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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2007 №4

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production

UpEconomics

Full textBogush A.A., Ulasevich M.V., Levkina V.O., Pashkevich O.A.
Legitimacies of formation and estimation of productivity of labor in agriculture
The labour, being a major universal category, represents many-plan, many-aspect concept requiring a comprehensive consideration as an object of research and perfection. Economic efficiency, or productivity of labour is the major socio-economic category that determines a degree of achievement of the objective stated, that is, the maintenance of competitiveness of production, high quality of the works to be carried out and services on all set of consumer properties. At a transition to market economy the basic category – the efficiency of labour, i. e. the ratio of its outcomes and costs is put forward. Development of market relations occurs on the basis of strictly defined laws, legitimacies and principles that in the aggregate form obligatory norms and norms of actions of commodity producers and businessmen, which should be taken into account when organizing economic activities. As a result of the research carried out, the legitimacies of formation and estimation of the labour productivity in agriculture are considered and the measures on the enhancement of labour efficiency in new conditions of management are offered.

Full textKovel P.V.
Methodical positions of estimation of economic inertia as the phenomenon and the factor of the production efficiency on agricultural enterprises
The content and the substantiation of methodical positions on the estimation of economic inertia, which accompanies the dynamics of expenses and results, are outlined. The mechanism of economic inertia and its influence on the production efficiency through the described dynamics of profitability of production are described. The example of application of the methodical positions is presented.

Full textSaiganov A.S., Drozdov P.A., Chernyavski K.P.
Methods of definition of the expediency of purchase of new or second-hand agricultural machinery depending on the financial and economic condition of consumers
In the article the methods of defining the expediency of purchase of new or second-hand agricultural machinery depending on the financial and economic condition of consumers are presented. Scientifically proved sequence of an establishment of economically rational way of equipment of agricultural machinery of commodity producers is put in its basis by separate-kind means for carrying out mechanized works according to agrotechnical terms. Based on the reached level of production in view of the available park of tractors and machines, the methods allow keeping account losses of production of plant growing and also counting the size of money resources of the agricultural organizations which can be directed to purchase necessary-quantity technics of equipment working structure of agricultural machinery. Alongside with this, the methods allow one to establish the most economically expedient way of financing investments in the means of mechanization, proving an opportunity of purchase of new and second-hand machines using either lump sums, or long-term crediting, or leasing.

Full textGusakov V.G., Belsky V.I.
Economic efficiency of corn culvivation estimates and perspectives
The article presents the normative levels of production of definite types of agricultural products and the predicted norms of purchase prices as compared to the real production costs, domestic and mean-world prices of realization. The dynamics and advisability of corn production for green mass and grain are shown. The volumes of production of corn green mass and grain up to 2010 are given. The optimal sown areas to corn in the Republic are shown because of the necessity to observe the scientifically grounded crop rotations and to provide the objectives of the food safety of the country.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textUstinova A.M.
Change of the agrochemical properties of the peat-bog soils of Poozerija used for more than 35 years in the agricultural rotation
The results of the studies made show that the dried low-lying peat soils used for more than 35 years in the agricultural rotation need nitrogen-phosphorous-potassium feeding in doses calculated for their entering with the crop or by 30% higher than the entering. The content of the basic elements of feeding in these soils is determined by the amount of applied fertilizers, crop level and the mobility (migration mobility) of elements. Complete mineral fertilizer more markedly increases the content of the basic elements of feeding in peat soils. A combined influence of the above factors determines a weak increase in the provision of soil with potassium, calcium and magnesium, to a lesser extent, with phosphorus. A marked influence of mineral fertilizers on the content of mobile calcium and magnesium, exchange acidity is not found.

Full textTsybul’ka N. N.
Influence of basic tillage on the physical properties of eroded soils
Results on the influence of the ways of the basic tillage on the physical properties (density, porosity) at a different degree of eroded soils are presented. It is established that a two-year-old replacement of plowing tillage by chisel tillage at the same depth results in some increase of the soil density, a decrease of the porosity of aeration of the 12–22 cm layer – by 2–3% (in some cases by 4–5%). Minimization of the depth of soil tillage using superficial disk tillage by 10–12 cm in comparison to plowing tillage by 20–22 cm causes an essential condensation of an arable layer (0–22 cm), especially of eroded soils and a decrease of the general porosity and the porosity of aeration of soil by 2–4% (during some years up to 6%).

