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1997

1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1997 №3

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Land cultivation and plant growing
Animal breeding and veterinary
Poultry breeding
Mechanisation, energy and automation

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textChuholsky P.
The concepts of indicative planning in AIC
Planning is examined as а most important method of managing the activities in the AIC. Its role in market conditions is determined. The approach to planning as a function of state and economic regulation is justified. The nature and principles of the utilisation of indicators in planning are explained. Practical recommendations оп developing forecasts, programmes and other planning materials for different agricultural enterprises are provided.

Full textShapiro S.
Planning as an administrative function in the conditions of market economy
Planning as a managerial function in the market conditions. Part of scientists and enterprise managers think that in market economy planning is substituted by the law of costs. The article makes it understandable that planning has its role in any conditions from the point of view of using it as a function, method or instrument of managing. In market conditions this category is reflected on the macro level self planning (business planning) on micro level.

Full textIlyina Z.
Scientific background for food supply system
This one contains the scientific approaches to determination of a food supply level, valuation of a food situation and prospects of the decision of a food problem in the world Quantitative interrelation between a consumption level of separate products and levels of the incomes and prices is established, the dynamics of demand elasticity coefficient on meat and meat products on annual income per capita, income, expressed in a kind of natural production, and index of the real money incomes are considered.

Full textObuhovich V., Popkov V., Korotin N.
Developing the integration between the entities of the food complex
Development of the integration of the entities of the food complex. The peculiarities and the mechanism of production and economic relations between different spheres of the Belarusian food complex have been demonstrated. It has also been demonstrated that the agrarian sector has a disadvantageous position, which is characterised by the wrong pricing and delayed payments for the produce delivered. There have been justified and proposed the directions of the close integration of the entities of the food complex on a mutually beneficial basis.

Full textDaineko A.
Foreign trade and economic growth of the Belarusian AIC
The ways how foreign trade influence national economy have been formulated. There have been given the factors of the economic growth and the increase of the competitiveness of domestic produce on the world market. The nature of the new innovation state policy and the model of the economic growth, which includes structural dynamics, potential dynamics and stability of expectations have been justified.

Full textStarovoitova N.
Improving the systems of incentives for the administrators and specialists of the agricultural enterprises in Belarus
Improving the system of stimulating the work of managers and specialists of the Belarusian agricultural enterprises. The article is prepared on the basis of the "Recommendations on stimulating the work of managers and specialists of the Belarusian agricultural enterprises " developed at the order of the Ministry of Agriculture. The article examines the drawbacks of the system of salaries and bonuses used in 1996. The proposals have been put forward to set up payment groups, depending on the volume of sold produce; the mechanism of distribution of the salary fund for calculating prices for produce; the scale of calculating bonuses depending on the profit per one grade - hectare.

Full textValuev V.,Svyatogor A.,Stepanenko G.
Developing milk oriented animal breeding sector in Belarus
The formation of market relations in Agro-Industrial Complex of Belarus is connected indissoiubly with the population securing by food products including a milk and whole milk products. Suggestions divected to both the development stabilization and the further intensification of a milk cattle-breeding is independent from a property form and a farm form are given in this article.

UpLand cultivation and plant growing

Full textSmeyan N., Shibut L.,Tsytron G., Vabischevich N., Matychenkov D.
Suitability of the soils of south-east Belarus for main agricultural crops (Gomel district as example)
It has been determined that over 50% of the arable land of Gomel administrative region is practically unsuitable or little suitable for growing crops highly sensitive to soil conditions. The soils are most suitable for winter wheat, oats, lupine, potatoes, annual grasses, pulses - cereals mixtures and perennial cereal grasses.

Full textNalobova V.
Creation of the initial material for a cucumber resistant to a number of diseases
Тhе results are presented оn the analysis of cucumber hybrid combinations in analyses crossings (topeross) in dependence of disease resistance. The сuсuber lines Л. 8, Л.19, Л.42, Л.44, Л.47, Л.84, Л.95 and the sorts Верасень and Зарница with а complex diseases resistance are selected. Donors of resistanse to olive spot (Cladosporium cuсumerinum Еll. et Arth.), powdery mildew (Sphaeroteka fиliginea Poll.), downy mildew or peronosporose (Pseиdoperonospora cиbensis Rostovz.) and to the complex of сuсumber diseases are selecied.

Full textBlotskaya Zh., Berlinchik E.
The spread of the viroid of spindle shaped potato tubers in Belarus
The spread of spindle tuber viroid оn potato plantings has been determined. It is shown that spindle tuber viroid of potato is met everywhere оn the territory of the Republic апd infects 2- -30 % of plants. Мuсh higher level of infection was revealed among the introduced potato varieties, which саn serve as the source of infection for the distributed among the regions local varieties. Based оn the data received а соnсlusiоn was driven оn the necessity of аn accurate expert examination of potato material delivered to the Repиblic. Quality certificate of improved potato shoulol contain the informatioп оп potato spindle tuber viroid.

Full textGraihen K., Spaar D.
Rape virus diseases and the opportunities to improve the resistance via breeding
It has been demonstrated that the fungal diseases in winter and spring rape have economic significance. On the basis of the literature analysis and own surveys the symptoms and the types of viruses causing the disease have been described in detail. The specialisation and the types of pests transmitting the disease have been studied, which is very important for both breeding as well as for developing an integrated system of protecting rape from harmful objects.

