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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2011 №1

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and plant cultivation
Animal husbandry and veterenary medicine
Mechanization and power engineering
Processing and storage agricultural production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textBelsky V.I., Bayogot L.N., Bayogot M.S.
Integration of agrarian markets of Belarus and Russia: problems and development prospects
The article deals with the problems of improving trade and economic integration of Belarus and Russia in the agrarian sphere, analyzes the mutual trade, and assesses the achieved level of integration. The basic provisions of the Concept of the Common agricultural policy of Belarus and Russia are presented, a special attention is paid to the use of financial support in agriculture and application of technical barriers to trade, the consequences of execution of the provisions and mechanisms of the Concept are identified.

Full textGusakov E.V.
Cooperative and integrative associations in agroindustrial complex: assessments and prospects
The paper analyzes the system of cooperative and integrative associations (the example is corporations and holdings), states the principles and mechanism of corporate management and its efficiency, presents the advantages of corporative associations (holdings). The notion “the essence of corporate culture” is defined and the methods of state regulative impact on cooperative and integrative structures are formulated, the prospects for creation of cooperative and integrative structures in the agroindustrial complex of Belarus are identified.

Full textZhudro M.M.
Economic justification of competitivenessuse of agrarian technology
The research shows that to estimate the level of competitiveness of the use of agrarian machines it’s necessary to apply the methodology of competitive advantages instead of the traditional approach to the analysis of efficiency of commercial organizations activities. This approach is based on the comparative estimation of the efficiency of cost of goods manufactured (proportion of the final results to the costs). To estimate the level of competitiveness of the use of agrarian machines in production it’s recommended to apply the integral index including geometric middling of microidexes of technical, economic, investment and marketing efficiency of the use of machines.

Full textSaiganov A.S.
The сurrent state of the development of mechanized industrial service of agricultural manufactures and the main directions of its improvement
The research of the current state is conducted and the tendencies of the development of mechanized industrial services of agricultural manufacturers are described. It is shown that specially created groups that have been formed and operate currently at agroservice and flax enterprises render a wide range of necessary services to various economic entities. In this connection these mechanized units equipped with high-tech machines carry out the most labor-intensive field work within a short agrotechnical period that ensures the growth of crops yield. At the same time the process of joining unprofitable agricultural organizations to regional agroservices made the last ones produce themselves that immediately caused the reduction of mechanized services rendered to agricultural manufacturers. The main directions of further improvement of mechanized industrial service to consumers are substantiated.

UpAgriculture and plant cultivation

Full textMikhailouskaya N.A., Mikanova O.
Correlation of oxidases activities with the content of organic matter of different fractions in sod podzol loamy sand soil
Biological investigations were conducted on sod podzol loamy sand soil during long-term field experiment. Three levels of soil fertility status were formed during the experiment as a result of application of different fertilizer systems. Quantitative estimation of correlations of oxidase activities with the content of different fractions of soil organic matter (SOM) is presented. A close correlation of oxidase activities with the content of inert fraction of SOM is identified. Determination coefficients R2 are as follows: 0.81–0.94 for peroxidase and 0.62–0.74 (Р ≤ 0.05) for polyphenoloxidase. It is established that oxidase activi¬ties have a weaker correlation with the content of active fraction of SOM: R2 for peroxidase is 0.35–0.45, for polyphenoloxi¬dase – 0.35–0.55 (Р ≤ 0.05). The differences in correlation with different fractions of SOM enable to use the activity of soil oxidases more differentially while estimating soil biological status – as quantitative characteristics of the intensity of plant lignin humification.

Full textSemenenko N.N., Karankevich E.V.
Transformation of peat soils chemical composition under the influence of drainage and long-term agricultural use
The research shows that as a result of drainage and a long-term agricultural use (for about 50 years) peat-mineral soil complexes with different content of organic matters were formed along with peat complexes on the place of former peats. Its chemical composition changes greatly in the layer of 0–20 cm and especially in the layer of 21–40 cm with the reduction of content of organic matter in soils. Close correlations between the content of organic matter and the content of carbon, nitrogen, potassium, calcium, C:N ratio (R2 = 0.80–0.99) described by the appropriate regression equations are established; wеaker is correlation (R2 = 0.63–0.66) with magnesium, phosphorum and iron oxides changes in the content of which depend greatly on the application of fertilizers and dolomite meal.

Full textRupasova Zh.A., Yakovlev A.P., Vasilevskaya T.I., Varavina N.P., Krinitskaya N.B.
Peculiarities of accumulation of useful substances in blueberry berries (V. uliginosum L.) berries while applying mineral fertilizers to exploited peat bog in Belarus
The paper focuses on the comparative assessment of biochemical composition of blueberry berries on 30 indicators within a field experiment with a 3 variants’ scheme of applying mineral fertilizers to exploited peat bog (I – control, II – Р16К16, III – N16Р16К16). It’s shown that application of phosphate-potassium fertilizer and NPK-compound promotes equally activation of accumulation of useful substances in blueberry berries in comparison with nonfertilized ground with a little more evident effect in the first case.

