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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1999 №4

Contents:
Economy and Information Science
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal breeding and Veterinary Medicine
Poultry-farming
Processing of Agricultural Production

UpEconomy and Information Science

Full textMoroz Y.
About the state of agriculture and the ways of agriculture strengthening
In has been given an analysis of the state of agriculture of our Republic. The ways of further strengthening of Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC) are shown.

Full textMirochitskiy F.
There is no back stroke
The author of this article appealing to the analysis of social-economic state of Belarus in 90-ties and рhenomena and tendencies taking place here has offered his own ways out of the crisis for Belarus оn the basis of own experience and the foreign one.

Full textGusakov V.
What to do with insolvent enterprises?
In the article it has been stated the aims and problems of financial-industrial enhancing of agricultural enterprises by determining of the versions and directions to liquidation of their insolvency. It has been presented the results of the study of large-commodity enterprises for the total of overdue credit indebtedness. It has been given a common scheme of the structure change and the further functioning of abovementioned enterprises. The urgent measures for financial normalization and enhance of agriculture are offered.

Full textShapiro B.
The basic ways of reforming of agriculture enterprises
In the article it has been stated the basic ways and the main stages of reforming of agricultural enterprises.

Full textDayneko A., Baygot M.
The principles of the tariff policy on the Byelorussian agrarian market
It has been defined an import influence on the inner foodstuffs market and it has been showed the types of production the most depended on the custom-tariff system. It has been grounded the principles the principles of the tariff policy and import tariff levels for agrarian production to provide for the national commodity producers defense and Republican foodstuffs safety.

Full textKovel P.
Stimulation model for the labour efficiency raising through labour remuneration Farming and plant-growing
There have been considered stimulation questions for raising labour efficiency by connecting its payment with. The achieved results: increase of production, economy of work input and scarce resources,- by keeping some guaranteed level. There has been worked out imitation model in which complex factor links and criteria are realized and which allows to formalize on a computer calculation of wage fund and payment level. The model gives the possibility to experiment widely on how to find optimal proportions in the structure of wages that together with the level of payment has big significance in enforcing labour motivation.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textPetrova N., Levshunov G., Egorov S.
Polymorphism of gliadin of winter wheat cultivars in connection with selection ways and characteristics of adoptive properties
The allelic and genetic variability of winter wheat cultivars from different environment-geographical regions of selection are studied by electrophoresis spectra. Geographic peculiarity of gliadin allelic variants and their relation with economic valuable traits on different regions of selection are shown. For Saratov cultivars it is expressed in links between a 567 component position and high technologic traits of grain. The ω 3,7 and у 1 components in Mironov selection determine the best productivity and winter resistance. There are original sprectra in position β 12345 and у 1234 for Odessa selection which determine the direction of selection to drought resistance with an average winter resistance. The electrophoresis pattern of Belarus cultivars is revealed in components a 567and у 2345 or a 2467 and у 123. These cultivars are characterised by high adaptivity. Most of them with the abundance of moisture and lower temperature of 1998 showed a positive reaction on sistem of adaptivity. Research data we received the adaptable forms as parent sources for adaptive selection.

Full textShlapunov V., Nadtochaev N., Shimanskiy L., Davydenko A.
Prospects of corn breeding and seed production in the Republic of Belarus
Agroclimatic resourses of southern regions of the Republic of Belarus allow to ripe early-maturing corn hybrides. This factor and a well-organized system of seed production may allow to decrease seed import of corn for silage by 1/3 and to cover a seed demand of corn for seed due to domestic production. Breeding work, renewed in 1993 in Belarussian Research Institute of Arable Farming and Fodders, gives reasons to believe that corn hybrides creating in Belarus will be as productive as nowadays zonated those of foreign origin.

Full textLukashevich N.
Efficiency of high protein agrophytocoenosus cultivation
The article reflects cultivation technologies of the crops at pure sowing and also at sowing in mixture with other fodder crops, which provide high vegetable protein yield from a unit of area and which have lodging resistance. The investigations have been conducted for many years.

Full textStaver S.
Influence of the fertilizer system of cover crop on the yield of meadow clover
In a stationary field experiment was studiet the effect of the fertilizer system of соуеr сrор winter rуе оn the green mass yield of meadow clover. It was established that at the sufficient precipitation falling out over the vegetation period the optimum dose of nitrogen fertilizers under winter rye with undersowing of clover does not must be more than 60 kg/ha active substance. The increase of nitrogen doses up to the 90 kg/ha active substance did not increase winter rye yield, but reliable decreased the green mass yield of meadow clover.

Full textPersikova T., Tsyganov A., Vildflush I.
The efficiency of fertilizer and new growth regulator application for potato cultivation on the derno-podzolic soils of the Republic of Belarus
Under organic-mineral system of fertilization for larly potato grawu after clover it is efficient to combine organic fertilizer as the main application and local application of the complete mineral fertilizer at pre-sowing cutting of ridges. The yield increase amounted to 9,7-10,1 t/ha, and from fertilizer localization 4,8-5,3 t/ha. The application of the growth regulators apin and amistim increased the fertilizer efficiency and gave an apportunity to decrease mineral fertilizer rates by 30%.

Full textZhukova M.
Economical importance of virus diseases with seed potato growing
The expounded information gives a broadened presentation on the economic importance of virus diseases of potato what is especially important in the connection of worsening phytovirus situation and transition to market relations.

