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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1999 №3

Contents:
Economics and Information Technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Poultry-farming
Mechanization

UpEconomics and Information Technologies

Full textGusakov V.G.,Shpak A.P., Bychkov N.A., Ilchik V.I., Belskiy V.I.
Problems of financial state normalization of the solvent agricultural enterprises
In this article it has been given an analysis of the financial state of the insolvent agricultural enterprises and generalized data of the state help measures for the benefit of the rural regions of Belarus. It has been considered the progressive methods of Eastern European countries in the overcoming of financial insolvency of agricultural enterprises. It has been proposed an order and a mode of step-by-step restructuring of the insolvent enterprises on the different organization-legal bases including enterprise conservation, enterprise reforming on voluntary lines or in accordance with bankruptcy's law, enterprise liquidation. The priorities of macro-economics stabilization of agricultural production have been grounded. The directions of business-planning improvement for enterprises in consideration have been offered on the basis of the technologies adapted to the different soil and climate conditions.

Full textProkopenko N.F.
Problems of production & labour quality in Agro-Industrial Complexes (AIC)
The market economy is based on production quality which is a decisive factor ensured success in keen competition. In the article it has been considered the factors of forming of production and labour qualities in Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC).

Full textRastorguev P.V.
The quality of labour and its factors in agriculture
The quality of labour is one of the main factors of formation of competitive agricultural production. In the article economic essence of a category of quality of labour and its rote in creation of high consumer cost is opened, parameters of quality of labour and opportunity of their use are considered, main directions of perfection of the total quality system of labour and production in the agricultural enterprises of Belarus are offered.

Full textYakovchik N.S.
The ways of lowering of power imputs formoving away of manure under using of the different technologies
In the article with use of lot of the practical data the different technologies of moving manure away are analysed. It has been shown their efficiency and on the basis of calculated-analytic data it has been done a conclusion about the lowering of the total power imputs including direct power imputs, materialized ones (power intensity of power sources, mechanization facilities, buildings), work inputs. As a result of the experimental data it has been stated that traditional technology of moving manure away is characterized by lower concentration of the cattle and by the litter system of upkeep. This technology increases total power efficiency of livestock production. Both for industrial complexes and for traditional cattle-breeding farms the most power saving methods of the cattle upkeep and cleaning of manure is the litter system of upkeep with fast transport use.

Full textBaranovskiy S.I.
The role of processing industry in Agro-Industrial Complex' system of Belarus
In the article a growing role of a process industry in a structure of an agro-industrial complex is justified at transition to market, directions and principles of development of its branches are determined.

Full textSidorovich V.A., Prokhorchuk V.S.
Computerization of agro-economic researche
The following questions are considered: organization of agro-economic researches on the basis of complex use of computer facilities, structure and functions of information-program support system for researches which is developed in Belorussian Scientific Research Institute of Economics and information of AIС application of object-focused approach to modeling economic objects and processes.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textGrib S.I.
Problems of adaptive arable farming intensification and ways of their solution in the Republic of Belarus
The article describes the questions of fertilizer application efficiency, ways of plant protection, improving of crops structure, as well as the problems on breeding and seed growing under the conditions of forced financial resources reduction. The main conclusion is that the strategic way of arable farming development in the Republic of Belarus is adaptive intensification. Adaptive intensification includes development and assimilation of progressive, integrated arable farming systems and cultivation technologies of farm crops, rational using of resources and natural environmental factors, as well as mobilization, first of all by breeding of biological productivity potential and plant resistance.

Full textUsenya A.A.
Agrophysical properties of the soil under the cultivation of fodder and cereals crops in crop rotation
Results of the research of the soil structure condition under grain crops and fodder crops are presented. It has been determined the influence of the perennial grass, grin crops and cultivated crops on united structure and also on the quantity of the waterproof units of arable stratum of the soil. It has been stated an influence of some cultivation as fore-runner in crop rotation on the main agrophysical properties of the arable stratum in crops of barley.

Full textGrib O.M.
Actual aspects of the cereal plant selection for quality
The necessity of constant improving of the cereal plant conception is substantiated. The scheme of analysis of selection material is provided for this purpose. Methods of receiving of initial material at quality selection are considered.