Full textGest G.A., Mazuro P.I.
Productivity of crops in the rotation chain depending on the methods of soil tillage and the ways of using a post harvest crop
It is shown that there is a change in the yielding capacity, agrophysical properties of sward-odsolic sandy soils that depend on the system of basic and presowing tillage in the rotation chain: winter triticale post harwest – potato – summer triticale. It is necessary to alternate boardless and nonmoledboards prowing and surface tillage in order to get stable yields of crops, save energy resources and cut the production cost of a product.

Full textMartsynkevich D.I., Krivorot A.M.
Role of agrotechnical methans in forming the stability potential for the apple tree fruits diseases in storage
The influence of extra-root fertilization with macro- and microelements, application of soluble mineral fertilizers, interstems, training and pruning on the commercial quality of apples after the long storage has been studied for 2003–2007 at the Institute for Fruit Growing, Belarus. Extra-root fertilization with macro- and microelements cuts down the risk of bitter pit spread on fruit of the cultivars “Antey” and “Zarya Alatau” during long-term storage. Extra potassium applied with soluble mineral fertilizers induces the development of bitter rot on the fruit of the cultivar “Nadzejny” during shelf-life. Interstems do not influence significantly the storage characteristics for “Antey” and “Telisaare” fruits. “Alesya” fruits cropped from more alight parts of the crown are less susceptible to microbiological diseases.

Full textTsyganov A.R., Vildflush L.R., Mizhui S.M.
Efficiency of complex application which includesurea and ammonia with fungicides and microelements at cultivation of barley on the sod-podzolic light loam soil
The article presents the results of research of overlapping the operations of entering fungicides and complex microfertilizer “Mikom” that contains urea and ammonia at cultivation of barley on the sod-podzolic light loam soil.

Full textKilchevsky A.V., Antropenko N.Yu., Puhachova I.G.
Study of the productivity and cold resistance inheritance in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)
The study of productivity and cold resistance inheritance was carried out at the sporophyte and gametophyte level in tomato diallel crosses. Leana, Dubok and Microtom species in seedlings cold resistance have the highest level of general combinational ability effects, whereas Leana, Dubok and Garant species - the highest level of specific combinational ability variances. The analysis of gametophyte cold resistance combinational ability has shown that its greatest values belong to Microtom, Sprint, Garant and Leana. Parental forms – donors of high productivity were selected (on general combinational ability - Dohodny, Leana, Garant, Dubok; on specific combinational ability - Leana, Dubok, Dohodny, Microtom). It is established that the characteristics of the yield are inherited according to the type of overdominance and dominance towards the higher characteristic. The cold resistance of sprouts is inherited according to the overdominance type in the seed germination towards the higher characteristic, in sprout mass and root length - towards the lower characteristic. The inheritance of pollen resistance to low temperatures proceeds by the overdominance type towards the higher characteristic.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textKurilo I.P., Budevich A.I.
Influence of ionization on the incubation quality of eggs, development on chickens and productivity of adult hens
Light negative ions of oxygen have a favourable influence on the growth and development of poultry. The results of investigations show that the hatchability of eggs is increased by 4.3% and the mass of one-day chickens is more than 1.8 time than in the control group. The chickens have a more mass and are the better survived when affected by ionization. The adult hens when acted upon by ion concentration of 10 x 104 cm3 have a higher egg yield – by 13%, and the yield of incubation eggs – by 3.3%.

Full textLupolova T.A., Railean V.S.
Study of the genetic structure of the populations of different-breed hens on the basis of immunogenetic markers
Hybrids Albo 70, Roso SL 2000 and Roso SL 93 in the systems of hemoglobin, transferrins and ceruloplasmins were characterized by the presence of two alleles: A and B. The frequency of occurrence of alleles is different: in the system of hemoglobin allel HbA has a higher frequency – 0.9000–0.9875. In the system of transferrins allel TfB is found more often – 0.7625–0.7879. The advantage of allel СрА has been proved in the locus of ceruloplasmins as well. All groups were in the condition of genetic equilibrium. The equal frequency of the alleles TfB and TfС in the systems of transferrins proves the common origin of the hybrids Roso SL 93 and Roso SL 2000.

