ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
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Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2020 №2

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Srotage of Agricutural Production

Full textGusakov V.G.
Factors and methods of effective management. P. 2. Cooperation and integration of business entities, investment in development of production, state regulation of AIC, business development and personnel training
There is an active search for ways and mechanisms to upgrade the agrarian economy in the Republic of Belarus and increase its efficiency in conditions of stiffen market situation, but no efficient mechanisms have yet been found. In this regard, we’ve carried out systematic research and prepared a research papers that answer many questions regarding raising the agricultural economy and market challenges. We believe that it can become the basis for accepting specific recommendations. The second part of the paper dwells on the role, functions and significance of such fundamental factors of efficient agriculture as cooperation and integration of business entities, investment in development of production, state regulation of AIC, as well as development of entrepreneurship and training of relevant personnel.


Full text Каndratsenka S.A.
Lines for improving the mechanism of sustainable development of regional agri-food complexes of the Republic of Belarus
Agri-food complex of the Republic of Belarus and its regional entities are at the stage when transition to new quality of economic growth based on forming sustainable competitive potential of industries and enterprises, maximum use of reserves of performance and efficiency growth, innovation and investment activities activation taking into account world market trends, is of particular relevance. In this regard, it is required to analyze the stability of regional agri-food complexes based on methodology considering their features, identify the enabling factors and conditions, assess the impact of negative trends and propose ways to improve regulatory mechanisms. The paper presents the results of research of methodological and practical aspects of ensuring sustainable development of agri-food complex. Criteria, evaluation indicators, principles and basic regulatory mechanisms were developed. Based on a special methodology for arranging a system of partial and integral criteria, the stability of agri-food complex functioning in the regions of Belarus was assessed, the main factors according to effect line were identified and classified. Methodological recommendations for assessing sustainability of agricultural production at the level of districts and organizations have been developed and tested on the example of Vitebsk region, they contain groups of indicators and algorithm that allows ranking objects according to potential for sustainability and achieved production and economic results, as well as applying differentiated approaches for state regulation. A functional model for controlling sustainable development of the regional agri-food complex is presented, including target, regulatory and regulated subsystems, based on pervasive arrangement and integration of control functions and tasks.

