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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 369-86-18
e-mail: info@belnauka.by
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»
2002 г. - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2018 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textBuben S.B., Bajgot M.S.
Deepening of integration as a factor of sustainable development of Agroindustrial Complex of the member states of the EAEU
During creation and functioning of the Eurasian Economic Union a huge work has been done to form directions and mechanisms for implementing the coordinated agroindustrial policy, removing barriers and restrictions in trade, as well as coordinating and developing cooperation among member states in agroindustrial complex giving tangible results for agroindustrial sector of the Union. Nevertheless, increasing sustainability of agricultural sector and ensuring food security in the Eurasian region requires further deepening of integration processes in agroindustrial sphere in the context of the adopted main strategic aims and principles of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC). The paper dwells on the study of the main stages and directions, state and prospects for development of integration processes in agroindustrial complex of the EAEC. Deepening economic integration of agroindustrial complex is considered in the context of improving the mechanisms ensuring efficient mutual trade and trade with third countries, increasing stability and competitiveness of agribusiness of the Union member states. In this regard, the measures and mechanisms proposed in the paper to deepen the integration processes in agroindustrial complex in the EAEC are aimed at implementing the relevant provisions of the EAEC Treaty and the Concept of Agreed Industrial Policy, creating of efficient competitive environment and ensuring full functioning of the common agrarian market. Thus, the main directions for further integration are formation and implementation of stimulating economic mechanisms of agroindustrial policy, the gradual harmonization and unification of the legislation of the countries, provision of equal and non-discriminatory conditions for access to the common agricultural market of the Union. The proposed measures and mechanisms for further deepening of integration in the field of AIC of EAEC are aimed at increasing the level of coordination of the EAEC countries government bodies activities, scientific and business community in the matter of planning and concentrating resources for implementation of mutually beneficial cooperation projects. Implementation of the proposed measures will help to remove the main obstacles for formation of EAEC food markets, launching of production of competitive products with high added value, aimed at saturation of the common agricultural market of the Union and access to the third countries markets.

Full textKazakevich I.A., Shabunia L.V.
Mechanism of insurance in the agriculture of the Republic of Belarus as a financial tool ensuring its stable development
The insurance of agricultural risks is the object of close attention and support of the state in many developed countries of the world. Insurance in agriculture has its own peculiarities, often large losses can not be compensated by agricultural producers and insurance companies themselves, therefore, state support for agricultural insurance is required. In addition, state support for agricultural insurance programs, according to the rules of the World Trade Organization, is exempted from obligations on reduction, which is of particular interest to the Republic of Belarus due to plans to join this organization. The article determines some features of efficient mechanism of agricultural insurance and criteria for compliance of agricultural insurance programs with the requirements of the World Trade Organization. Analysis of the existing insurance mechanism in agricultural sector of the Republic of Belarus made it possible to identify the main problems that hinder the development of this tool. In this connection, possible directions for development of insurance mechanism in agricultural sector of the Republic of Belarus with participation of budgetary funds and attraction of additional subjects to it have been worked out. The proposed approaches will allow expanding the list of insured agricultural crops, increasing the amount of state support for agriculture, which, in accordance with the WTO rules, do not fall under reduction obligations, which can positively affect the financial sustainability of agricultural organizations and their activity efficiency. The novelty of these approaches is the use of index insurance principles, consisting in use of regional yield index, previously not used in our republic, but applied in developed countries. Index insurance will allow reducing administrative costs affecting the insurance rate, raise attractiveness of agricultural insurance for insurance companies and its availability for agricultural producers, as well as reduce crop loss risks.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textTsybulkа N.N., Shashko A.V.
Accumulation of 137Cs in spring wheat grain at different levels of nitrogen and potassium nutrition in anthropogenic-transformed peat soil
Anthropogenic-transformed peat soils occupy significant areas in the territory of the Republic of Belarus in composition of agricultural land contaminated with radionuclides. A number of studies have been carried out in recent years where diagnostic features, properties and fertility, regimes of mineral nutrition of plants on these soils have been studied. However, studies on radionuclides migration, impact of various agricultural practices on penetration into agricultural crops have not been carried out. The article dwells on study of 137Cs penetration into spring wheat grain depending on the levels of nitrogen and potassium nutrition of plants when various rates of nitrogen and potassium fertilizers were applied on anthropogenic-transformed peat soil. It has been determined that N120P60K120 application reduces 137Cs level in grain by 15–22 % compared to the control, and when combined with mineral fertilizers, copper-containing fertilizer and plant growth regulator – by 34 %. The minimum accumulation of 137Cs in spring wheat is determined at nitrogen-potassium ratio of 1 : (1.0–1.2). At the ratio of 1 : (0.2–0.6) nitrogen deficiency and increase in radionuclide concentration in grain are observed due to yield decrease. Increase in accumulation of radionuclide in grain is observed at the ratio above 1 : 1.5. The results of researches make it possible to determine the allowable contamination density values of the anthropogenic-transformed peat soil with 137Cs and optimal doses of mineral fertilizers for cultivation of food and forage purpose spring wheat.

