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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2013 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Scientists of Belarus

Full textBogdevich I.M.
Journal «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

UpEconomics

Full textIlyina Z.M.
Stability of food system development: methodological aspects
The methodological aspects of the assessment of food system stability are investigated in the article. The problem is stated, and the objectives and factors binging about its solution are indicated. Methodological approaches to the assessment of agrarian production stability and algorithm of the technique of the complex assessment of food market stability are considered.

Full textGusakov E.V.
Essence and factors of the development of cooperation and integration in the agroindustrial complex
The paper presents the comparative analysis of the concepts "cooperation" and "integration", states the characteristics of the factors promoting and restraining the development of cooperation and integration, presents their characteristics. In this connection the scientific recommendations to implement in full the favourable factors (efficient legislation, free-will participation, consolidation of resources and economic interests) and mitigate the negative ones (split in the technological chain, the extent of specialization and others.) have been worked out. The identified characteristics of cooperation and integration show that they are not identical but separate economic concepts. Taking into consideration all the peculiarities of these concepts enables to understand their essence and make a better decision while uniting economic entities.

Full textKazakevich I.A.
Increase of the efficiency of long-term credits use as a measure to the reduce state support
Within the framework of integration Belarus undertakes to reduce measures of the state support which have a distorting influence on trade. It requires developing new approaches to subsidization of agriculture, including the sphere of credits. Taking into account the international practices and the existing economic conditions proposed is the approach to grant soft long-term credits on the competitive basis using the rating system. The proposals to organize a competition of investment projects on the basis of definite criteria are made, the calculation of the efficiency of this approach is stated.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textSemenenko N.N.
Polesye peat soil bioenergetic potential and its transformation under the long-term influence of anthropogenic factors
The research shows that bio-energy potential of shallow peat soils is more than 20 thousand GJ/ha (21.96 GJ/ha). Organic matter, carbon, energy potential and the fertility of these soils are reduced under the influence of drainage and long-term (50 years) agricultural use of peat soils. In comparison with undrained soils bioenergetic potential of organogenic layer of agropeat, agropeat-mineral, mineral residually peat and mineral postpeat soils decreases respectively by 22–35, 41, 52–74 and 88 %. Loss of root zone (0–40 cm) soil energy potential is less intensive. Bioenergetic potential of mineral postpeat soils is considerably higher than the one of zonal agrosod-podzol sandy soils.

Full textLapa V.V., Mikhailovskaya N.A., Lomonos M.M., Barashenko T.B., Dyusova S.V.
Influence of acidity on biological activity of luvisol sandy loam soil
According to the research quantitative changes of microbiological and biochemical status of Luvisol sandy loam soil depend on the level of its acidity. The optimization of soil acidity results in the increase of microbial biomass by 1.8-2 times, raises the number of ammonificators by 2.2-6.2 times and the number of actinomycetes by 2-6 times. When soil acidity is optimal, metabolic activity of microflora as well as activity of microbial oxidases increase.

Full textTsybulko N.N., Kiseleva D.V., Zhukovа I.I.
Оptimization of a nitrogenous nutrition of grain crops when the content of mobile potassium in polluted 137Cs sod-podsolic sandy soils is different
The researches have established that nitrogen fertilizers on sod-podsolic sandy soils raise the migration of 137Cs in the system "soil-plant". With the increase of potassium nutrition level their negative influence decreases. The minimum accumulation of 137Cs is observed when the content of nitrogen in barley grains is 2.0–2.50 %, in winter rye grains – 1.5–1.65, oat grains – 1.50–1.60 %. Penetration of 137Cs into plants depends also on the balance of nitrogen and potassium in soil. Its minimum penetration into grain crops is observed when the balance of N:K is within the range 1 : (3.8–4.2). A significant increase of accumulation of 137Cs in grain is observed with the reduction of the proportion of nitrogen to potassium is less than 1 : 3.5. With the increase of mobile potassium content in soils from 150 (the average content) to 210 mg/kg of soil (the raised content) the agroecological optimum of the content of potentially assimilable nitrogen in soils changes from 37.5 to 52.5 mg/kg of soil.

