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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1999 №1

Contents:
Economics and Information Technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Poultry-farming
Processing of Agricultural Produces
Mechanization, Power Engineering and Automation

UpEconomics and Information Technologies

Full textGusakov V.
The ways and forms of the development of agricultural cooperation
The cooperation is one of the most effective and promising organization forms of agricultural enterprises. The types and the forms of cooperative enterprises can be various. This article deals with the main ways of reforming the traditional collective farms and state farms into the flexible self-governing structures with market features. The development sequence of cooperative enterprises and their associations is defined. The constructive conclusions on the perspectives of the forming and the functioning of cooperative enterprises in agriculture of Belarus are drawn.

Full textKovel P.
Specification in the system of measures for the efficiency rise of the work of agricultural enterprises
The article deals with theoretical and practical issues of the agricultural enterprises specialization, as well as with the sources and components of this organizational-economic effect. It brings into light the methodical issues of specialization definition and the many-sided contents of the effect and exposes determined by the effect methods of generalization of production increase, economy of expenses and of the economic advantages of branch distribution in enterprises compared with each other. 160 enterprises have been examined with the help of economic-statistical methods to analyse the effect of the specialization on the production efficiency. The basic principle of the study is that enterprises should combine specialization with the corresponding measures aimed at successful rational branch structures economic advantages implementation.

Full textKrylovich T., Krestovskiy V.
State guidance in the agricultural business system
In the article it has been considered the scopes of enterprising activities and the features of their support. The suggestions on the perfection of the economic enterprisment surroundings are given.

Full textYakovchik N.
Economic estimation of the production technology of animal produce
This article deals with methodical approaches to the definition of generalized index of technological processes power consumption by means of mathematical simulation of technological systems. Direct imputs, indirect imputs, working energy imputs, labourers' energy and also investment index make up in total full imputs per unit of production. On the basis of the above-mentioned rated indices it is possible to show energy-saving directions in cattle-breeding.

Full textLovkis Z., Valko V.
Integration of education, science and production
The scientific research results made by higher educational establishments of Agricultural Ministry during 3 last years have been shown. The number and qualitative membership of scientific personal, the volume of scientific research in every higher educational establishment are listed. The questions of integration of academic and University sciences in agrarian-industrial complexes of Belarus are under consideration.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textVostrukhin N., Gulyaka M., Vostrukhina N., Simacheva A., Usovich G.
The role of croprotation, the basic soil-cultivation and fertilizers' systems in the preservation and rise of the fertility of turf-podzol soil
On the basis of long-term research made in the stationary fields on turf-podzol soils in the center part of Belarus it has been established a positive agronomic effect on soil fertility and productivity of cereals by means of application of the cereals right interchange, the combined system of the basic land cultivation and optimum level of manures and fertilizers in croprotation.

Full textLazarevich S.
The correlation analysis of the parameters of photosystem II and morphological-anatomic indications of wheat species
Parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence of 23 wheat varieties grown in a hot-house with regulated climate were studied, as well as morphological and anatomy research was carried out. The obtained data are used for coorelation analysis of the parameters of the photo system II as well as for evaluation of their relation with morphological and anatomy characteristics of the plants. In the given research essencial coorelation of a relative amount of reaction centres (Fv/Fm) with the width of a flag leaf and stem diametre in the upper interknots as well as with the development of the guiding bunches were defined. The obtained data can be used for explanation of the ways of wheat evolution as well as for making up selection programmes.

Full textSoroka S., Skuriat A., Soroka L., Kivachitskaya M.
Efficiency of the herbicide zirol in winter grain crops
Based on the research done in 1991, 1993 and 1994 it is shown that in winter wheat, rye and winter triticale for the control of annual dicotyledonous weeds including the ones resistant to 2,4-D and 2M-4X one can use successfully at early spring tillering stage the herbicide Zirol, 47,5% a.s. at the rate of 2,0 l/ha.

Full textVildflush I., Zyganov A., Ryabtsev P.
Ecological estimation of the mobile phosphorus content levels and application of phosphorus-containing fertilizers new forms in durf-podzol soil
In durf-podzol tight-loamy soil with increasing of PH and mobile phosphorus and potassium content levels the mobility of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) is reduced but the cadmium content is grown. However, the soil content of the mobile forms of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in all the studied fertility backgrounds and high phosphate content soil didn't exceed maximum allowable concentration. The application of double superphosphate, polyphosphate of calcium, supercarolinphosphate, sulfoammophosphate in high doses (300 mg P205/kg of soil) haven't led to heavy metal's pollution of soil. Polyammophosphate and polyphosphate of calcium in comparison with phosphorus fertilizers containing phosphorus in orthoform furthered a little increasing of zinc and lead mobility in soil.

