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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2004 №2

Contents:
Economics and Information Technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and Power Engineering

UpEconomics and Information Technologies

Full textL. Kukresh
Acute problems of the economy of AIC
The author analyzed the reasons for the unsatisfactory state of the agrarian economy of the current stage. He suggests what should be undertaken to most fully use the existing potential of material, land and labor resources; to reduce the cost of the produce and thus strengthen the agrarian economy.

Full textМ. Sumonov
World production of poultry: experience and problems
The article considers the dynamic of the status of poultry production and distribution according to the continents and the leading nations. The main attention is paid to the growth rates, comparative availability of poultry per capita. The article analyses the current state of the national poultry industry in the context of the global experience. It suggests ways of intensifying poultry production in the conditions of market economy.

Full textА. Efimenko
Scientific foundation for forming the market economy
The article considers theoretical approaches to forming market economy. One of the key directions of the economic theory during the whole period of market economies is developing the most advanced models of general economic balance aimed at preparing theoretical basis for the state regulation of the interrelated markets.

Full textР. Rastorguev
Improving the corporate system of controlling the quality of agricultural produce
Monitoring quality is one of the basic elements of the mechanism of maintenance of high consumer properties of the agricultural production in market conditions. The article suggests ways of perfecting the corporate quality monitoring system for agro raw material and produce as well as forming the efficient mechanism of implementing the supervisory functions. They will allow for lowering the volumes of sales of low quality produce and creating favorable conditions for increasing the competitiveness of the domestic production in the world market of the food stuff and agricultural raw materials.

Full textА. Shibeko
Mechanism of improving the system of paying labor in agro businesses of Belarus
The level of wages in any part of the economy is one of the key factors of economic growth and the increase of the production efficiency. This is specially acute for the agrarian business, because the level of wages so far remain the lowest among other industries. The article considers the problems of improving wages in national AIC and suggests the mechanism of material incentives for the specialists and managers of ag-business depending on the final economic results.

Full textА. Kagan, S. Nekrashevich
Non-tariff model of organizing the wages in agro businesses
For the effective functioning of an agro business is essential to fulfill the main condition: ensuring personal incentives of each laborer in work and the high results. It possible to achieve this with efficient system of material incentives. The suggested scheme of material stimulation reflects the input of each workman in the final result, keeping in mind individual qualifications, personal potentials, actual input of efforts and productivity of the whole team.

Full textО. Korolenko
Integrating the formations of agro-chemical services to agriculture and agro producers is a direction of improving their relations
The article considers the organizational and production forms of the enterprises of the system of rendering agro-chemical services to national agriculture. It analyses their technical and financial status, the dynamics and the structures of the works done by "Belagroservice" for agricultural organizations. The article also justifies the necessity for integrating the companies of agro-chemical services with the producers.

Full textА. Shpak, M. Glinsky
Solving the dwellings problem in rural areas is an important condition of its revival
It is a study of the development of dwellings construction. The work analyses the state of the rural dwelling stock and suggests ways of improving the investments into rural constructions.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textG. Gulyuk, I. Leuto
Ways of improving the water-physical properties of the mineral soil with excessive water content and increasing their fertility
For many years the filed tests in Russia and Belarus studied the influence of the agro-melioration and agro-technical techniques on water-physical and agro-chemical properties of the mineral soils with excessive water content as well as on their fertility. The article provides the results of such studies and suggests optimal performance of the cultivate interlinked mineral soils.

Full textV. Ivanyuk, G. Zezyulina
Role of the abiotic and biotic factors of the environment in the pathogenesis of silver scab of potatoes tubers
The study of the role of abiotic and biotic environmental factors in potato tube silver scab pathogenesis is presented. It has been determined that the disease is caused by Helminthosporium solani Dur. Et Mont. Is wide spread in all parts of Belarus and each year it affects potatoes to a different degree. Most actively the disease develops during medical period, cooling and at the end of the tuber storage. Temperature, specific air humidity, soil pH, tuber bruising, infection by other phytoapothogenic microorganisms are the factors influencing the degree of the damage caused by the disease.

Full textI. Tatur
The state and the opportunities of the development of sugar beet production in Belarus
Sugar beet remain one of the most productive crops and has paramount economic importance. Developing its production is not only one of the conditions of ensuring national food sufficiency but also the guarantee for more jobs, revenues to the farms, important factor in raising the culture of farming and a large source of fodder for animal breeding. According to the directives of the Belarusian govt. it is planned to increase sugar beet production up to 5m tons. The article analyses current problems and suggests solutions.

Full textN. Smeyan, G. Tsytron
Conditions of forming diagnosis and classification of the anthropogenic-transformed soils in Belarus
The article considers the issues of forming, diagnosis and classifications of the anthropogenic-transformed soils in Belarus. Presented classification scheme of the anthropogenic-transformed soils is the result of the long-term research on determining the diversity of the such soils in Belarus, the conditions of their formation, peculiarities of the content and properties. The soils properties were set on type level of taxonomy.

