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1997

1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1997 №4

Contents:
Conference
Economics and information technologies
Land Cultivation and Plant Growing
Animal breeding and veterinary

UpConference

Full textSkoropanov S.
Fodder production: problems and solutions
The article gives the analysis of the production of plant growing produce and its utilization for fodder, which is about 75% of the gross product of plant growing sector. Due to the disbalance of the fodder, first of all in terms of protein content, the over consumption of fodder in Belarus is 5 million tonnes of fodder units, which is much bigger than the cost of milk and meat. It is proposed to extend the grass area on arable lands from 27 to 40%; prolong the life time of grasses from 1.5-2.0 to 10- 15 years; ensure sufficient volume of mineral fertilizers on grass areas, pastures and meadows; introduce modern technologies into the sector of fodder preservation. These measures would considerably increase the economic efficiency of meat and milk production and will contribute to improving the ecological situation.

Full textGusakov V.
The strategy of fodder production: priorities, volumes, efficiency
The articles deals with the strategy of improving the sector of fodder production and animal breeding in the conditions of market economy. The criteria should be strict control of natural factor, processing facilities, purchasing power of the population, the volumes of domestic and international market, optimal structure of the sectors of animal breeding and plant growing, regulated fodder consumption and economic efficiency of fodder utilisation.

Full textYatsko N., Gorijachev I.
Fadder grain balance in cattle diets and their feeding efficiency
The efficiency of feeding of bulky and concentrated feeds to cattle was studied. It was found that animal productivity and feed conversion ratio were in linear dependence on the level of feeding and on feed quality. The higher was energy concentration in dry matter of bully feed, the less concentrated feed was needel. Fodder grain supplementation with PVM additive (superconcentrate) allowed to increase average daily gains in cattle by 17-18% and to decrease feed expenditures per unit of products by 13-15%. Superconcentrate feeding to dairy cattle resulted in lower cost of milk production by 25-30%. Cattle reguirements in vitamines and trace elements were determined as well vohich would allow to increase is productivity by 8-10% and to decreace feed expenditure per unit production by 10-12%.

Full textGolushko V., Ioffe V., Podleschuk V.
Fodder quality and productivity of animals
Three times cutting of cereals and pulses-cereals grasses used for producing hay and silage makes it possible to increase the yield of productive energy per one hectare by 23-26%, digestible protein - by 16,6-20,4%, to increase the content of fodder units in dry matter by 20,4%, digestible protein by 18-35% and to reduce the cost of one fodder unit by 9,8-13,4%. Using the hay and silage for feeding young cattle made on the basis of three times cutting makes it possible to include concentrated fodder with low protein content into the feeding pattern. At the same time the volume needed for feeding is reduced by 29-37%, the volume of beef produced per one hectare is increased by 29-35% and the costs reduced by 9,3-15,6%.

Full textTivo P.
The yield and quality of perennial grasses depending on the forms of nitrogen fertilizers
The article analysis the influence of different forms of nitrogen fertilizers on the crop yield and its quality. It has been proved that the efficiency greatly depends on the properties of the meliorated soils. It has been also determined that the content of heavy metals does not exceed the acceptable limits.

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textllyina Z.
The tendency and the prognosis of the development of the world agriculture
In this one dynamics and factors, limiting the world foodstuffs production are considered. The forecast estimations of a world agriculture development and main directions of a food problem decision are indicated.

Full textValuev V.
The economic strategy of the development of plant growing sector in the EC countries
Tendencies of the agrarian policy forminpot EC countries and further development roads of market velations on a base of the progress in science and technology have been analysed. This article has been given the experience of the planting branch development, which offers the interest for Belarus and can be used in a practical work of agricultural enterprises.

Full textZhivitsa V.
The model for state agricultural enterprises
The article gives the economic justification of the new model of economic relations for state agricultural enterprises. The new methods for calculating the rent are proposed. It is demonstrated that under the conditions of state ownership the дарственной формы собственности на смену конкуренции competition between the owners for the higher profit must he replaced by the competition between the working teams for - higher wages.

Full textShapiro S.
Some theoretical aspects of market economy
The article deals with the main the main concept of market economy in the interpretation of different authors. There are few kinds of market, having different characteristics. To put it very roughly a market is characterised by the following parameters: ownership, public labour division, types of competition, types of sales, availability, attitude to the laws, degree of the state intervention, forms of the relation between participants and industries. There are few models of market development in the world. First - classic (typical for the USA and UK); second - typical for Japan, Germany, Italy. It implies development of the market with big state regulation. Third is typical for the developing countries, where the state has to interfere into the economic problems due to the weak economy. In spite of the fact that there are a lot of types of markets, there is one theoretical and fundamental basis for all of them The article id dedicated to this issue.

Full textBaranovsky S.
Development of the small processing enterprises and their capacities substantiation
In the article a modern condition of small processing in republic is analyzed, purposes, problems and principles of its development are formulated, advantages and defects small processing in comparison with large are shown. Economic expediency of a small manufactures creation on cattle and milk processing is considered, effective variants of their processing are given. Modeling of formation of the complete cost price of processing production depending on capacity of the enterprises, allowing is conducted to determine minimum capacities of the small enterprises on manufacture meat of a cattle, milk products and fruit and vegetables cannedfoods, at which break-even work of manu-factures is provided.