UpAnimal husbandry and veterenary medicine

Full textPershoukevich P.M., Samosyuk V.G.
Organizational and economic mechanism of application of innovative technologies in animal husbandry
The article deals with the types of resource saving technologies, their peculiarities, potential possibilities of application at agricultural enterprises of the republic. The classification of factors and terms of efficient application of innovative technologies in dairy cattle breeding, the model of their interrelation are proposed. The organizational and economic mechanism of application of innovative technologies and the procedure of its implementation is considered.

Full textKitikov V.O., Ternov E.V.
Application of a simulation model of lactation curves for effective planning of milk production
The method of precise planning of milk production on the basis of extrapolation of lactation curve of every cow in a herd is proposed. This method uses an improved Wood model. The result is a sum of cows’ daily yields. The method is presented as a computer program, it allows the combination of different models of lactation curve, calculation for any herd within any timeframes, enables to take into consideration the influence of perturbing factors, ensures multipurpose application of intermediate results and can be applied for different breeds of dairy cattle.

Full textSheyko I.P., Tymoshenko T.I., Shyman T.L.
Reproductive, fattening and meat qualities of pigs of duroc breed at different selection methods of parental pairs
The research results on the study of reproductive, fattening and meat qualities of pigs of duroc breed at different selection methods of parental pairs are presented in the article. The effect of combination correlation of parental pairs on reproductive, fattening and meat performance of progeny is established. Perfect selection variants promoting improvement of productive qualities are identified.

Full textKoneva O.Yu., Dromashko S.E.
Molecular and genetic certification of “lakhvinsky” and “tremlyansky” race groups of carp (Cyprinus Carpio L.) according to the method of RAPD-analysis
The paper presents the results of DNA typing of carp of the Belarusian breeding to have been carried out for the first time in the country. Primers and amplicons suitable for molecular and genetic characteristics of “lakhvinsky” and “tremlyansky” race groups are identified, a formula for a carp certification is proposed.

UpMechanization and power engineering

Full textKazakevich P.P.
Technical and technological bases for increasing the quality of flax
The first and most important objective directed at increasing the efficiency of work of flax branch in the republic is the increase of the quality of flax (up to 1.50 and higher). The main role in solution to this problem belongs the technologies of flax gathering (including the stages of pulling a stand, seasoning, ploughing) and their technical support. The most acceptable in Belarus is the technology of a combined gathering which recommends to begin gathering according to the technology of a separate gathering with further joining of harvesters if weather conditions are suitable. At the same time to provide flax breeding with seeds it is necessary to gather seeds mainly with harvesters. The proportion of harvested acres of a combine and separate methods is determined by the achieved level of seeds yield. In the nearest 3–5 years it is necessary to raise the amount of a separate gathering up to 30% of harvested acres of flax with its further raise up to 70%.

Full textPiunovskiy I. I.
Methodology of the choice of type of forage harvesters
The main technical parameters (capacity, power, mass) and the type of forage harvesters are determined on the basis of the analysis of requested amounts of fodder lay for stock-breeding products manufacturing for the nearest perspective in the republic of Belarus and technologies of preparing silage, haylage and green grasses fodder within the optimal agrotechnical dates.

UpProcessing and storage agricultural production

Full textRoshka G.V., Shanbanovich G.N., Koshganovsky V.A., Shadyro O.I., Sosnovskaya A.A., Edimecheva I.P.
Screening of different varieties of flax for production of food flax oil
Screening of different varieties of long-fibre and oil-bearing flax on seed yield, oil content and fatty-acid composition has been carried out. The content of tocopherols, carotenoids and phytosterols is identified in seed oil produced from a number of flax varieties. The varieties for cultivation to produce food flax oil are recommended. The prospects for flax oil production in the Republic of Belarus are discussed.

Full textAkoulich A.V., Morgounova E.M., Shelegova N.A.
Creation of new premium class natural fermented low alcohol drinks is one of the perspective directions of food industry
The article presents the results of the market research to have been done with the aim of identifying the attitude of potential consumers towards low-alcohol drinks of a new generation. The description of the technology of fermented low-alcohol drinks on the basis of guilder rose or herbs juice is stated. The chemical composition and biological value of guilder rose berries of different varieties are studied. The optimal parameters of herbs extraction and extracts fermentation are received. The quality indicators of drinks are identified; the data on optimal modes of their stabilization are obtained.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Oscar Karlovich Kedrov-Zikhman (To the 125th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Mikhail Grigorievich Chizhevskiy (To the 115th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Stepan Gordeevich Skoropanov (To the 100th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Ivan Ivanovich Budevich (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Ivan Antonovich Golub (To the 60th Anniversary of Birthday)

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