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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1998 №4

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanisation, automation and energy

Full text
Annual General Meeting of the Academy of Agrarian Sciences

Full textAntonyuk V.
Introduction of agrarian science achievements into production is most important factor of efficient development of agro-industrial complex

Full textGrib S.
State and prospects of improving utilization of research elaborations in farming and plant growing

Full textSheiko I.
Ways of further development of animal breeding on basis of increasing its efficiency and competitiveness

Full textDashkov N.
Problems and efficient methods of introducing new research elaborations into production in agriculture mechanization field

Full textShakolo I.
Agro-industrial complex of Republic of Belarus and scientific progress

Full textMirochitsky F.
What to begin with?

Full textGusakov V.
Introduction of economic investigations into production and their efficiency

Full textSkoropanov S.
To increase role of plenipotentiaries of science in utilizing its achievements in all possible way

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textGotsky G.
Actual aspects of national agriculture transformation
The article is devoted to the problem of national agriculture transformation. The identification of problems of a transformation process is possible by developing the corresponding prerequisites: generally recognized aims and means of transformation, monitoring of measurable and controllable features of proceeding process, of the mechanism of a joint search of the ways of solving transition problems. All this requires the proper system viewpoint and designing the system basis of the transformation process, a more determined viewpoint over an object, a subject and an entity of the transformation and the methods of overcoming conflicts and providing the necessary culture of the transformation process as well Agrarian markets, classification, monitoring and regulating rank first.

Full textShapiro S.
Administrative vertical line of AIC in new conditions of managing
System crisis availability presupposes enforcing the administrative forms of managing and control, which results in enhancing the role of state organs, realizing these functions. However, such a formula of actions should be of a transient character, as the state forms of managing are mostly contradictory to the general task of economic liberalization. The article deals with the state-organs structure in vertical line of managing AIC, including the Minagroprod, regional committees on agriculture and provisions and district agrarian administrations. The functions of managing each administrative structure applying to new economic situation, emerged in the Republic, have been substantiated. The recommended new organizing structure of the Minagroprod of the Republic of Belarus consists of seven departments, each of them will fulfill definite functional obligations.

Full textKonstantinov S.
From income distribution by labour to functional one
The article deals with the changing of contents of "distribution according to labor" principle, beginning from K. Marx, V.I. Lenin to nowadays. Originally in the former USSR the above - mentioned principle was accepted as distribution according expenditure of labor, but in 80s - according to labor results. Transition to market economy presupposes the changing of profit distribution methods. The essence of functional profit distribution is given in the article in correlation with the theory of maximum productivity of distribution, the author of which was G.B. Clark. The share of profit itself, imposed on each factor is defined with the help of Cobb-Douglas' function. According to 1996 data, the share of profit, imposed (with the help of the above mentioned function) on the production factors of Belarus agricultural enterprises will be as follows: 56% from the profit received is imposed on labor, 23% - on the land, 9% on the capital, 12% - on the managerial-organization factor.

Full textGusakov V., Valuev V., Svyatogor A., Stepanenko G.
Economic factors and ways of increasing efficiency of using fodders
Problems of an effective use of fodder resources in the stall period of a livestock upkeep are given in this work. Ways of the liquidation of keeping factors for further increasing of the high-quality fodder production, increasing of the effectiveness due to shortening of materiall-cash and labour expenditures, an inadmision of the livestock productivity recession are shown. Reccommendations about reinforcement of the labour motivation for increasing of milk, beef, pork production, economy of fodders to taking into account it's normative use, are given.

Full textGursky V.
Problems of forming marketing system in AIC of Republic Belarus
The problems of building an integral system of marketing in agriculture, available in the Republic, are considered; the potential for supplying agrarian establishments with marketing information is investigated. It has been marked that the closest link to the production in the structure of managing AIC is a district link and, that is why, the marketing organization is expedient to begin namely with it The structure-functional pattern of organizing marketing of AIC of a district has been adduced, and it has been concluded, that in the process of forming the marketing system in agriculture the efforts of the producers and the state should be combined.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textKukresh L.
Grain field strategy
The tendencies emerging in the grain growing of the Republic, have been analyzed. The degradation of the phytosanitary medium in farming due to imperfection of cultivated areas, donunating cereals in argophytocenoses, the imbalance of the regulations of soil cultivation have been marked The measures on importing the former system of farming, providing the basis of the system of farming, high productivity of grain plants and other agricultural plants, have been proposed.

Full textPrischepa I.
Methods of choosing and applying tank mixtures of chemization agents (on example of winter rye protection)
On an example of winter rye protection against noxious organisms and lodging the sequence of stages of a complex evaluation of application of means of chemization in the technologies of grain crops cultivation is shown. Study of interaction of means of chemization in mixtures at the stage of selection and primary test, type definition of compatibility (ecological, natural and chemical), biological and toxicological evaluation allows to give ecology-toxicological conclusion on each concrete mixture. Based on the obtained data the assortment and rates of pesticides, application is updated, the adjustment of doses of fertilizers is carried out.

Full textIvanyuk V., Brukish D.
Role of fungicides and their multiple application on potato field in prophylaxis of epiphytic phytophthora
In the article the results of study of influence of potato fungicide treatments on biological peculiarities of late blight agent - fungus Phytophthora infestans M.de By are presented.

