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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 369-86-18
e-mail: info@belnauka.by
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»
2002 г. - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2018 №3

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov V.G., Shpak A.P., Kireyenka N.V., Каndratsenka S.A.
Conditions and factors of implementing the Doctrine for National Food Security in the Republic of Belarus by 2030
The world agrofood system is characterized by a constant occurrence of multidirectional trends, factors and threats complicated for monitoring and prediction. In this regard, immediate and strategic identification, quantification and assessment of the potential of the external environment effect are several directions for ensuring sustainability of the national food security. The article presents the results of studying the conditions and factors that will in future have effect on implementation of aims and objectives of the Doctrine of National Food Security of the Republic of Belarus by 2030. Analysis of the trends in the development of world agriculture and food production has been carried out, and their classification has been cited from the standpoint of the effect on the national agrofood system sustainability. The following important groups of factors are distinguished: ensuring global food security, dynamics of macroeconomic conditions in countries and regions, factors of food demand, production, trade and price conditions, and orientation of the agrarian policy of food exporters. Potential external threats related to the growing deficiency of resources in the agricultural products, raw materials and food markets, instability of the conjuncture, as well as active use of protectionist measures and regulators by the main exporters have been identified. The results of monitoring of the national food security of the Republic of Belarus following the results of 2017 in the context of the sustainability of the functioning of the agroindustrial complex are analyzed. Potential threats of physical, economic availability of food, level and quality of nutrition in terms of the population categories were identified. General directions and measures to strengthen the national food security are indicated, including: increasing the efficiency and sustainability of agricultural production, ensuring economic availability of products for the population, increasing the competitiveness of production and marketing of products, developing scientific and innovation potential, etc.

Full textChabatul V.V., Papinova M.V., Bashko A.Y., Tretyakova I.A., Azarenko О.А.
Sustainable innovative development and its investment support as factors of raising the agroindustrial complex efficiency
Raising of economic efficiency and sustainability of the national agroindustrial production in conditions of fast development of science, machinery and technology, high market competition, and integration processes expansion is largely conditioned by development activation, implementation and investment support of innovations. Enough attention is paid to the issues of sustainability, innovative development and investment activity in modern economic literature. At the same time, the problem of investment support for sustainable innovative development of agroindustrial complex is still studied poorly, which makes scientific research in this field relevant. Based on brief retrospective analysis, an improved understanding of the sustainable development of the agroindustrial complex, as well as in the context of its components, is proposed in the paper. It is shown that the basis for sustainable agroindustrial complex development in modern conditions is the increase of innovative activity at all the management levels. As a result of the study, a list of the main regulatory and legal acts regulating the issues of innovation activity and the privileges and incentives established by them for business entities, including agrarian ones, were systematized. The main problems preventing activation of innovative development of agroindustrial production are listed. In order to solve these problems the authors within the research framework developed a concept of investment support for sustainable innovative development of the agrarian sector, which includes eight interrelated consecutive blocks. Implementation of the proposed concept will contribute to more complete involvement of potential financing sources and their effective use in the investment activities, thereby ensuring competitiveness of the national agroindustrial complex and its sustainable development, considering interests of the current and future generations.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textPrivalov F.I., Kilchevskij A.V., Grib S.I., Retsetnikov V.N., Kozlovskaja Z.A., Dmitrieva S.A., Kovalevich A.I., Matys I.S.
Plants genetic resources in the Republic of Belarus – the fundamental principle of food, environmental and biological security of the country
Breeding of new domestic varieties of economically useful plants for different purposes (food, fodder, technical, medicinal, decorative, etc.) is the basis for food, environmental and social security of the republic population. Therefore, preservation, study, mobilization and rational use of genetic resources in the context of global climate change and steady increase of anthropogenic pressure on nature is a planetary problem. The welfare and life of the present and future generations of mankind depends on successful solution of this problem. The paper presents history in chronicles of genetic resources preservation in the Republic of Belarus – from conception of this trend to the present day. Particular attention is paid to the presentation of the results obtained by the implementing organizations of the State Program “Plant Gene Pool” over a 17-year period (2000-2017), including 11 academic institutions and 2 higher educational institutions of the republic. The contribution of each organization to the national genetic bank formation is reflected. Basic, active, working, field, double, target, indicative, core and training collections of the main resource crops, economically significant crops and forest-forming species were formed by their efforts. The largest and most valuable genetic collections of 7 implementing organizations are included in the State Register of Scientific Objects, which constitute the national treasure of the Republic. These collections are a source of valuable genetic material and, at the same time, they are successfully used in scientific, environmental, educational and other programs. Currently, genetic collections in general include over 78,300.00 specimens belonging to 1,680.00 species of crop plants and their wild relatives. 1,016.00 varieties of crop plants were created based on them. The paper also reflects the main approaches and perspectives of preservation and rational use of the plant gene pool. Sophisticated and time-consuming processes of genetic collections formation in modern hard economic and regional natural conditions, taking into account the results of similar studies of other states, will serve as a scientific and information basis for increasing efficiency and improving work in this direction. In practical terms, the high level of species, variety and form biological diversity of genetic collections serves as a guarantee for their efficient use in crop production and selection as sources and donors of valuable genetic material.

