatization processes, development of new economy and network structures had a significant impact on the modern model of competition policy. The key aspects of competition economic policy formation in the regional integration countries unions (EU, APEC, NAFTA, OECD, CIS, EAEU, etc.) are highlighted. It was determined that the EU legislation was considered one of the best examples of efficient international competition law. The main directions of the EU’s competition policy and peculiarities of its promotion to other countries were revealed; peculiarities of developing a single competitive economic policy within the framework of EAEU were studied. The conducted researches allowed to determine that processes in the world economy had a significant impact on competition law, which during its formation has undergone significant changes, had become more flexible and targeted and acquired systemic character. Systematic study of the world experience, the EU’s experience first of all, is obviously of a great interest for the Republic of Belarus with the market economy at the stage of active formation, as well as the corresponding policy for competition and competitiveness support. Learning this experience is important for successful integration of the country into the European and Global trade and economic area. The theoretical basis of the modern competition policy is formed by a number of conceptual approaches, which have to be learned to understand its key characteristics and accents, directions and methods, and also to predict the forms of its further modernization.

Full textShpak A.P., Kireyenka N.V., Kаndratsenka S.A.
Strategy and mechanisms of the national food security in the Republic of Belarus
Currently the Republic of Belarus is entering a new level of solving problems in the field of national food security. It is required to maintain a high level of self-sufficiency, to create conditions for improving population nutrition quality, to ensure demand for Belarusian products in foreign markets, integration into the world market, etc. The article presents conceptual provisions, goals and objectives of the long-term strategy of the Republic of Belarus in the field of food security, and also analyzes the mechanisms for their implementation. These provisions form the basis of the Doctrine of National Food Security of the Republic of Belarus till 2030, which is to provide a fundamental basis for improving the welfare of population and availability of quality food for healthy nutrition and healthy lifestyle based on sustainable competitive agricultural production and creation of favorable social and economic conditions. The results of monitoring of the national food security in 2016 are presented, significant trends and factors of physical and economic accessibility of food products are identified. Mechanisms for achieving the goals and objectives of the national food security development are proposed, including mechanism for identifying, assessing and anticipating threats, regulatory support, as well as management and regulation ensuring implementation of target criteria at the national, regional and local levels. Implementation of the obtained results will allow to create stable prerequisites for the development of agro-industrial complex in the conditions of unstable external environment conditions, to strengthen food security and independence of the country.

Full textRastorgouev P.V.
Development of scientifically substantiated assessment of product quality management efficiency in agriculture: theoretical and methodological aspects
Efficient application of methods and mechanisms for agricultural products quality management requires timely, accurate and objective assessment of the functioning results. Insufficient level of methodology development for solving this problem in respect to conditions of the AIC in Belarus determines the need for outlining appropriate theoretical and methodological approaches. The article dwells on the problems of formation of scientifically substantiated assessment of agricultural products quality and safety management in the Republic of Belarus. The essence of the principles system is revealed for assessing the efficiency of quality management mechanism and its separate elements, aimed at obtaining reliable results. The main functions of quality management efficiency assessment are determined and considered, which specify the essence and purpose of its development. Peculiarities for assessment of efficiency of methods and mechanisms for products quality management in agriculture are presented. The essence, the main stages and elements of the quality management efficiency estimation mechanism in agriculture are specified. Development of scientifically substantiated proposals and recommendations for eliminating the revealed violations and drawbacks, improvement of the quality management system is proposed as the final stage for assessment of the quality management. The above mentioned theoretical aspects for assessment of methods and mechanisms efficiency for agricultural products quality management are fundamental basis for development of methodology of this process aimed at formation of scientifically substantiated, reliable assessment of efficiency of quality and safety management system for agricultural products at all the administration levels of the AIC in Belarus.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textOstrovski Y.
Agroecological aspects of oxygen state of mineral arable soils in conditions of atmospheric humidification
Results of study of oxidation-reduction stability parameters of arable soils in Poland and sensitivity of various kinds of these soils to hydro-oxygen degradation are presented in the article. It is shown that oxidation-reduction stability, expressed by two temporal values t400 and t300 is an important property, measured by retention time Eh at the level of +400 mV (nitrate reduction) and +300 mV (ferric oxide reduction). These redox reactions perform as a buffer that slows the transition of waterlogged soils into anoxic state, and the oxides involved are natural accumulators of oxygen in soil environment. A model of parametrization of hydro-oxygen conditions of these soils has been created for conditions of washing water regime, taking into account correlation between these indicators and hydrophysical properties of arable soils. Some results of surveys of mineral arable soils in Poland are presented, characterizing the hydro-oxygenic conditions of soil. Thus, the average values of t400 for soils with a temperature of +20 °C in the arable layer range from < 1 to 1.5 days, in the sub-arable layer – from < 1 to 3 days, in the subsoil – from < 1 to 5 days; for t300 – 0.5–4.5, 1.0–9.0, 1.0–12.0 days, respectively. For Tppw in the arable layer they reach 2.5–4.5 days, in the sub-arable layer – 3.0–8.0 days, and in the subsoil – 4.0–19.5 days [4]. The presented values are used to improve the calibration of drainage systems, taking into account the arable soils oxygen state adjustment with washing water regime. In conclusions the attention is paid to advisability of deepening knowledge of the oxygen regime of mineral arable soils, its agroecological significance and land reclamation. This adjustment should correspond to the modified paradigm of drainage reclamation, which means that the direct cause of the restriction of the vital activity of plants and soil biota is a lack of oxygen, but not the water excess in soil. Agroecological composite element of meliorative adjustment of oxygen regime of arable soils is the possibility of the soils protection from loss of fertility potential, which are nitrates, and also iron oxides – the natural accumulators of oxygen in soil environment, protecting it from anoxia in conditions of waterlogging.