Full textAnokhina T.A., Chirko E.M., Kadyrov R.M., Gvozdova L.I.
Evaluation of grain productivity and adaptability of green foxtail
The analysis of cultivation of green foxtail samples of different origin proves that it’s possible to use this crop for grain production in Belarus. It is shown that at the initial stages of evaluation of the initial material by grain productivity it is reasonable to use the parameters which characterize the homeostatic nature of the selected population. Such parameters as Puss, IC, Sc, and St2 have the closest association with each other. The conducted research shows that of all the analysed samples the sample Strela 72 is characterized by the most homeostatic nature and selective value. Also this sample combines the level of average yield and ecological stability.

Full textPazniak S.S.
Anthropogenic transformation of the chemical composition of cultural and segetal plants of agrophytocenoses
The research establishes anthropogenic transformation of not only species composition of agrophytocenoses, but also significant changes in the chemical composition of cultural and segetal plants. The data on concentration functions of segetal plants in respect of heavy metals have been obtained. Under current conditions it is necessary to evaluate the participation of main heavy metals in the biogeochemical circle in the block "soil-plant" on the basis of the study of transformation of chemical composition of cultural and segetal plants.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheyko I.P.
Increase of competitiveness of the belarusian animal husbandry
The article demonstrates the state of the domestic animal husbandry. The use of the innovative technologies is explained. Described are the ways of further development of the branch which are indicated in the Republican program on breeding in animal husbandry for 2007–2010 until 2015.

Full textGuminskaya E.Yu.
Indices of biochemical and hormonal tests of blood of cows with a disorder of reproductive function
The researches have established that synthesis of hormone IGF-I is reduced to 3.52 ng/ml in blood of cows with a disorder of liver tissue capacity causing the decrease of estradiol to 10.36 ng/l and progesterone to 0,17 ng/ml. With the increase of cortisol to 71.61 ng/ml the concentration of IGF-I is reduced to 3.74 ng/ml, estradiol – to 27.81ng/l. At the same time the concentration of progesterone increases to 2.22 ng/ml. As a result, follicular development slows down, and yellow bodies don’t undergo atresia. All this increases the service period, the number of inseminations and reduces milk producing ability of the animals.

Full textTrofimov A.F., Muzyka A.A., Sheygratsova I.N.
Influence of immunomodulatory complex of biologically active substances on productivity, resistance, safety of calves
The paper presents the results of research on the use of biologically active substances in the diet of calves of early postnatal ontogenesis. It is found that additional feeding with immunomodulatory complex (KVMD and "Batsinil") promotes energy growth of calves, humoral factors of protection and immunological reactivity.

Full textAgeyets V.Yu.
Prospects of fish breeding development in Belarus
The article demonstrates the data on production and consumption of fresh-water fish in Belarus nowadays and in the nearest future. The main directions of research in the sphere of breeding, fish feeding, protection and prophylaxis of fish diseases are determined. It’s shown that setting up the Fish Breeding Center on the basis of the Institute of Fisheries is directed at the optimization of fish breeding in Belarus.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textGrudanov V.Ya., Sekatskaya Yu.A., Brench A.A., Tkachova I.T.
Improvement of the design of gas-liquid ejectors for iron removal from water in the lines for soft drinks production
The article deals with the process of iron removal from water using a gas-liquid ejector of a new design. The design parameters of a multijet ejector are calculated. Theoretical and experimental research shows that the created gas-liquid ejector ensures efficient and equal oxygenation of water, at the same time with these design parameters of the ejector the water decontamination factor is 96.8 %. The laboratory and field tests of a trial sample of a new ejector show its high efficiency.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Ivan Pavlovich Sheyko (To the 65th Anniversary of Birthday)

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