Full textLichazevich A.P.
Mathematical simulation for improvement of reliability of evaluation of the field agronomic experiment results
The programming (simulation) of yield in the area of “risky farming” that Belarus belongs to according to data from a single-factor experiment considering only the food mode, can lead to unacceptably large errors in the calculations. These errors can easily be avoided by increasing the factorality of agronomic experiment by using standard meteorological data processed using mathematical model of crop yields. A mathematical model of environmental factors effect on crop yields is proposed and tested. It is shown that the accuracy of yield simulation (calculation) increases with the growing number of crop-forming factors taken into account. The possibilities of mathematical simulation allowing to switch from one-factor to multifactorial agronomic research are demonstrated, involving meteorological data characterizing the moisture and heat availability of the vegetation period when analyzing the results of the experiment as additional information. The moisture supply conditions can be characterized quite accurately by atmospheric precipitation during the vegetation period, and the heat supply – by the maximum daily air temperatures in the same period. Inclusion in analysis of additional water and heat factors of yield makes it possible not only to increase the factorality of field experiment, but also to substantially increase the conclusions validity according to the results based on the proposed mathematical model.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textGerasimovich L.S., Sheiko I.P., Kosko A.N.
Development of mode parameters of IR irradiation of weaners according to analysis of animal behaviour using video surveillance system
The research relevance is determined by the need to reduce the energy intensity of intensive livestock production. The latter is possible on the basis of innovative methods and technical means of intelligent management of complex biotechnical systems with identification of animal behaviour and control using video surveillance systems. The paper presents the results of experimental researches of the energy efficiency of an automated infrared irradiation system for weaners with irradiation modes set according to analysis of video surveillance of animal behaviour. A sign for the location of animals along the floor area relative to a warm source – a dark infrared irradiator, was defined as an ethological sign for the analysis of animal behaviour. As a result of experimental studies, based on the video surveillance data, IR-irradiation modes were determined by statistical analysis of the ethological sign of the location of animals relative to the thermal source of IR-irradiation. These modes were recorded in the program of the microcontroller, within 20 days the experimental group of animals was exposed to IR-irradiation according to the established modes. It was determined that the developed irradiation modes ensure additional profit of 2.97 roubles per animal, including economic effect for heating of 0.89 roubles per animal. The developed IR irradiation modes for weaners exclude general heating requirement. The IKOV-1 automated plant allows to develop energy- efficient zoology hygienic modes for animals management based on data processing and video surveillance equipment using air temperature sensor in the IR irradiation area. Acknowledgement. This research was supported by the Belarusian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research under the T18M-001 Contract “Integrated energy supply for controlled biotechnical systems in agricultural production using renewable energy sources”.