Full textGirutsky I., Palkin G.
Basic information supply at the stage of introducing automation to the animal breeding farms
Definite identification of each animal is an indispensable requirement at each animal breeding farm. The article is dedicated to the overview of the latest achievements in the field of automation and standartisation of animal's identification as well as to the problem of introducing these developments in national animal breeding sector.

UpLand Cultivation and Plant Growing

Full textKolmykov V., Bober N.
Dividing territory into zones depending on energy consumption when using arable lands
Possibilities of zoning arable lands charakterized by diversified agrotechnological parametres by energy spending for intrafied work for crop cultivation are described in the article. The established relationship between them makes it possible to use the results of the research for: planning agricultural production output, substantiation of territorial specialization, definition of arable land strukturę, selektion of the area adapted crops, creation and evolution of the variants of the crop placing in the fields, substantiation of the technological processes of farming, planning distribution of mineral fertilizer application and FER (fuel-energi resources), establishing normative price for land.

Full textLazarevich S.
Spring properties of wheat stems
Elasticity of a wheat stem defines resistance of crops to lod ging and is an important criterion of a variety. For its measuring the device DDE was designed. Values of the module Young of nine wheat varieties having different chromosome set were defined with the device. As a result of the research the influence of a genotype, interknot location and the place of its measuring on the elasticity of a stem were defined. Relationship between stem elasticity and its inner composition was determined. Parametres of the Young module rise with increasing the number of conducting bunches and thickening peripheral layer of sclerenchyma. Ontogenetic transformations of the stem in the period from flowering to harvesting intensify its resistance to cross deformations. He described characteristics can be used in the process of selection.

Full textBuga S., Nemkovich A.
Sprouting of Claviseps purpurea (Fr) Tul depending on kind of weed dressing
The results of research on the efficiency of seed dressers in the suppression on of germination of ergot sclerotia are stated. The short information is given on the influence of seed dressers on the peculiarities of formation of heads of sclerotium stroma of ergot. The influence of different depth of sclerotia incorporation on their germination is shown.

Full textKopitsa V.
Cancer of apple tree skeletons in Belarus
Two main species of apple-tree canker diseases' agent in RB - Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial) and Nectria galligena Bres. (European canker) Were revealed. Attendant microorganisms were found also. Unevenes and zonules of spreading of the agents were estableshed. We indicated varieties with different resistance to canker and dge of the most sensitive to the diseas. A modified method of visual assessing of affected apple-trees with canker was described. Harmness of canker in different degree affected apple trees was determined.

UpAnimal breeding and veterinary

Full text Yatsko N., Gurin V., Suchkova I., Lolua О., Radchikova G., Poko N.
Improving different feeding patterns by utilising local raw materials
There has been studied the efficiency of using fodder and mineral additives in the combined fodder for the meat young cattle, depending on the feeding pattern. It has been determined that using combined fodder based on the grain and PVM makes it possible to ensure the average 24 hours weight gain of 740-760 g, having the concentrates share at the level of 35-37% and the fodder consumption of 10,5-10,7 feeding units (of which 3,8-3,6 concentrates). Reducing the share of grain down to 30-32% in terms of nutrition gives the average 24 hours weight gain of 706- 719 g. Additional phosphorous additive increases the fattening of hecalves by 5-8%.

Full textTsai V.
Utilisation of a new protein additive in the combined fodder used for feeding young cattle
There have been studied the chemical composition, digestion coefficients, nutrition and economic efficiency of the provit used for feeding meat young cattle. It has been determined that the 5% additive of the provit in the combined fodder for calves under fattening does not have a negative impact on the volumes eaten and digested, on the growth and health as well as on the meat quality. The utilisation of the provit in the combined fodder reduced the costs of one unit of weight gain by 2,4% during growing the animals and by 2,1% during fattening. In the process of fattening the reduction of the fodder consumption per one kg of weight gain has been 0,52 feeding units.

Full textTrigubova V.
Efficiency of using processed grain for feeding meat he-calfs
The efficiency of using rye, barley and triticale processed by different means in the starting combined fodder has been studied It has been determined that the highest water soluble carbohydrate content is ensured by processing grain by extrusion (19,99%). Pressing and micronisation gives less content (9,17- 9,8%); intrusion - 7,8%. Utilisation of the pressed, micronised and intrused barley in the combined fodder KP-I and KP-2 increase the 24 hour weight gain by 5-12% and reduces the fodder costs by 4-9%. Utilisation of the intrused rye and triticale in the combined fodder KP-3 increase the 24 hour weight gain by 6-9% and reduces the fodder costs by 4-12%.

Full textBrutsky V.
Amino acid composition of the barley grains of different forms
The comparison analysis of the filmy and naked barley demonstrated that the peculiar feature of the latter is a higher content of the unreplacable amino acids, including lysine. The utilisation of an equation of direct regression makes it possible to determine the lysine content in the dry matter of barley on the basis of raw protein content.

Full textYakubovsky M.
Immunitty at Helminthoses in animals
А many-factor immune reaction of the animal body is characteristic at helminthoses. Its immunological reconstruction is a factor of protection and, at the same time, it is a principal pathogenetical factor. At helminthoses, changes of T and В lymphocytes, immunoglobulins, circulating immune complexes are observed in blood of animals. Level of immunity, including postvaccinal immunity too, is reduced during helminthic invasion and therefore animals are to be dehelminhtizated before vaccination. Use of some anthelminthics, such as fenbendasol, nilverm, ivermectin etc., reduces immunitty. Use of immunostimulators and vaccination of animals are perspective to control helminthoses.

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