Full textKazlouskaya Z.A., Hashenka T.A., Kandratsenak Yu.G.
Virulence of apple scab pathogen population in Belarus
One of the most important directions for protection of apple tree against scab in the world fruitgrowing is breeding and further cultivation of resistant varieties. However, there are a number of drawbacks in this area, and the main are duration of creation of commercially relevant and at the same time sustainable variety, and the problem of variety resistance loss due to appearance of new more aggressive races of pathogen. This article presents the results of studying the virulence of isolates from host plants – apple varieties with Rvi6 gene of resistance to scab gene. In the apple scab population 14 virulence genes were identified of 19 known. There is an increase of the genetic diversity of populations of pathogen of apple scab – Venturia inaequalis in the last forty years due to quality and quantity of genotypes. The genetic structure of populations of the pathogen showed new virulence genes – p-10+, p-11+ and p-14+, increase in the number of virulence genes was determined. The strains of the pathogen of apple scab, obtained from the host plants with Rvi6 gene, have different virulence properties, and also have common virulence genes in relation to some differentiator varieties. In the scab population genes of virulence р-1+ and р-14+ dominated. A group of scab pathogen strains was determined combining high virulence and aggressiveness: BM-3, BM-9, Bsl-1, Dr-3 and Zr-4, which must be included in the inoculum to create an artificial background when selecting resistant to scab apple hybrids. Monitoring of the genetic diversity of virulence and aggressiveness allows to systematically adjust the selection strategy for apple trees. Using of the defined strains of apple tree scab pathogens for creation of artificial infectious backgrounds with the maximum variety of virulence and aggressiveness genes will allow to objectively assess the stability level of both the apple tree original forms and the hybrids.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheyko I.P., Sheyko R.I., Pristupa N.V., Kazarovets I.N.
Improving reproductive traits of sows of Landrace breed in conditions of breeding farm of industrial type
Over the past 5 years in the Republic of Belarus positive trends in growth of animal performance and their genetic potential have been determined. Currently the achievements of the world’s best breeding are used in this field for improvement of domestic breeds of pigs, rapid introduction of breeding material through regional SIO is carried out. In practice, methods of selection based on DNA technologies have been worked out and widely implemented. The purpose of the work is to obtain high-productive maternal genotypes of pigs in Landrace breed on the basis of selection and genetic methods and to predict their performance for a number of generations. Performance traits of pigs in several generations of imported Landrace breed in conditions of breeding farm were studied. The coefficients of heritability and the selection differential of selected key features by reproductive traits of sows in the initial generation were determined, on the basis of which the forecast of effect of selection on the number of generations was carried out. Target selection standards are developed for piglets selection for breeding process. The researches made it possible to make an accurate prediction of the performance traits of sows, as well as to form a highly productive herd of Landrace breed animals. To adapt them to the conditions of pork production on an industrial basis in a short time period. To prove that in case of target breeding in a number of generations, their reproductive traits can be substantially improved, and also based on genetic and population techniques and methods to predict their performance traits for a number of generations with a high degree of reliability.

