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1997

1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1997 №2

Contents:
Economics and Information
Land Caltivation and Plant Growing
Livestock production and veterinary medicine

UpEconomics and Information

Full textGarkun V.
The problems of Agro-Industrial Complex economics and the ways of their solving
The paper demonstrate that the problems of AIC economic rehabilitation are manifold. However full mobilising of one's own material resources improving labour relations among personnel on the basis of the production modernisation and selffinancing which results in sharp cost cutting and increasing production of competitive products are a common solution for all of them.

Full textGanush G.
The conditions and factors of Belarus self-security by vegetable products
Natural and production-economical conditions of selfsecuring vegetable product in Belarus are analysed. Organisational -technological and economical factors directed to practical realisation of the natural economical potential are defined.

Full textSajaganov A.
The experience of creating and functioning of the technical service centres and problems of their future development
The principles of creation and functioning of the regional technical service centres economical interrelations between them and collective and state farms and practice of agricultural producer's service have been considered as well as foreign experience of dealer network creation. The concrete recommendations for future improving of the service adapting to Belarus conditions have been elaborated.

Full textScotarchac T.
The process of transformation of the agricultural property's structure in Poland
The results of transformation in Poland's agriculture have been shown proceeding from the Stshetin province experience.

UpLand Caltivation and Plant Growing

Full textAnochina T.
Some aspects of realising of buckwheat in selection and genetic potential
The results of breediпg during Last 50 years are reported. Further perspectives of buckwheat are соnnесtеd with the correct selection of the initial material, for hybridization, as from 11 adapted, varieties 7 varieties are developed using this method.

Full textKadurov M.
Scientific and methodical organisational and legislative aspects of optimisation of seed system in the case of spring barley in modern conditions
The current state of seed production system is analyzed as well as methods and technigues of its improvement. Observed and ideal curves of variety replacement are shown. Advantages of the adapted systems of the varieties which are complementary to one another; factors of variety deterioration and the methods of their elimination are discussed. A special attention is paid to registration and to support of biotypical structure of the variety, and to the loss of resistance to pathogenes in varieties. General universal criteria which determine an effective state and a progressive development of any seed production system are substantiated.

Full textKoptic I.
The results and perspectives of winter wheat breeding in the case of self-sufficiency of grain in Belarus
The main achievements of Belarus Research Institute of Arable Farming are presented. As a result of many-years researches world germplasm collection of soft wheats was studied, as well its classification, as well as its classification, the sources have been selected and included in the breeding process. Scientific thesis for the selection of for hybridization was substantiated on the basis of ecological and geographical origin. The optimal jewels of a wheat of high yielding and ecologically adaptive varieties have been worked out. A linkage of breeding characters on the basis oftwo-and poly metric correlation linkage with some characters has been revealed. For the conditions of Belarus the system of adaptive winter wheat varieties with a complex of useful characters has been developed.

Full textKuptsov N.
Strategy and tactics of lupine's selection
This work is dedicated to intensive breeding technology which allows to reduce period of cultivars creation up to 7 ears. With the help of this technology during short termin it was bred highproductive forage narrow-leafed lupin cultivars distinguished by its morpho-physiological structure (wild, pseudo-wild, quazy-wild, fascicle, panical, ear), which are released in agricultural production. It is indicated that the directions of further increase of forage narrow-leafed lupin productivity and adaptivity.

Full text Lukashevich N., Turko S., Beresina V.
Formating of the high yield of pea seeds
In the article principles of generative process in pea and vetch germplasm have been revealed. The ways of creation of new initial material are shown. The characteristics of new varieties of Belarus breeding are given.

Full textNikonchik P.
The problems of crop rotations in conditions of arable farming's intensification
The main results the researches on the problems of crop rotations in Belarus are presented. In historical aspect on different of the development of arable farming the main directions of research works and the main conclusions and managemental basis of rotation layout are shown. Experimental data are presented, showing an important role of crop rotation in increasing of cropland productivity and soil fertility reproduction with different levels of intensification of agricultural production. Tasks of further development of the researches on the main directions ot this problem are set up.

Full textSimchenkov G., Bachilo N., Bulavin L.
Improving of the system of the soil cultivation and methods
Long-term researches proved that it is possible to replace a traditional moldboard plowing by cultivation with beardless chisel cultivators, heavy disk harrows, crushers. The effectiveness of combined soil cultivation in crop rotation has been proved based on interchange of moldboard and boardless soil cultivation. Agrotechnical and chemical technigues of weed control have been improved.

Full textUrban E., Stsheglov I., Sergeenko V.
Winter rye varieties and breeding problems
Methods and the main results of winter rye breeding in Belarus are analysed. The perspective of the method of experimental polyploidy is shown. The combination of methodical and theoretical problems of variety develorment which meet the requirements of modern production are defined.

