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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2015 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov V.G., Shpak A.P., Zapolsky M.I., Pilipuk A.V., Suboch F.I.
Mechanisms of the sustainable balanced development of the structures within cluster institutional space of the food system of the Eurasian Economic Union
On the basis of the conducted researches it’s established that integrity of cluster institutional space has a direct impact on the properties and qualities of separate elements which constitute the food system of the Eurasian Economic Union. Their development becomes impossible or inefficient outside the system or without interaction with its other elements. The properties of the structures as a complete food system of the Eurasian Economic Union are defined not only and not so much by the summation of the separate elements, but by the properties of their structure, special system forming integration relations.

Full textBajgot M.S.
Competitiveness of agricultural products of Belarus at foreign markets: assessment methodology and fulfillment of the export potential
The article proposes the methodological approaches to the estimation of export efficiency and competitiveness of agricultural products at foreign markets; determination of the volume of export of national products; identifying prospective markets for the sales of Belarusian agricultural products. The directions of the research on the world food market, methods and techniques for the regulation of the foreign trade in importing countries are substantiated. The level of tariff and nontariff shelter of agricultural products in definite countries and communities is identified. Forecasting parameters of the capacity of the national markets including domestic consumption, export and import are determined.

Full textZapolsky M.I.
Scientific bases of integration processes in the agro-industrial complex of Belarus
The paper proposes the scientific bases of transformation of the structure of the national agro-industrial complex on the principles of cooperation and integration by means of creation of large product companies. The integration model of strengthening the national food competitiveness is developed. This model includes the complex of institutional conditions, levers and mechanisms of market development of the agro-industrial complex with the preservation of social guarantees of the state.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textMikhailovskaya N.А., Tavrykina О.М., Putyatin Yu.V., Pogirnitskaya Т.V.
Influence of the supply of luvisol sandy loam soil with exchangeable magnesium on its biological activity and the yield of crops
Microbiological and enzymatic research has been conducted in the field experiment modeling different supply of Luvisol sandy loam soil with exchangeable magnesium (71, 84, 137, 172, 181 and 243 mg/kg) and even exchangeable acidity. It’s established that within the diapason of 70–170 Mg2+ content in soil and with NPK-fertilization it’s observed the increase of soil microbial biomass, metabolic activity of microbial communities, intensity of the main microbiological processes which regulate soil fertility – ammonification, carbonhydrates mineralization and plant residues humification. The rise of Mg2+ concentration up to 180 mg/kg results in the retarding of microbiological and enzymatic processes in soil. When the concentration of Mg2+ in soil is up to 243 mg/kg the depression of the mentioned processes is observed. The established dependences are confirmed by the data on the yields of maize and barley.

Full textPrivalov Ph.I., Shor V.Ch.
Prospects of cultivation, breeding and seed growing of lupine in Belarus
The advantages of lupine cultivation and its use in the republic’s conditions are considered in the article. The prospects of cultivation, breeding and seed growing are presented. It is shown that the maximum use of lupine in crop rotation allows stopping soil fertility degradation, solving the problem of protein, improving the quality and prime cost of animal products, and increasing the profitability of agricultural production.

Full textDolmatovich T.V., Buloichik A.A., Borzyak V.S., Grib S.I., Bushtevich V.N.
Marking of resistance genes to leaf rust and their expression at different stages of ontogenesis in winter triticale varieties and samples
The laboratory evaluation of resistance of 49 samples of winter triticale to agent clones of leaf rust has been carried out. It’s established that in the winter triticale variety Moderato and samples 13/14, 23/14, 24/14, 77/14, 81/14 translocation 1RS.1BL is identified with resistance genes Lr26/Yr9/Sr31. It is shown that winter triticale samples 114/14, 115/14 is resistant to leaf rust at different stages of ontogenesis. Samples 10/14, 79/14, 102/14, 103/14, 108/14, 109/14, 116/14 of Moderato and Dinaro varieties also have fielding resistance.

Full textBozhiday T.N., Volosevich N.N., Kukharchik N.V.
Analysis of the genetic stability of in vitro propagated blueberry (cv. Duke)
The efficiency of propagation methods is of great importance for large-scale production, but even more important is the genetic stability of in vitro propagated planting material. As a result of the research assessed is the possibility of using 54 oligonucleotide primers for the analysis of the genetic stability of in vitro propagated blueberry (cv. Duke) with RAPD-PCR. 6 primers (OPA 01, OPA 10, OPE 3, OPN 14, OL 1, OL 8) producing the maximum number of distinct bands has been selected. It’s established that all RAPD profiles of micropropagated blueberry generated with these 6 primers are monomorphic and identical to those of the mother plant.

Full textTarasevich A.G., Lapa V.V., Milosta G.М.
Chemical composition of valerian and removal of mineral nutrition elements
The removal of macro and micro elements has been determined as a result of field research on sod-podzol sandy soils spread with thin loam in Grodno region. It’s established that on average valerian consumes from soil 135.3–184.9 kg/hectare of nitrogen; 55.9–69.9 kg/ha of P2О5; 143.0–177.8 kg/ha of K2О; 96.4–120.1 kg/ha of CaO; 29.1–37.0 kg/hectare of MgO; 74.7–101.7 g/ha of boron, 51.4–64.6 g/ha of copper and 171.0–210.7 g/ha of zinc. In respect of the quantity of the consumed nutrition elements per unit of area they can be put in the order of decrease: K > N > Ca > Р > Mg. Per 10 c of roots and rhizomes leaves of valerian remove 36.0–40.2 kg of nitrogen; 14.4–15.9 kg of phosphorus; 35.8–40.7 kg of potassium; 25.3–27.8 kg of calcium; 7.7–8.7 kg of magnesium; 18.8– 22.1 of boron; 11.6–16.3 of copper and 41.8–48.9 of zinc. The main part of phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium is removed by leaves, most boron, copper and zinc – by roots and rhizomes.