Full textSheyko Y.P., Rudy Y.M., Kralko S.V.
Nutritional value of twoyearling carp of different cross-breeds
One of the important fields of carp breeding work is improvement of the commercial traits of created carp breeds or cross-breed commercial crosses. The main indicator determining the value of commercial fish is edible carcass yield depending on the interior (relative weight of carcass edible parts) and the exterior (high spin, ratios of head and body girth, type of scale) indices. The paper presents the results of researches on interior indicators (body parts ratio) of twoyearlings of two-breed crosses obtained from crossing of adapted fourth generation imported breeds grown in Belarus with carp lines of Belarusian selection. The edible part of carcass size varied from 60.7 % (three prim x fresinet) to 66.7% (German x Lahvinsk scaly), averaging 64.0 % in the two-breed crosses studied. Compared with the average population yield of carcass in twobreed crosses, statistically significant advantages were determined in combinations of crossing with German carp. In this regard, quite high indicators were also observed in combinations with the Yugoslav carp, where it was used as the maternal component of crosses, and in combinations obtained from crossing the Mirror Isobelin carp with a Butterfly breed. Based on comprehensive assessment of interior indicators, a number of crosses have been determined with increased nutritional value of carcasses, among which the maximum nutritional value was shown by the cross German x three prim. The obtained data are of practical importance for creation of industrial hybrids with attractive commercial traits.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textPetrovets V.R., Mikheev D.A.
Results of field researches of pelleted buckwheat seeds with organic fertilizers based on humic acids with substantiation of constructive and technological parameters of centrifugal pelleter with blade reflector
One can obtain high yields of crops only when seeds with high varietal and sowing qualities are used for sowing. Various methods of presowing processing are used to improve the seed quality. Presowing seed treatment not only improves germination, but also eliminates seeds from pathogens, significantly increases their viability and improves young crops yield. One of the most promising ways of presowing treatment of small and irregular shape seeds is pelleting. This method helps to increase the seeds size and acquire a spherical shape, which greatly simplifies their sowing and allows to accurately observe the seeding rate. The paper presents design of a centrifugal pelleter with blade reflector, the results of studying the process of buckwheat seeds pelleting, and its best design and technological parameters are determined based on those when organic fertilizers based on humic acids were used as material for pelleting. Factors significantly affecting seed pelleting in a centrifugal pelleter with blade reflector were determined, the choice of objective function and criterion for improving the process are substantiated. A dependence describing the process of seed pelleting in a pelleter was obtained as a result of the regression analysis of the obtained results of experimental studies. The obtained results can be used in the field of crop production in agricultural production during presowing treatment of small seed crops and agricultural engineering during development of centrifugal pelleters with blade reflectors.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textLovkis Z.V., Pchelnikova A.V., Babodey V.N., Zhakova K.I.
Studying the effect of post-harvest ripening on the quality parameters of rape and brown mustard oilseeds during storage
Increase of vegetable oils production provides for the further improvement of oily raw materials storage technology. It is known that technological quality of oilseeds is formed in close relation to its morphological characteristics, as well as peculiarities of biochemical processes inside of seeds, depending on external conditions and their development phase. The paper presents comparative results of researches of dynamics of qualitative and biochemical parameters of rape and brown mustard oilseeds with and without post-harvest ripening during storage. Research has shown that in order to produce high-quality fat-and-oil products, oilseeds must necessarily undergo the ripening process in artificial conditions, where the seeds are taken after they reach ripeness level enough for harvesting. Considering that the main period of oilseed storage is mainly destructive, seeds that have not undergone post-harvest ripening have active disintegration process even in case they are stored in perfect conditions. This process considerably reduces quality of seeds and their storage period. Based on the researches, practical recommendations were developed for post-harvest ripening and storage of oilseeds. The presented research data can be used to optimize the existing technologies of oily raw material post-harvest ripening and storage, to increase process quality of processed seeds and obtain high-quality fat-and-oil products. Acknowledgements. The research described in this work was carried out within the framework of the state research program “Quality and efficiency of agroindustrial production” for 2016–2020 (subprogram “Food security”).

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Vladimir Pavlovich Samsonov (To the 90th Anniversary of Birthday)

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