Full textRastorgouev P.V.
Methodological bases for assessing competitiveness of agri-food products according to quality parameters
Improving competitiveness of agri-food products is one of the priority state tasks in the field of the national agro-industrial complex development. Taking into account the fact that quality is currently an important factor determining competitive advantages of products in the market, the strategic line for increasing its competitiveness is arrangement of efficient system for quality and safety assurance. Objective assessment of efficiency of such a system implies the need to analyze competitiveness of products in terms of quality parameters in order to improve it, predict the demand level, volume and efficiency of AIC products sales in the external and internal markets. The purpose of research is to determine the most efficient methods and methodological approaches for assessing competitiveness of agri-food products according to quality parameters in modern conditions. As a result, the algorithm for determining the products competitiveness level according to quality parameters has been developed, involving implementation of a range of relevant activities, considering the dominant agri-food security of goods and including four major stages: I - definition of the target basis; II - assessment of market access according to basic indicators; III - analysis unit and IV - decision-making unit. A system of principles that should guide choice of quality characteristics of products for analysis of competitiveness is proposed. Methodological approaches to assessment of competitive advantages of agri-food products through integrated and discrete approaches are substantiated, their advantages and disadvantages are determined, as well as application scope. The proposed methodological bases used in practice for assessing competitiveness of products according to quality parameters will allow to reliably determine the level of competitiveness of products in a particular market, create a system of priority indicators requiring priority attention in terms of implementing competitive advantages and eliminating drawbacks in quality management system, develop scientifically based strategy for products promotion to market. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agro-industrial Production for 2016–2020”, subprogram 1 “AIC Economy”.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textMyslyva T. N., Bushueva V. I., Volyntseva V. A.
Assessment of possibility for using remote sensing data and Markov chains for prediction of vegetation cover development
In conditions of global climate change, it is important to develop reliable models allowing to reliably predict plant development based on combination of the Earth remote sensing data and statistical modeling. Modeling by means of Markov chains is an efficient and at the same time simple way to predict random events, which include prediction of performance of phytomass of agricultural crops. The Earth remote sensing data obtained from the Sentinel-2 satellite with spatial resolution of 10 m were used to calculate the value of vegetation index NDVI and obtain different time rasters (2017-2019) with different degrees of vegetation cover development. To construct the matrix of probability of transition from one state to another for different levels of vegetation cover development, functionality of geoinformation systems (GIS) were used allowing to classify raster images, transform them into vector layers, and establish intersection areas. The probability matrix was later used to predict vegetation cover development using the Markov model as a predictor. The developed prediction model was tested for feasibility of the χ2 test. The results obtained showed that both the modeled values and the actual area of vegetation distribution with different degrees of development, determined from the available raster image of 2019, correlated well with each other. The research results can be useful both in developing forecasting methods and in directly predicting the crop yield of primarily dense-cover agricultural crops, as well as for estimating performance of pastures and creating efficient pasture rotations.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheiko R.I., Kazarovets I.N.
Breeding techniques to form final parent groups of sows (F1) with a high adaptive ability
Global experience related to increased pork production shows that breeding work has become an integral part of the technology, since it is impossible to further improve breeding and performance traits of animals without it and therefore the greater production of better quality pork. The paper presents the results of the breeding process arrangement for creation of F1 parental pig. Substantiation of breeding techniques when creating the final parental groups of sows (F1) with a high adaptive ability was based on complex methods to evaluate breeding animals, including traditional methods of domestic breeding and breeding indices. Evaluation of combination compatibility of breed-linear hybrids with the use of breeding indices during mating of parent initial forms allows to determine efficiency of using Yorkshire sows with Landrace boars, and Landrace sows with Yorkshire boars (final parental sows (F1)), which had significantly better reproductive indicators in comparison with BLW x BM genotype sows. Particularly efficient compatibility was recorded when selecting Yorkshire sows and Landrace boars. It was determined that in modern conditions an increase in the efficiency of breeding and pedigree work in pig breeding was based on the use of genetic methods, including: individual assessment of pedigree species according to the main breeding traits, evaluation of genome of each breeding animal, and use of breeding indices allowing to identify the true genetic potential of animals and predict performance traits of their offspring. The research relevance lies in using the innovative methodology for comprehensive assessment of combination compatibility of parental pairs, unified for pig husbandries and pig farms, which will make it possible to 10% accelerate the breeding process of forming the final parental forms of sows, ensure obtaining offspring with predictable reproductive, fattening and meat traits, and good adaptive ability. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the State Research and Development Program “High Technologies and Engineering for 2016-2020”, task “To develop a set of biotechnological techniques and methods based on DNA technology and breeding indices ensuring accelerated creation of new final parental forms in pig breeding with high adaptive ability”.

Full textHerman Y. I.
System of performance-based comprehensive evaluation of horses of plant type in Belarusian draft breed
Obtaining horses of a new quality, mostly required in modern conditions of in the republic, is one of the promising tasks for further breeding. While preserving the specific traits of the basic Belarusian draft breed, the horses of the created type will be characterized by new traits of a more expanded non-traditional horse use. This is for the first time when traits were established during work with the Belarusian draft breed, determining universal performance of the plant type horses, as well as in accordance with motor traits - step length when moving in steps, trot; speed of movement in steps, trot, gallop; style of movement in steps, gallop, trot; according to jumping traits – the height of obstacles taken, the style of jumping, and temperament. The indicators for evaluating horses according to the indicated traits have been studied. The positive correlation of performance indicators with some basic and additionally taken measurements of horses, angles of articulation of individual parts has been established. Differentiation of jump has been developed with specifying such phases as grouping, repulsion, flight, landing, which will be used to evaluate and predict its efficiency. Factors determining efficiency of jump have been determined. length of run, distance from the repulsion point to the obstacle, reserve of jump, mobility of the head, neck and limbs. Characteristic features of the studied allures, their genetic and statistical characteristics are determined. Positive correlation between a number of measurements and features of the horse exterior with the motion and jumping traits was determined. Training methods have been developed and used that ensure development of jumping traits of horses of the created type of over 90 cm. The information obtained will be used to develop recommendations for training, testing and evaluation of horses of plant type of Belarusian draft breed. This will allow improving the welfare of Belarusian horse breeding, raise quality of horses obtained, and become an export-oriented industry in agro-ecotourism and leisure horse breeding for the CIS countries. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the State Research and Technical Program “Agropromkompleks2 020” for 2016-2020, task 3.7 of subprogram “Agropromkompleks - efficiency and quality”.