Full textBoyko S.V., Slabozhankina O.F.
Cereal leaf beetle Oulema in аgrocoenosis of cereal crops of Belarus
The study of cereal leaf beetle in Belarus shows that such species of leaf beetle as O. gallaeciana Heyd. = (Oulema lichenis Voet.) and O. melanopus L . b elong t o d ominating c ereal c rop p ests f rom l eaf b eetle f amily ( Chrysomelidae). In аgrocoenosis located in the Central agroclimatic zone of the republic species-double O. duftschmidi Rdt. of O. melanopus L. is found. It’s established that prevalence of cereal leaf beetle and biology of its development is influenced by the change of environmental conditions in the republic, an agroclimatic zone of crop cultivation, host-plant features, granulometric soil composition, soil temperature during winter and spring periods, and air temperature at egg laying, larva and pupa development stages. Harmfulness is studied, and harmfulness thresholds for cereal crops, different agroclimatic zones of the republic and wheat varieties of the domestic breeding are developed. The results of biological and economic effectiveness of insecticides in the decrease of the number and harmfulness of pests are presented.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheyko I.P., Tanana L.A., Kosko I.S., Pristupa N.V., Burnos A.Ch.
Reproductive qualities of sows when crossed with hybrid boars of specialized meat breeds
The research on reproductive qualities of pigs of domestic and foreign breeding have been conducted in order to improve fattening and meat qualities of the young and maintain reproductive capacity. It is determined that crossing of hybrid sows (БКБ x Й) with terminal boars (Д x П) ensures a sufficiently high level of reproductive qualities of sows of this combination (БКБ x Й) x (Д x П) multiple pregnancy rate – 12.0 animals, litter weight – 21.6 kg, milk rate – 62 kg.

Full textGolucho V.M., Nadarinskaya M.A., Kozinets A.I., Golushko O.G., Kozinets T.G.
After growing fungus medium in cattle feeding
Waste free production is an important factor of increasing the efficiency of agricultural production. That is why it’s necessary to use nutrient by-products of agriculture and processing industry in cattle feeding. The article deals with the results of the research on the influence of feeding the medium of Pleurotus ostreatus to young cattle. It’s established that feeding calves with Pleurotus ostreatus promotes the increase of productivity, improvement of digestibility of nutrients and hematological indicators.

Full textNikitina I.A.
Influence of directional selection on productive and meat qualities of ducks of the Temp cross
The paper presents the results of the research on the influence of directional selection on productivity of ducks and meat qualities of line and hybrid ducks of three generations. The use of the estimation system of ducks allows increasing egg laying capacity of ducks by 4.9–6.3 %, hatching rate by 2.0–3.6 points, live weight of ducklings by 6.1 %, weight of a carcass – by 8.5 %.

Full textАgeyets V.Y.
Ecological problems of fisheries in the Republic of Belarus and their solutions
The article presents the data on contamination of pond water when applying intensive technologies of fish rearing with the use of concentrated feed and fertilizers. It brings about different diseases, degradation of habitat; reduces fish productivity and increases the volume of contaminated wastewater discharged from ponds into open streams. The primary task of fish rearing is taking into account ecological requirements in order to minimize the negative impact on open watercourses. The solutions to major environmental problems of pond fish farming of the republic have been found.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textLenski A.V., Ivanov E.M., Kazhdan E.
Methodological aspects of optimization of the tractor fleet for plant breeding
The paper considers the principles of the development of software for planning of the production activity of an enterprise in the plant breeding branch. The mathematical description of the model for optimization of the tractor fleet and creation of a field work schedule is presented. The options for calculation of operation and equipment costs are stated.

Full textKitun A.V.
Cost-effective way of feed mixture formation
The methodology for calculation of the distance of flight of particles of a polycomponent high energy additive in a layer of grass fodder is presented. Obtained is the equation taking into account physical and mechanical characteristics of fodder, technical parameters of a screw for fodder transportation. On the basis of this equation the dependence of the distance of flight of particles of high energy fodder on the time of flight and angular rate of a screw is obtained. The results of the proposed research are implemented while creating the mobile fodder-mixer CPK-10. This machine distributes grass and high energy fodder; forms fodder mixtures without special energy consuming mixers.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textLovkis Z.V., Shabeta M.P.
Filtration of fluid suspensions in food technologies
The article deals with the theoretical bases for filtration of fluid suspensions in food technologies. The research on determining filtration characteristics of suspensions has been conducted using the example of liquid potato pulp. Obtained is the dependence of thickness of a residue layer of the suspension solid phase on the filtrated partition, residue porosity, filtration speed, the coefficient of the suspension residue permeability and dry solids weight ratio in the residue layer on the filtrated partition on filtration pressure.

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