Full textChaev E.
The results of the scientific research in selection and technology is the base of yield increasing of perennial grasses
As a result of the researches using different breeding methods 14 perennial grass varieties were adapted (8- legumes and 6 - gramineous) with in earlier adopted varieties. The technologies ofproduction ofperennial fodder grasses have been developed and improved, which allow to obtain 9-10 t/haofdry in the fields and 708 t/ha - in meadow and pastures; 0,4-0,6 t/ha seed of gramineous and 0,2-0,3 t/ha of legume grasses.

Full text Shlapunov V., Nadtochaev N.
The main directions and research results regarding improving of technology of fodder production using maize and grasses in the main and intermediated crops
From the of many-years researches agro-climatic basis was given for the production of maize with different early maturing, their predicted yield with the account of losses by siloing. Maize hybrid crop structure with FAO 181-330 has been suggested. The results of field trials revealed the possibility of obtaining 2-3 yields annually in the field with annual grasses and providing 101 FU/ha and more. The reserves of fodder production increase owing to postharvest crops are shown.

Full textGrib S., Jankelevich R.
The reaction of winter triticale species for ways of growing
The results of the research concerning the influence of previous crop, the level of the nitrogen nutrition on the productivity of winter triticale species are given. It is shown that the ideal previous crop for winter triticale is legume-barley mixture ; the most suitable dose of nitrogen fertilizer is 90 kg per hectar in spring while the sum of the positive temperatures is 100...120°C. Malno provides with the highest productivity with minimum specific energy expenditures.

Full textIvanjuk V., Brukish D.
The influence of potato resistance to phytophtoroze towards to phyngicides efficiency
The most effective phyngicides are sandofan M8, rigomil M, ripost M, tattu, ditan M45 and antrokol for steam and brestanid, ditan M45, tattu, EXP 10517 for root. The degree of root disease depends from the level of steam one. The longer steam is green ,the higher degree of root disease. Phyngicides have a strong influence to potato productivity. The maximal increasing of all kinds potato yield has been received under sandotan M8, ridomilM, ripost M, artserid, ditan M45, antracol and tattu against Ph infestans. Apart from, they promote to save starch in roots independently from its resistance to phytophtoroze.

Full textKilchevskij A., Frantsuzenok V.
Lilies reproduction in vitro culture
The article deals with the results of the experiments on the propagation of various varieties of Asiatic Hybrids of lilies in culture in vitro and the transfer of regenerates in non sterile conditions. The best media was found to be Murashige and Skoog, and from phytohormones a-NAA. Auxine concentration depends on variety particularities. J4t the first stage the highes regeneration coefficient of explants and maximum bulb mass were when NAA was 0,1 mg/l. At the second stage the concentration was to be increased up to 0,5 mg/L BA did not produce any positive effect on explant proliferation. At the first and second stages of cultivation sucrose concentration should be incresed to 60 g/L Optimal explant lightening is 1000 lux. In transplanting regenerates in vivo high resistance was registered on sphagnum peat (pH 6,0), as well as its mixture with sand and perlite. If additional growing is neseseary, fertilisers are required containing nitrogen in the form of ammonia.

Full textPrishepa I.
The influence of chemicals for yield and quality of winter rye
It was stated that for complex protection against the noxious objects and lodging on winter rye crops it is advisable to use tank mixes of different functional preparations. Camposan is the determining factor in the formation of long stem winter rye productivity. The protein content in grain is decreased and the redistribution of protein functions is observed with the growth of yield. Digestibility of proteins their amino acids composition and the biological value under the influence of means of chemization has not been changed.

Full textSharshunov V., Racut N.
Growing and harvesting of white clover seeds
The analysis of the harvesting technology of white clover seeds was presented. The rational complex of harvesting equipment was found. The results of tests of equipment and technology in Mogilev province have been shown.

UpLivestock production and veterinary medicine

Full textTimoshenko V.
Ultrasound's influence as a stimulate for developing of morphological and functioning features of heifer's udder in a prelactation period.
Ultrasound's influence for heifer calf's udder (0.88 mg and 0.6 vt/cm2 ) under two minutes exposition during the first two days and four minutes during the next two days with the interval of four days has been promoted to increasing the main udder's features and its functional activity. It was positively affected to milk productivity increased up to 10-13%.

Full textPastukhova Z., Sheinina S.
Milk dry product "Laktan" as a fodder for calves
Prescription of the milk dry product "Laktan " its nutrition and chemical composition have been presented. The comparative characteristic and zootechnical estimation of dry skimmed milk and new product has been shown. The influence of "Laktovit" for health and growth as well as gematological indexes has been studied The efficiency of "Laktovit" utilisation in 2.5 month calves ration instead of dry skimmed milk has been defined.

Full textGolubets I.
The improving of technology of high productive cow's transfer for pasture.
The system of stage by stage adaptation of high productive cows in a period of transfer to pasture has been elaborated. It is foreseen to adapt cows to new fodder during the first stage and to new technology during the second stage. As a result a more stable reducing of lactation curve as well as its stabilisation on the level of 6-8% over normal productivity has been observed.

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