Full textStrelkov V., Alyokhina Y., Petrenko V., Potapenko M.
Stability increase of perennial leguminous plants to root rot and crop capacity raising of grasslands under sowing into the turf sowed grasses
In order to protect perennial legumous grasses from root rot it is recommended to sow them in turf on cereal predecessor with treeted seeds. In sowing into the turf on legume-cereal predecessor with the participation of clover in grasslands and Lucerne it is advisable to use Birds foot trefoil.

Full textVitkovskiy G., Prokopov A., Rudaya A.
The basic means to increase productivity of annual grasses in the western part of Belarus
The results of experimental studied of basic factors to intensify annual grasses have been presented. It has been grounded the efficiency of cultivation of the all-component mixtures, the best time for their harvesting and an expediency of the silo-storing of the whole biological yield.

UpAnimal breeding and Veterinary Medicine

Full textDenisevich V., Kurban T., Gridyushko I.
Effect of Duroc breed on growth rate and reproductive performance of Byelorussian Black&White pigs and their crosses
The effect of Duroc breed on growth rate and reproductive performance of Byelorussian Black and White pigs and their crosses was studied. The results show that live weigth and carcass length of crossbred boars (50%Dx50%BBW, 25%Dx75%BBW) has not significantly changed in comparison with purebred ones. Sows of these genotypes did not significantly differ by their reproductive performance. By their milkability purebred BBW and crossbred sows Fitted the requirements of the top class. The most prolific sows formed a breeding nucleus to be used in future work. The lowest level of prolificacy was set at 10 piglets, litter size was 11,1 piglets in average which overpassed the reqeurements of the top class. Purebred sows mated to purebred board had progeny with the highest weaning weight at 2 mo. of age.

Full textGermanovich N., Kholod V., Sevryuk L., Belko A.
Metabolic break down of calves suffered from the severe gastro-intestinal diseases
The relation between of the gastro-intestinal diseases of different severity and the content of endogen hydrophob toxins - billirubin and cholesterol, the product of lipid peroxide oxydation - MDA, as well as such antioxidants as recovered glutathione and catalase in blood serum was studied. The increase of MDA content has been found in these diseases in close correlation with disease the seventy depending on the background of decreasing ratio recovered glutathione and malon dialdehyde. The increase of general cholesterol fraction in relation to general lipids can testify to not only its role as an endogen hydrophobic toxin, but also its antioxidant function.

Full textProshchenko V.
Non-specific preventive measures from immune insufficiency under gastro-intestinal diseases in pigs
The possibility to apply the preparation containing polysaccharides of somatic 0-antigen of pullorosis-typhus bacteria for prevention of immune insufficiency and gastrointestinal disease in pigs has been investigated.

UpPoultry-farming

Full textRomashko A.
The protein feed mixture for egg laying poultry
The possibility of fodder yeast feeding to poultry grown on rye substrate is discussed. It has been found that up to 30% of animal proteins, soybeans and sunflower cakes could be substituted for this bio-mass but the level of fodder yeast in feed mixture must not be higher than 7,4% of it. This amount permits to maintain the productivity at the level of 72-73% and does not affect the viability of poultry. Higher levels of the yeast in feed mixtures will have an adverse effect on nutrients digestibility and will result in lower egg laying capacity.

Full textMakhnach V.
The effect of the gene K's dose and its expression in chickens
The article is about the effect of the gene K's dose (early feathering) and its expression in white Leghorn chickens. Gene K's influence on the plumage type of one-day chickens is established. The plumage type a (first order flap feathering is shorter than cover feathering) prevailed (q=0,77) in cock chickens with a double dose of the gene K. The plumage type b (cover and flap feathering are of the same length) prevailed (q=0,88) in heterozygous cocks with genes К - k. Both types of plumage have the same frequency in hen chickens with one dose of the gene K. The dependence of the gene K's expression and its recessive allele k on chickens' age and sex is established. The gene К had in complete dominance (-19,2%) over its allele in 12-days chickens. In 20-days chickens the gene k had predominant, influence on feathering growth (24%), but by the, age of 70 days the gene K's influence on molting of chickens was been stronger (-33,8%), than k again. The gene K's expression was lower in hens than in cocks by 44,6% in 12-days age, per 59% in 20-days age, but in 70-days age. The expression of the gene k was higher in hens than in cocks per 100% in 12-days, per 80% in 20-days age and per 177,2% in 70-days age.

UpProcessing of Agricultural Production

Full textSharshunov V., Ganzha V., Kandaurov S., Chervyakov A.
Thermo-estrudition of the grain of cereals and leguminous plants for the mixed fodder production
In the article it has been grounded a new technology of the profound treatment of grain for the mixed fodder production on the basis of the thermal momentary explosion by evaporation of the interior moisture. The description of equipment is given. The experimental data on the base of the Stock-Company "Ecomol" of Orsha district are shown.

Full textNazarenko E., Kasianova I., Gurinova T.
Influence of differen methods of pastconducting on bread quality from the rye flour improved
A new sort of meal - rye flour improved - is offered. It by its physical and chemical properties brings nearer to the wheaten meal of the first class. It has been carried out the researches for working off technology of preparing of paste and bred from rye flour improved and also from its mixture with the wheaten meal of the first class. It has been learned an influence of rye flour improved and duration of fermentation of paste on the parameters which define a process of paste-formation (accumulation of acid, change of pH-index, gas generation). It has been grounded that it is possible to receive a high quality bred from rye flour improved and also from its mixture with the wheaten meal of the first class with lea ven dough and without lea ven dough and also with use of SMCF. The time of fermentation of paste without leaven dough is 90 minutes. In this case pH of the paste is in the optimal limits for leaven's activity (pH> 5,0), maximum acidity is 3,6 degree.

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