Full textKhodyankova S., Kukresh S., Anfimova Z.
Comparative estimation of the fertilizers application methods for fiber flax in rotation depending on the fertility level of durf-podzol light-loamy soil
The article sums up the data of many years' research (1982- 1991) concerning the nutrition conditions influence upon the yields and quality of fiber flax in rotation depending on the levels of soil fertility. Taking info account quantitative and qualitative yield indicators the rate of the main fertilizer N45P90K120 on the background of the low fertility and N30P60K90 on the background of the middle and high level of fertility are considered to be the most effective for flax. It has been stated that the local application is an essential element of the energy sparing systems of fertilization. Their introduction into agriculture will permit to lower the requirements of fertilizers more than by 30%, will improve the energy output by 27-44% per ha in comparison with the broadcast application.

Full textVeidemann H., Spaar D., Blotskaya J.
New dangerous strain of Y-virus for potato in Europe
The information on spread in Europe a dangerous potato disease caused by a strain of Y- virus (PVYntn) is presented. A comparative evaluation of characteristics of this strain with the other strains of Y-virus groups and also with other viruses causing necrotization of potato tubers is given. The ways of spread of a new strain, a range of host plants, the possible methods of its diagnostics are shown. It is determined that the potato varieties of the German assortment react to the infection by PVYntn in a different way. Its manifestation on potato herbage and tubers is stipulated by the variety resistance to PVY and weather conditions.

Full textBuga S., Shalapenok E., Meleshko J., Kaminsky V.
The structure and peculiarities of curculionid (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and aphid (Homoptera: Aphidinea) complexes of flooded plantations of American cranberry
Species composition of curculionid and aphid complexes on flooded plantations of American cranberry have been investigated under the conditions of Byelorussian Polessie. 19 Curculionidae species and 30 Aphidinea species have been registered. The life cycles of the majority of these phytophagous insects is connected with weeds. The weeds existance and their spatial distribution on plantations determine species composition and structure of these complexes. Only two species, weevil Otiorrhynchus ovatus L. and black aphid Aphis vaccinii Born., are the real pests for the crop.

Full textBosak V., Stahr K., Zarei M.
Effect of anthropogenic-brought sulphuric and acetic acids on the weathering processes of granite
The results of model experiments about influence anthropogenic brought sulphuric and acetic acids on the weathering processes of granite are given. Anthropogenic soil aci-dification has considerable effects on the weathering of, and neomineral formation from, rock-forming minerals. The increase in acidity enhances leaching of acidic cations (Al, Fe, Mn) as well as basic cations (Ca, K, Na, Mg) from granite. This leads to a decline in neomineral formation. On the other hand, the decrease in acidity results in a considerable decrease in acidic cations (Al, Fe, Mn) and Si. Compared to acetic acid, sulfuric acid had greater effects on the weathering processes of granite. Various minerals have various stability in relation to weathering processes.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textStoliarov G.
The organization arrangements of the feeds production on the radioactive pollution lands
The scientific basis of animal breeding on the agricultural lands polluted with the radiation are under consideration, the system of measures to provide animal breeding production according to republic standard levels (RSL-96) are present, the feed base organization is regarded, financial needs calculation to purchase and carry in additional quantity of fertilizers and also to carry out cultural technical measures are shown in this article.

Full textPesotskij N.
Dependence of the cow stability to mastitis on the udder characteristics
Relationships between the resistance to mastitis and udder traits were studied in a trial on Black and white cows. It was found that the rate of milk flow and the udder shape had the greatest significance (7.0 and 6.0 %, respectively). This factor must be taken into account when forming technological groups.

Full textBukas L., Kholod V.
Comparative characteristic of the cow colostrum chemical composition of the different calvings
Chemical composition of cows colostrum depends on the number of calvings. The principal serum compounds increase from calving to calving. It's very important related to immunoglobulins of different classes and tripsin inhibitor, because they provide the passive immunity in new-born animals. The concentrations of albumin, inorganic phosphorus, vitamin C increase to the fifth calving. The level of gamma-Glytamyl transpeptidase in colostrum serum also increases from calving to calving. The concentration of the components under investigation reaches its maximum for cows of fifth calving. The level of the principal compounds in the first calving cows colostrum is much less compared to older cows. Using of colostrum with the high level of immunoglobulins, tripsin inhibitor, albumin, vitamin C and others, leads to strained passive colostrum immunity formation, which secures the safety rate in new-born animals.