Full textI. Vildflush, A. Tsyganov, P. Saskevich, D. Prokopenkov
Efficiency of joint application of fertilizers and plant protection means to spring rape
The application of the nitrogen fertilizers on sward-podzolic light loamy soils in the dosage of N120 at the background P70K120 showed the most strong influence on the increase of the yield of spring rape seeds. The fractional application of the nitrogen (N90 before sowing + N30 in the leaf feeding dressing) was not better than the placation of N120 before sowing. Mixture solutions carbomide and ammonium nitrate (CAN) may be used for leaf dressing of the spring rape in 1 to 3 solution with the water. The application of the microelements B and Mo had positive influence on the productivity increase and seeds quality of spring rape. Complex application of the herbicide karate with boron and molybdenum at the background N120P70K120 provided maximum seeds quality of the spring rape in the experiment and well as the best oil content per hectare, energy and means efficiency spent on application.

Full textT. Arastovich
Influence of the soils property on the process of vertical movement of radio nuclides
The results of the 1994-2000 research on the vertical movement of 137Cs and 90Sr in sod-podzolic soils of different moisture regimes of the non-cultivated lands of Gomel region are provided in the article. It was found that sod-podzolic deeply gleyed soils are characterized by more intensive speed of vertical movement than slightly gleyed soils. In this connection the effective clearance half-time for 137Cs and 90Sr in the top five centimeter layer of deeply gleyed soils was observed in 9-11 years, in slightly gleyed soils for 90Sr – through 14-15, but for 137Cs is predicted in 17-19 years after deposition. Despite of the difference in speed of clearing of the top layer of soils with various degree of gleying, radio nuclides are still in the root zone of the perennial grasses.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textA. Romanovich
The influence of bacterial preservatives on the process of making silage and the quality of fodder
Making silage is one of the most important factors of preserving the nutrients of the perishable green fodder. Silage is healthy for the animals and increases their productivity. In good silage constructions silage is preserved for many years without loosing its properties considerably. It allows for making stocks in favorable years thus minimizing the effects of the years with poor crops. The article provides the characteristics of the preserving properties of the bacterial conservant "lacsil". It has been proved that its application in making silage ensures the highest quality fodder according to the STB 1223-2000 standard based on silage of fodder crops.

Full textO. Merzlova
Factors of stable development of fodder production in the conditions of contaminated areas
In Slavgorod district of Mogilev region the number of the cows of limited usage and the volumes of milk and beef not corresponding to the regulations have been reduced by ways of applying agro-chemical protective means aimed at reducing the concentration of radio nuclides in the produce. The analysis of the economic performance of making fodder showed that the district has the trend of reduced yield of fodder crops. Often the results do not reach minimally justified decision for starting business. As a result the content of feeding units and digestible protein is reduced per one hectare, costs increase.

Full textA. Moskalev
Efficiency of keeping calves with sucking feed
Calving in individual stalls was found favorable to the process of parturition of dairy cows. Keeping newborn calves together with their mothers promoted the involution of the cows’ reproductive organs and the calves’ resistance to diseases. An optimal period of suckling was 24 hours.

Full textM. Kochergova
The influence of complex mineral preparations on the process of metabolism and the growth energy of calves
The deficit of mineral elements in animals' rations considerably affects their productivity and the state of health, especially with young animals. It has been determined that the intramuscular injection of the mineral compound to dry gestating cows and then to the newly born calves in 5 days after birth promoted their growth rate and body natural resistance. The economic efficiency of such treatment was about $6-7 per head.

Full textA. Kozlovsky
Laser therapy in curring calves will with bronchitis-pneumonia
In medicine and veterinary of recent years laser technologies are introduced widely. It is known that the low-intensity laser irradiation has anti-inflammatory, desensibilyzing, immune-modifying and anti-bacteria effect. It improves micro circulation and increases regeneration of the damaged tissues. This work is aimed at studying the opportunities of this method to increase resistance during the complex treatment of calves ill with bronchitis-pneumonia. The experiments were made on the ill calves. High efficiency of laser therapy was determined.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textM. Severnev, I. Nagorsky
Intensive technologies and new machinery to the being revived agriculture
The article justifies the need for intensifying agricultural production as a no-alternative way of reviving and dynamic developing of rural areas, based on structural reforms, technological and technical reequipping. Developing the resource saving technologies of intensive production of crops, meat and milk will ensure getting competitive produce due to economical usage of all types of resources and will become the foundation for creating the new generation of highly efficient and reliable machinery, suitable for soils and climatic conditions of Belarus which would ensure rational contact of the machinery's moving parts with biological objects: soils, plants, animals. It will allow for not only satisfying the demand of the population in food and increasing export, but strengthening national food security and sovereignty of the nation.

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