Full textLitvinov V.F., Kovaliov N.A., Podeshvelev D.A., Krasochko P.A.
Parasite cenosis of hunting animals at hunting and protected areas in Belarus
Parasitic diseases cause significant damage to hunting animals, therefore, in all countries, including Belarus, they are given special attention when studying and developing means and methods for preventing and fighting them, especially against the background of increasing anthropogenic pressures on ecosystems and pollution of territories with chemicals and radionuclides. The aim of the work is to study species composition and association of hunting animals parasites in hunting areas and protected areas of Belarus, their nosogeography and habitat, intermediate hosts, development of prevention and control measures. The methodology is based on integrated approach to study of parasite cenosis of mammals, which takes into account the relationships in the “parasite-host” system, and effect of abiotic and biotic factors on these processes. Years of studies (2000–2016) showed that helminths are mostly spread among the parasites affecting hunting animals in Belarus: in roe deer 40 species of helminthes are registered, moose – 36, noble deer – 35, wild boar – 20. On the territory of the Berezinsky biospheric conservancy combined parasite cenosis are determined: helminths, protozoa, ectoparasites, microorganisms, etc., the wild animals and large predators were 93.2–100% affected with. Intermediate hosts of helminths were determined to be 20 species of freshwater, mollusks, 20 ants, 32 arboid mites, 10 earthworms, as well as beetles, fleas and freshwater invertebrates. Factors influencing the parasitological situation are described, recommendations for prevention of parasitosis among hunting animals of Belarus are given.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textGolub I.A.
Aspects of cultivation and processing of fiber flax in the Republic of Belarus
Fiber flax is of a great economic importance for the national economy of Belarus. Analysis of the world market situation for natural fibers shows that flax farming remains a profitable industry of the modern agriculture and does not depend on the model and level of economic development of the flax seeding country. There is a steady increase in the Republic of Belarus in the volume of linen fabrics consumption, produced from high numbers of linen yarns. A large volume of the Belarusian flax is exported as raw material and semi-finished products to countries processing the Belarusian low-quality products and ensuring the competitiveness of their finished linen products due to the low purchase price in our country. It is possible to obtain high quality flax products and ensure its cost-effective sales by all the levels of flax farming industry in the market conditions in domestic and foreign markets only by taking flax farming to a modern technological level by re-equipment and improvement of production conditions. Currently a new concept has been formed in production and use of natural fibers, including flax. The article shows values and aspects of fiber flax domestic varieties in order to have stable production increase of high quality flax straw and flax fiber. Estimation and aspects for improvement of these values is given by using the latest flax cultivation techniques, allowing to increase fiber flax production without increasing the production areas.

Full textAzarenko V.V., Misun A.L., Misun A.L.
Methodological approaches to assessment and management of manufacturing risk in the plant-growing sector of the AIC
The most traumatic sector in agricultural production is plant-growing. At the same time, the majority of cases of industrial injuries are associated with the performance of work on technological adjustment of agricultural machinery and failure prevention and maintenance. The purpose of the work is development of scientific and methodological support for assessment and management of production risk to improve safety of works in plant-growing sector of AIC in Belarus. The methods of industrial risk assessment in plant-growing sector of the AIC are proposed, which allow to predict risk of injury to the operator of mobile agricultural machinery and take into account adaptability of technical means to performance of technological process and adjustments in conditions of changing parameters of production environment, and also to determine both qualitative and quantitative assessments of vocational training of an operator, traumatic hazard of the technical means when maintaining it, as well as working conditions. Algorithms and software have been developed allowing to predict industrial risk level and to determine the occupational safety indicators of mobile agricultural machinery operator. The results of the research are recommended for agricultural enterprises for development of measures to improve occupational safety management system in terms of planning actions aimed on reduction of unacceptable level of industrial risk during agricultural crops cultivation.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textShadyro O.I., Sosnovskaya A.A., Edimecheva I.P.
Development of oxidation-resistant biologically active food supplements based on flaxseed oil
The effects of a number of vitamins and other biologically active substances (BAS) (α-tocopherol, α-tocopherol acetate, cholecalciferol, β-carotene, lutein, zeaxanthin, coenzyme Q10 and selenomethionine) on oxidation stability of flaxseed oil depending on concentration and compositions of the supplements were studied. For this purpose kinetic regularities data on accumulation of primary and secondary oxidation products, free fatty acids and BAS consumption during storage of flaxseed oil with additives was obtained. It has been shown that substances used to enrich the flaxseed oil, can show both antioxidant and prooxidant properties depending on their structure and concentration. The combined effect of the BAS and a number of synthetic and natural inhibitors on the oxidation stability of flaxseed oil for providing antioxidant protection of enriched oil was studied. Efficient and safe stabilizers for the BAS-enriched flaxseed oil were obtained, allowing to significantly inhibit the oxidation and oxidative degradation, reduce the BAS loss and therefore increase the oil shelf life. Based on the obtained data, formulations and production technologies of new oxidation-resistant biologically active food supplements (BAFS) based on flaxseed oil were developed, and manufacture of the supplements was arranged. This will allow to expand the assortment of available for a wide range of consumers products based on flaxseed oil; will improve the nutrition quality due to increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 level, vitamins and other valuable bioactive substances, and will contribute to health improvement of the population in Belarus.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Piotr Ivanovich Nikonchik (To the 85th Anniversary of Birthday)

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Vasiliy Nikolaevich Shlapunov (To the 85th Anniversary of Birthday)

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Nikolay Andreevich Kovalev (To the 80th Anniversary of Birthday)

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