Full textYakubovskiy M.
Efficiency of using of dectomax and valbasen for the neat cattle parasitosis
In the article it has given the full discription of the most effective medical supplies dectomax and valbasen made by Pfeiser Co.. It has been found that dectomax has a high efficiency for thelasios, stronglylatosis and hypodermatosis, valbasen are used for fascioliasis and nematodosis. The application of dectomax and valbasen for the animals' parasitosis ensures the economic efficiency.

UpPoultry-farming

Full textSitko V.
Influence of the liquid enzyme feed addition "Record-Ya" on the slaughter qualities, biochemical compound and broilers meat properties
The purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of different doses of liquid enzyme composition produced in Belarus on carcass yield, development of heart, liver, glandular and muscle stomachs. It was studed biochemical composition (dry matter, protein, fat, minerals and aminoacid contents in breast and thigh muscles) and biological value of meat.

Full textBober U.
The prevention measures for hyperuricemia of pullets by lithium carbonate application
Possibilities of application of lithium carbonate for prevention of hyperuricemia and consequently uratic diathesis of pullets have been considered. It was found out that the application of this drug for chicken, against a background of spontaneous hyperuricemia, caused by the lack of nutrition, has led to the considerable decrease of iric level in the blood serum and to the increase of alcaline reserve of plasma. In addition, the concentration of albumin and Ig M has increased under the influence of lithium carbonate, the contents of postalbumin, haptoglobin and Ig A have decreased. Additional investigations on the estimation of the residual quantities of lithium in the tossues of pullets and eggs showed the absence of lithium during the first twenty four hours after taking the last portion. In comparison of the new and the basic methods on the basis of application of sodium hydrocarbonate was carried out on production and economic indices and it was shown that they possessed the identical preventive effect, but the application of lithium carbonate was profitable economically due to the lower cost of preventive dose.

UpProcessing of Agricultural Produces

Full textGrudanov V., Samoshkina S., Belokhvostov G., Pavlov M.
Raising reliability of the cutting gear of the meat mince machines
Results of the theoretical and experimental investigations about the raising reliability of the meat-choppers and meathashers cutter bar have been generalized. Different locational variants of cylindrical holes in cutting grates have been investigated. The mathematic model of punched cutting grate has been developed. The new design procedure for determination geometric parameters of machines working parts for grinding food has been offered with using of the golden proportions laws and Fibonacci numbers characteristics.

Full textRukshan L., Danilova L., Malinovski A.
The technological properties of barley grown in Belarus
Technological property of barley grown in several locations Mogilev region of Belarus was explored from the results of the research 1992-1996. Estimation of quality of barley was defined for standard physics-chemical indicess of grain, flour and bread. The attempt application doing of new indices just vitreousness, falling number, hardness and amylaze activity. The granulation of flour was defined. The terms "hard" and "soft" applied to wheats are known for ages. It was related that when ground or milled soft barley fractures into significantly smaller particles than hard barley which is reflected in the greater "break flour yield" upon milling. The grain quality of barley variability greatly depends on the conditions of planting. As a result grain and flour technological properties are improved when selection crops rational gives the best results. The judgement of region growing is strengthen on influence of all factors in flour extraction, milling and breading properties. This study illustrate that network technology holds great promice for the food, agricultural and biological industry.

UpMechanization, Power Engineering and Automation

Full textStepuk L., Rumiantsev I., Marchenko N., Lichman G.
Mechanization strategy of fertilizers application
Mathematical evidences concerning the necessity of the differential (compensative) application of all types of fertilizers with consideration of basic feeding elements presence in the soil in each specific plot of the field are given. Main tasks which are to be solved by the creation of a technical system carrying out a process of the differential application of fertilizers are determined.

Full textIvanov V.
How to organize machinery repairs with defined responsibility
Purpose of the work is to develop the appropriate pattern for the mode of production which would help stimulate economy of the residual durability of the repair fund and decrease the repairs' price. It is suggested that the repairs' price be established according to its factual volume, and the organization of the repairs with defined responsibility be introduced, providing the belonging of the details' set to be kept are given. While repairing automobile engines the area of the effective application of repairs with defined responsibility is limited by volumes at 4-6,3 thousand items per year. The know-how and the organization of the repairs with defined responsibility are enclosed.

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