Full textYakovleva G., Konovalova G., Podobed N.
About propagation of potato by micro- and minitubers
Article contains the information about propagation of potato by micro- and minitubers in Belarus Research Institute for Potato Growing. It begins with the definitions of micro- and minitubers. Two tuber-inducing media without the addition of cytokinins: first with agar and second - liquid were used for mass production of microtubers (dia 5-12 mm) of 4 potato cultivars. Obtained microtubers after sprouting were planted in field. Yield of microtubers was 23-59% to that of conventional seed tubers. Minitubers (8,3-30 g) of 4 potato cultivars were obtained in greenhouse from seedings at 3 planting densities on 1 m2: 275,625,2500. The smallest average minituber weight 8,3 g was obtained at planting density 2500 for cv. Temp. Our results were compared with the data of other researchers about field performance of minitubers of similar dimensions

Full textLaman N.A., Vlasova N.N., Poplavskaya R.S., Prokhorov V.N., Stratilatova E.V.
Biologic-ecological features of the forming of the high-yield crop plants: selection aspects
On the basis of biocenosis approach to the analysis preceding crop plants for high productivity it has been founded promising directions of plants morphophysiological features changes upon the high potential of productivity. It has been shown that a possibility to get higher biological and economic yield per square unit from new variety has been reached owing to the distribution the same biomass to smaller volume. It has been deduced that it is necessary to part the feature "short stem" in two ones: "height of stem" and "sensitivity (reactivity) of genotype to thickening condition". It has been suggested that the coefficients of economic use of the energy FAR are determined by the speed and character of plants morphogenesis so in this directions it is more probably to get a success in selections of genotypes with higher activity of assimilation surface unit.

Full textN.N.Grinjko, V.LSidlyarevich, T.N.Zherdetskaya
Structure of populations and differentiation of races of pseudoperonospora cubensis (berk. et curt.) Rostow. by sign of virulence
In the article the selection of the test-varieties of Cucurbitacea family permitting to differentiate races of cucumber false mildew agent is given which should be taken into account for creation of infection background for an evaluation and sampling of a selection material, and also crop protection against the disease

Full textPortyankin D.E.
The net of wilt nurseries used in flax selection for fusarium resistance
In the article the selection of the test-varieties of Cucurbitacea family permitting to differentiate races of cucumber false mildew agent is given which should be taken into account for creation of infection background for an evaluation and sampling of a selection material, and also crop protection against the disease.

Full textPikun P.T.
Bird's-food trefoil and its possibilities
Possibilities of cultivation of valuable leguminous culture - Bird's-food trefoil in the conditions of the southern part of the territory of the Republic of Belarus have been shown in the article.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textGridyushko I.F., Zayats V.N., Kurban T.K., Kondrashonok I.V.
The comparative estimation of development of internal organs of the thoroughbred and cross-breed swins
The growth and the development of swins, the productivity and the build type are bound up with their interior morphological and biological peculiarities of the organism. The realizes research on swins of the different genotypes widely spread in pig-breeding farms of Belarus permit to conclude that the estimation of internal signs supplements and specifies the animal characteristics what gives an opportunity to expose more precisely their pedigree and productive qualities.

Full textLemesh G.V., Pachomov P.I.
Veterinary-sanitary characteristics of the cattle meat at leukosis
Physico-chemical parameters for the ailing animals meat have demonstrative deviations from the norm, especially at the hematological and tumor stages of leukosis. In such meat products the protein of disintegration are quickly stored. The protein content is reduced to 0,29-1,06%, fat to 0,21-0,54% depending on the stage of the illness, the moisture level is increased to 0,57-1,07%. The essential aminoacid level decreases: metionin, triptiphan, phenilanin, lisin. The relative biological value of the ailing animals meat is reduced at the stage of infection to 4,2%, at the hematological stage to 11,93%, tumor stage to 19,96%. The toxicity and blastomogenity of leukotic meat for infusoria test-subject Tetrahimena piriformis has been stated. In its feed and biological value the meat of leukotic cattle is inferior to the meat of healthy animals.

Full textStolyarov G.V.
The gear of nutritious valuation, production efficiency and using of fodder
The theoretical and methodological approaches but also recommendation by nutritious valuation, efficiency of production and using of fodder resources are stated in the article that permits to reveal potential opportunities of fodder base to take into account all complexity of the problems worth before fodder branch in market conditions of managing.