Full textOstrenko K.S., Galochkina V.P., Lemiasheuski V.O., Solodkova A.V., Ovcharova A.N., Belova N.V., Kutin I.V.
Correlation of dicarboxylic acid cycle with tricarboxylic acid cycle in highly productive pigs
The paper is the fundamental beginning of research series aimed at understanding the processes associated with high performance in higher animals. The research aim is to study correlation of dicarboxylic acid cycle with tricarboxylic acid cycle with establishment of activity and dislocation of enzymes, confirming the hypothesis of availability and active metabolic participation of peroxisome in highly productive animals. Research was conducted on the basis of the VNIIFBiP animal vivarium in 2019 with a group of piglets of the Irish Landrace breed (n = 10). After slaughter at the age of 210 days, the nuclear (with large tissue particles), mitochondrial and postmitochondrial fractions of the liver were studied with assessment of succinate dehydrogenase and activity of other dehydrogenes of the Krebs cycle. It was found that peroxisomes act as universal agents of communication and cooperation, and microtelets are able to generate various chemical signals that carry information, to control and arrange a number of mechanisms in the metabolic processes in the body. Despite the fact that the Krebs cycle dehydrogenases are considered mitochondrial enzymes, the experiment showed an increase in activity of priruvate dehydrogenase (P > 0.1), isocitrate dehydrogenase (0.1 > P > 0.05) and malate dehydrogenase (0.1 > P > 0.05), which, when comparing the mitochondrial and postmitochondrial fractions, indicates a higher activity of peroxisomal fractions. The peroxisome localization place is the postmitochondrial fraction, and the lower layer contains larger peroxisomes to a greater extent, while the upper layer contains smaller ones. It was found that indicator enzymes of glyoxylate cycle isocitratliase and malate synthase exhibit catalytic activity in the peroxisomal fraction of liver of highly productive pigs. The obtained data on functioning of key glyoxylate cycle enzymes and their intracellular compartmentalization in highly productive pigs allow learning more about the specifics of metabolism and its regulation processes. Application of this knowledge in practice opens up prospects for rationalizing the production of livestock products of increased quantity, improved quality with less feed, labor and financial resources spent. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the State Research and Development Work in 2019 on the subject of the state task “Improvement of feeding systems and feed production, standards of animals requirements for energy and nutrients based on the study of metabolic processes in body of farm animals, development of methods of physiological, biochemical and microbiological regulation in order to improve implementation of the genetic potential for performance, reproduction function and efficiency of animal breeding process” (0445-2019-0023). The number of R&D state accounting: АААА-А18-118 021590136-7.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textPerednya V.I., Tsoy Y.A., Bakach N.G., Radchikov V.F., Romanovich A.A., Zhilich E.L.
Innovative technology and equipment for calves rearing during preweaning period
High dairy performance of adult animals is directly dependent on the conditions of calves growing and feeding during the preweaning period. Since cattle has a low so-called “critical temperature”, it is advisable to use this property of the body when rearing calves in the open air year-round in individual houses. It is known that among the entire complex of factors affecting the intensive growth of calves, the quality of food and the method of calves feeding in the first periods of postembryonic development of young animals from birth to 12 months deserve the most attention. In order to reduce consumption of whole milk for feeding calves and accelerate development of digestive tract in calves in early life period with high body weight gains, in practice specialists try to achieve it by introducing plant foods into diets for calves. However, plant feeds, even high-energy ones (cereals and legumes), containing large amount of protein, carbohydrates, starch, etc., are digested by calves very slowly and in small quantities. It is shown that to eliminate these drawbacks it is advisable to extrude all the plant feeds. The paper describes in detail the technology and equipment for preparing easily digestible feeds based on legumes for calves feeding during preweaning period, allowing to accelerate the development of digestive tract in the early life period of calves with high body weight gains, reduce consumption of whole milk or its replacers and energy costs for its production. Studies on the effect of feeding young cattle with feed concentrate during preweaning period showed increase in performance by 6.6 % and a decrease in feed costs by 5.73 %. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the Union State Research and Technical Program “Development of innovative energy-saving technologies and equipment for production and efficient use of biosafe feed for valuable breeds of fish, fur animals and specific species of animals”.