Full textBulavin L., Khokhomova D., Simchenkov G., Palko T., Khankevich V., Belanovskaya M.
Estimate of phytosanitary effect of oil-bearing radish on following grain sowings
It has been found out due to the investigation, that cultivating oil-bearing radish after hay cutting positively affected the weedy sowings and the productivity of the following winter grain cultures.The phytosanitary role of the oil-bearing radish was marked on the background of the conventional terrace ploughing as well as on the background of chiseling soil. The increase of winter rye productivity from the previous cultivation of oil-bearing radish mounted to 1,5-1,9 (the first year after action), and the increase of winter wheat productivity mounted to 1,0-1,8 c/h (the third year after action). The productivity of the barly, sown after double sowing of oil-bearing radish for green mass, was approximately the same as by cultivating it after lupin for grain.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textYakovchik N.
Energetic aspects of raising production efficiency of fodders on basis of intensive technologies
In the turned out economic situation the important problem for Belarus is lowering of fuel-rnergy resources on all species of produced agricultural products, it is reguired taking of the energy saving policy finally which predetermines the direction of the effective use of the fuel and the electric power, the optimization of the structure and there volumes of using. On factual materials it is examinated measures directed on the optimiration of fodder resources, there effective use with helping of small energy capacious technologies of the fodder cultivation, laying in and the preparation. The technological production model of fodders is presented. The expenditures'structure of the combined energy according to elements on different variants of processing of the green fodder mass including the electric power, costs of flammable - lubricating material, expendifures of people and thinging labours, working means is given in this research.

Full textTanana L.
Functional activity of remontant heifers ovaries and suprarenal glands in reproductive maturation period
This work is devoted to study the formation of the harmonious status of the replacement heifers in the sexual maturation period, which are defined by the endocrine glands state. The secretes of endocrine glands are determined by the intensity of a organism sexual and physiological pubovty.

Full textSamsonovich V., Solodkov A., Gusakov V.
Role of tyreodin in stress development prophylaxis with piglets under weaning
The aim of the given investigation was to study the hormonie status of a thyroid gland with piglets after early weaning and to try to correct it by adding thyreoidin into nutritional ration. Thus in the blood of the swines of various age groups there was unequal quantity of hormons. The greates quantity of thyrocsine and threeiodtyronin is contained in the blood of the suckling piglets of the age of 17-18 days, and the least one in the blod of piglets after early weaning, applied at swine cimplexes (at the age of 35—40 days). Adding thyreoidin into the fodder of piglets in the dose of 10 mg/kg of the alive pody normalizes the content of thyreoid hormons. This dose of the preparation can by recommended for using with the purpose of limiting the effect of weaning on the changing of hormonal status of the thyroid gland of piglets.

Full textYastrebov A.
Specific prophylaxis of piglets' viral gastroenteritis
Results of research on testing of the protective effect of an immunoglobulines preparation agains the transmissive gastroenteritis virus of pigs under experiment conditions, results of a production testing of two associated vaccines agains viral gastroenterics and colibacterios of pigs in swine husbandries, not well with these diseases, are given. Single and two-fold oral noculation of 10.0 cm3 and 5.0 cm3 of the immunoglobulinus preparation against TGE virus made to newborn pigs on the first day after the birth is found to protect 40-77.8% of animals from TGE and to decrease mortalite of animals up to 85.7-90%. Associated vaccines against transmissible gastroenteritis and rotavirus disease, against transmissible gastroenteritis, rotavirus disease and colibacteriosis of pigs two-fold intramuscularli injected to pregnant sows protect 86.2-93.5% of pigs from viral gastroenterites and colibacteriosis.

Full textKarput I., Kovzov V.
Thyroid and immune status correction with calves suffering from enzootic goiter
It has been found out that the breakdown of the functions of the thyroid gland takes place with the calves suffering from the enzootic goiter, and immunedeficit states arise, which is displayed in the process of developing the disease by reducing the content of thyroid hormones by phagocyte activity of neutrophyles, bactericidal activity and the level of immunoglobulines in the serum of the blood The iodcontaining preparation "destrumin", by applying it to sick calves in the dose of 6 ml per one animal makes it possible to stabilaze the function of the thyroid gland and renders a good therapeutic effect under the first three stages of a goiter. Double, with the interval of 7 days, intramuscular injection of lypopolysaccharide in the dose of 0.1 ml/kg of a live body, on the background of applying the iodcontaining preparation, stimulates cellular and humoral immunity, thus conducting prophylaxis of the immunodeficit state under the enzootic goiter with the calves.

UpMechanisation, automation and energy

Full textKlochkov A., Duben I.
Stability of agrotechnics factors and Yield
The basic operations on crop production are characterized by essential instability of parameters of quality. Heterogeneity of a subsoil density are marked on width of plough width and non-uniform distribution of lumps in the top layer. The non-uniform characteristics of ground influence depth of seed closing up and further development of plants. The depth of seeding is closely connected with the crop production, its non-uniformity and condition of a production year. However the plants have certain inertia in the reaction to variability of the agrotechnic factors and such of them, as clodding of the top layer before sowing, number of pre-sowing tillage, non-uniformity of height of plants have not rendered statistically significant influences to a crop. By the moment of ripening of lupin plants the dynamic hardness of the top layer of ground has already appeared not connected with the characteristics of individual efficiency of plants.

Full textPiunovsky I.
Scientific foundations of mechanized processes intensification in making fodders from grass
On the basis of biological feature of growth and development of grassy plants on an integrated curve the accumulation of a crop of green weight on a phase of vegetation is considered to which there corresponds the certain technology of preparation of forages. The model of technological process of grass harvest optimisation is developed with the purpose of optimum term definition, depending on expenses on purchase and keeping of engineering wiep taking into account the cost of losses from shortage of a crop. Is considered the conception of the mechanized technologies of preparation of forages and grass es chois, which basis composes the intensification of processes by the reduction of terms realisation of technological operation, acceleration moisturere-tuming of oblique plants and creation of conditions, wchich are slowing down ferments function of crates, including early morning mowing down, flattening, processing of a grass by chemical reagents, tossing the hay, entering chemical preservatives in increased humidity hay and silo from dried grass es.

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