Full textKalinichenko S.A., Averin V.S.
Forescast of the radionuclide content in the cattle milk due to the soil component in the animal diet
In the article the effect of per oral intake of pasture soil into the cattle organism on the radionuclide specific activity in milk is considered. A forecast is given as for maximum levels of the soil consumption resulting in the milk contamination with radionuclides, which consider such dynamic parameters as deposition levels of arable lands, the amount of soil consumed by animals, the soil content of exchange forms of 137Cs, 90Sr as well as processes of natural radioactive decay.

Full textMogeiko F.F., Kolga D.F., Gontcharik I.I., Sapojnikov F.D., Simаnovich V.S., Petrovskaya L.I., Kulikova T.P.
Chemical composition of salt precipitates obtained at pigs complexes
It has been stated by the chemical and physicochemical methods that the precipitate is a mixture of phosphates of ammonium, calcium and magnesium.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textSamosyk V.G., Azarenko V.V.
Development of the directions of mechanization of agriculture in the Republic of Belarus
In the article the main directions of development of mechanisation of a farm production in Republic of Belarus are stated. Elaboration and development of production of mechanization means is carried out according to the Government program of revival and development of a village for 2005–2010. The System of machines, which have been generated for the purpose of its scientific support, means the system approach to the technique elaboration. Based on it, Republican Unitary Enterprise «Scientific and Practical Centre for Agriculture Mechanization of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus» develops machinery complexes and inventories that are guided on solving the critical problems: raise of technical reliability and productivity, abbreviation steel intensity and power intensity of means, automation, and computerisation of production processes of agricultural products.

Full textDashkov V.N., Kapustin N.F., Snezhko E.K., Abramchik N.M.
System of drop watering of vegetables in Belarus
In the article the advantages of the method of dropping irrigation of vegetables in the open field are given in comparison with more popular raining irrigation. The possibilities and the efficiency of use of the irrigation technology in our climate conditions in vegetables growing are considered. The theoretial reasons for the quota of irrigation are given and the parameters of dropping irrigation equipment are substantiated. The data on the light and heavy soil irrigation influence on the yield of vegetables are presented. Technical specifications, joint schemes and operation principles of modern equipment for vegetable irrigation with the help of spot watering systems are presented. The future increasing of yields of vegetables after use of this technology is shown.

Full textKitikov V.O., Muzyka A.A.
Analysis of technologies of milk production in the context of harmonization of standard requirements with the standards of the European Union
In the article the basic directions of a further perfection of technological decisions and means for milk manufacture in Belarus are shown by the intensive methods. The necessity of transfer of the branch to the European level of production is shown. The ways of harmonization of the standard requirements for animal industries and fodder production with the corresponding standards of the European Union are defined.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textLitvjak V.V., Lovkis Z.V., Rebenok E.V., Кupchik M.P.
Modification of potato starch by the electrochemical method and the study of its properties
Modification of potato starch is conducted by the electrochemical method and its physical-chemical properties are studied. Modification of potato starch by the electrochemical method consisted in rolling through an electrolyzer a 30% starched suspension, catolyte – a 2% NaCl solution. The electrochemical treatment was conducted during 60 min at different strength of current: 0.2; 0.6; 2 and 7 А. It was found that the electrochemical treatment of starch was similar to the nonselective oxidization, and the physical-chemical properties of potato starch modified by the electrochemical method depended on the strength of current and turned out to be similar to the properties of oxidized and acid modified starches.

Full textSukonkina E.B., Lisovskaya D.P., Galun L.A., Roshchina E.V.
Comparative estimation of mayonnaises by the infrared spectroscopy method
At present the IR spectroscopy methods are finding ever-widening application in food industry and also in examining the quality of foods. Of most in the determination of specific features of mayonnaises are the above methool and the expansion of knowledge in this direction since mayonnaisses represent a complex fine-disperse stable food fat-water emulsion of direct type. The article presents the results on the improvement of different-group mayonnaises in the caloric content and those having a different-component composition.

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