UpProcessing and Srotage of Agricutural Production

Full textGrudanov V.Y., Torhan A.B., Stankevich P.V.
process of pasta products forming in matrix wells with pre-compaction, plasticization and heating of dough
The existing designs of domestic and foreign matrices lack pre-compaction, plasticization and heating of dough, which leads to significant hydraulic resistance in the area where dough flow enters the forming holes of the dies and increases energy consumption, while in typical matrices the cross section of deep and empty wells is much larger than the total area of forming holes. The dough flow almost becomes uncontrollable, and this leads to water hammer effect and destruction of dies. This problem can be solved by installing special inserts in in the matrix wells (depth of wells is 50-120 mm). The paper shows a new direction in design of matrices for production of pasta, in particular, it is proposed to install spiral inserts in the wells of matrix, manufactured in the form of Venturi tubes. Rheological basis of dough flow in the cylindrical channels of the insert are considered, mathematical models for determination of the dough volume flow rate and dough flow rate are constructed. It is theoretically established that the volume flow rate of the dough Q0 and its flow rate depend on the length of the cylindrical channel and the viscosity of dough. The results of experimental researches are presented. It is empirically established that the inserts located in the wells of the matrix pre-compact dough, plasticize and heat it, the productivity of the press machine MIT-2 due to increasing the speed of extrusion is increased averagely by 25-26 % with significant improvement in quality of the formed semi-finished products and reduction of energy consumption.

Full textBiruk A.M., Furik N.N., Tarashkevich Y.S., Savelyeva T.A.
Construction of specific primers for identification of Leuconostoc mesenteroides subspecies
Bacteria p. Leuconostoc is a technologically important group of lactic acid bacteria that is part of starter cultures for production of various dairy products. Two species are most important in the dairy industry: Leuconostoc lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, which includes three subspecies: dextranicum, mesenteroides and cremoris. The main problem of identifying representatives of the p. Leuconostoc that these microorganisms can often be misidentified as enterococci or lactobacilli. In comparison with traditional methods of species detection, the establishment of species identity using PCR is characterized by universality, a deeper level of species differentiation, high reproducibility and reliability. The article presents the results of designing specific primers for Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. dextranicum. The specificity of developed primers was confirmed by in silico testing using available Leuconostoc mesenteroides genomic sequences, and experimentally using DNA samples of Leuconostoc mesenteroides clear cultures. The taxonomic affiliation of 5 isolates of leuconostocci isolated from natural samples was established using the developed primers. Methodological Instructions have been developed that regulate the procedure for determining the taxonomic position of bacteria of genus Leuconostoc to a subspecies. Methodological guidelines for identification of leuconostocs will be used in collections of industrial microorganisms for the accurate identification of deposited strains. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production”, subprogram 3 “Food security”.

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