Full textByhovets A., Zolotar R.
Utilisation of synthetic sex pheromones for regulating the number of codling moth
It has been shown that the possibility of distorting the pheromone-mediated Laspeyresia pomonella L. intersexual honds may he used for regulating the vermin population at the zone of its one-generation development. The technology of that distortion method has been also workad out.

Full textRupasova Zh., Kutas E., Ignatenko V., Rusalenko V., Rudakovskaya R., Varavina N., Matyushevskaya E.
The influence of the propagation pattern on the chemical composition of the plants belonging to the cowberry family
There have bееn determined the main tendencies of the process of accumulating some chemical components (photosynthesis pigment - а and b chlorophyll, betta carotene аnd xanthofyll, macro аnd micro elements, pectin substances, starch, secondary synthesis substances, flavonoid - аnthосуаn pigments, catachin, flavone, tannic substances, free organic acids, chlorogene and benzoic acids, ascorbic, peroxidase аnd polyphenoloxidase) of the соmmоn cowberry (red whortleberry) leave during multiplication by meristeme and usual (bу cutting) methods.

UpAnimal breeding and veterinary

Full textMedvedsky V.
Effective mineral additive to the pigs feedings
There have bееn studied the chemical content, properties and dosages of utilisation of sea salt for balancing the patterп of the mаin mineral substances used for feeding sows. It has bееn determined that а higher level of mineral exchange positively influenced the productivity of sows. The survival rate of the newly born piglets in the experimental groups was 4.6-6.6% higher than in the control groups. The first piglets grew faster аnd were less affected bу the intestinebelly diseases. The disease rate in the groups was 11.2-12.0% and 21. 7% respectively. The utilisation of salt increased the humoral factors of resistance. The mineral additive caused no allergenic reaction. It was confirmed bу the data оn the concentration of the sialic acids (12.30 +/- 0.86 - 16.93+/- 1.22 иnits). It was noticed that the phagocytic activity of blood increased, as well as the phagocytic number аnd index. The best effect was at the proportion of 0.3-0. 5% of mineral additive to the weight unit of dry matter.

Full textBrutsky V.
The efficiency of the utilisation of filmy and naked barley in feeding forgrowing pigs
It has been determined that the chemical composition of the two sorts of barley significantly differ. The latter has much more exchangeable energy and raw protein, but much less cellulose, its utilisation for feeding the piglets grown without sows lead to a higher weight gain at less costs. But high yield varieties of the first are better for the main period of feeding.

Full textAbramov S., Kovalenok Yu.
Sodium hypochlorite as a pathogene mean for treating calves affected by dyspepsia
Information regarding possibility of intravenous medication of sodium hypochlorite to the calves affected by dyspepsy was presented in the article. Influence of the drug on the efficacy of treatment of calves with a given pathology, clinical-hematologic and certain biochemical indexes of blood serum was being studied. It was found out, that intravenous treatment of calves affeeted by dyspepsy with sodium hypochlorite was effective. The drug normalizes clinical-hematologic status, speeds up metabolic processes, that manifest the daily gain weight, contributes to the renewal of biochemical status and increases the survival of the younger animals.

UpPoultry breeding

Full textKarput I., Babina M.
Immunology of the embriogenesis of the meat chickens
The immunology of embriogeny and postnatal development in broiler-chickens has been investisated.

Full textDudova M.
Efficiency of the utilisation of coenzyme В 12 in the combined feeding for meat ducks
The methods of effective use of biological active combination Coenzyme B12 have been developed in mixed feed for yuong ducks, which allow to increase considerably the intensity of growth and the quality of duck’s meat. The optimum dose of Coenzime B12 used to enrich the full valued mixed feed 21-1B and 22-2B is the dose of 0,025 g/t of feed.

UpMechanisation, energy and automation

Full textKlochkov A.
Priorities in the requirements to the agricultural machinery
The main requirement to the agricultural machinery is ensuring the high quality of the technological operations. Along with that the machines must ensure high productivity, have simple design and be reliable. The grade assessment of the influence of the individual machinery characteristics on the efficiency of agricultural operations can be used as coefficients in comparison calculations. Some types of machinery have different meaning of the priorities, depending on their function.

Full textChigarev Yu., Romanyuk N.
Damage to the agricultural properties of the soil caused by operation of agricultural machinery
The changes of agrotechnical properties of soil from blow loadings of agricultural implements аnd machines are being studied. The generalized model of sticky-elastic environment is taken as а тесhаniсаl model. The choice of the model is based оn the experimental data. It is pointed оut, that undеr blow loading of agricultural defektors оn the soil the porousity аnd air-penetration get much worse. Аnd as for the soil density compared with static loading, it increases.

Full textHodyko S.
The problem of energy saving and the proposed solutions
The article analyses the development of the energy sector of the Republic of Belarus. It points out and justifies the main energy sources. There have been proposed specific technical and commercial options in the context of the new economic situation and ecological requirements.

Full text
Information of general meeting of the Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus

Full textSkoropanov S.
Far-sighted scientist organising big events

Full textSkoropanov S.
Useful publications

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