Full textRusinovich A.A.
Bovine leukosis virus infection in blood producer oxes
Leukosis and other haemoblasoses are recorded in most mammalian species including man. Up to that time there are sufficiently reports about leukosis infection in dogs, cats, rabbits, mice and other species of domestic and wild animals and in poultry too. Development and manifestation of disease in blood producer oxes of biofactories are of particular interest and substantial novelty so far as analogs in the literature are absent. During serological examination of 704 oxes of biofactories antibody to bovine leukosis virus (BLV) was detected in 92% of animals. The detection of nonspecific precipitation lines in 15% producer oxes was a distinctive peculiarity of many hundred thousands studies conducted in common commodity economies. The second precipitation line to polypeptide antigen 24p was recorded in 4% serologically positive animals with hematological manifestation of the disease. Pathological and anatomical changes typical for leukosis were not found in 8 animals slaughtered for the purpose of diagnostics (on the ground of immunological and hematological evidences). The analysis of conclusions of veterinary-sanitary experts for years 1988-1991 did not reveal such changes in no one of oxes slaughtered on meat factories.

Full textBogatova I.U.
The diagnostic preparation for Bovine Leukosis on the base of fluorescent Fab2-fragments of antibodies
The method of receiving Fab2-fragments of antibodies, their marking by FITC and using in diagnostics of Bovine Leukosis with the help of the method of immunofluorescence is described. Fluorescent Fab2-fragments of IgG permit to increase the allowing ability of immunofluorescent analysis. The proposed method of determination of infected lymphocytes during Bovine Leukosis is simple, high-specific and gives the possibility to diagnose the early stage of a disease.

UpPoultry-farming

Full textBabina M.P.
The age immune deficiencies and non-specific immune stimulation of chicken per orally
Based on studies of the law of formation of the immune reactivity in chicken the way of prophylaxis of the age immune deficiencies and the diseases acquired in their background has been developed.

Full textKhodosovskiy D.N., Khochenkov A.A., Solyanik V.V., Bezmen V.A.
The results of metabolic energy content evaluation in barley and wheat for poultry
In the article the results of metabolic energy (ME) evaluation in barley and wheat for poultry are discussing. It has been stated that the different lots of barley may differ for metabolic energy content on 17,2% and wheat's ones on 7,7% in full correspondence with all the parameters of actual Byelorussian standards. It has been noted that the indices of metabolic energy content for barley and wheat in the republican classifier were higher than these ones received by experimental way. It has been recommended for the rations balancing of poultry for metabolic energy to use correction factor 0,92 if above-mentioned grains enter in the compound of these rations.

Full textGotovskiy D.G.
Influence of aerostasis in a poultry house on some indices of blood and on the productivity of laying hens under the coop keeping
Aerostasis is a zone of air stagnation in building which negatively influences on animal organism. Aerostasis in a poultry house is characterized by the following unfavorable features of microclimate: the temperature is 3-7 C degree higher than the allowable one, the air velocity is less than 0,1 m/sec, relative humidity is 5-10% higher than the normal one, harmful gases concentration 1,5-2 times overcomes hygienic standards, microbe concentration in the air is 2,5 times more than the normal one. It has been stated that aerostasic condition of microclimate negatively influences on the natural resistance of hens. Blood serum bactericidal activity of poultry staying in local aeristasic zone was 22,3% (p0,05) and 31,3% (p0,01) than for hens in normal microclimatic conditions. Aerostatic microclimate causes decrease in average weightgain to 5,28 gr. ot to 43,8% less per day in comparison with normal microclimate zones.

UpMechanization

Full textNazarov S.I., Sharshunov V.A., Kuzmitskiy A.V.
Simulation and resources saving estimation of the technologies of the stem fodder laying-in
In the article has been given an analysis of well-known technologies of laying-in of silo and hay. It has been stated an efficiency of the liquid conserving additives applying to fodder in the store-house. The complex estimation for some technological, technical and economical factors is given. It has been drawn a perspective simulation of the harvesting-transport complex for this technology realization with taking into account the conditions of production.

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