Full textPavlova I.V., Kupreenko N.P., Tsaryova E.G.
Morphological homology of bolting and non-bolting garlic forms (Allium sativum L.)
The lack of local breeding zoned varieties with high yield and resistance to agrobiological factors inhibits the expansion of crop areas in farms. In addition, there is a problem of maintaining the cleanliness of the samples due to the variability of the phenotypic characteristics, depending on the size of the planting material, dislocation and weather conditions. In this connection, the search for ways to overcome the variability of economic and biological traits of garlic in the selection and seed-growing process in domestic conditions is still relevant. It is shown in the article that during the artificial selection of garlic, reduction of the reproductive system occurred, but it is obvious that there are sources of variability during vegetative reproduction. Perspective of production of new garlic varieties using botanical seeds is identified via inclusion of various genotypes in selection and use of allogamy and recombination. It is shown that flowering forms are searched in order to attract classical selection of garlic. Homology is considered in structure of bulbs of bolting and non-bolting garlic forms. Estimation of garlic progeny from air bulb is given. On the example of spring form, the offspring of non-bolting garlic from the inner and outer parts of the bulb is characterized. The obtained data can be used in selection and seed production of the crop.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheyko I.P.
Challenges of scientific and innovative activity in livestock breeding in Belarus
Highly developed livestock breeding in Belarus is the basis for ensuring the country’s food security, as soon as this industry produces over 65% of the gross agricultural produce value, and economic wellbeing of the majority of agricultural organizations of the republic largely depends on its efficiency. The paper dwells on the latest achievements in the livestock sector in Belarus, further ways to increase production and improve quality of livestock products based on advanced resource-saving technologies and improvement of resource support of the industry are determined. A set of joint measures with other sciences is proposed to solve new challenges in livestock breeding, and special attention is paid to strengthening of research and development to improve large-scale breeding system, and problems of animal reproduction. The proposed priority directions cover the field of biotechnology of farm animals, gene and cell engineering as well. The necessary measures have been identified to increase the efficiency of the country’s livestock sector in conditions of increasing regional and sectoral competition. Estimated levels of technological development of livestock sectors have been developed. Analysis of the current state and prediction of development of the main livestock sectors showed that research and production work carried out by the Research and Production Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Livestock Breeding contributes to raising the efficiency of the livestock sector and livestock products produced in the republic.

Full textSolyanik S.А., Hochenkov А.А., Tanana L.А., Pestis M.V.
Method of zoology and engineering prediction of first litter gilts and suckling piglets productivity according to the level of sows’ body immunodefence and hematological profile indicators
It became possible to use software in various areas of biology along with development of High Technology Park in Belarus. Information technologies have been used in zoology engineering in the last few years primarily in selection and breeding work. The aim of research is to develop method for computer zoology-and-hygienic prediction of the performance level of the first litter gilts and suckling piglets obtained from them according to the sows’ body defenses and indicators of their hematological profile. The paper presents curvilinear mathematical models developed based on hematologic profile of the first litter gilts with blood samples obtained from on day 3-4 after piglets birth, allowing to simulate numerical values of sows multiple pregnancy rate, average daily weight gain of piglets and their safety in the first three weeks of life, based on change in morphological, biochemical and immunological blood indices. It has been determined that the positive correlation between hematological parameters of the first litter gilts with the performance indicators are mainly of the humoral defense factors; separate indicators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism; protein fractions; indicators of protein and pigment metabolism; serum enzymes; separate macro and trace elements. Thus, the computer program allows to predict the sows’ multiple pregnancy rate, average daily weight gain and safety of suckling piglets according to the available parameters of sows’ blood.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textSayganov A.S., Lipskaya V.K.
Efficiency of combine harvesters operation in agriculture of Belarus
According to adopted State Program for the Development of Agrarian Business of the Republic of Belarus for 2016–2020, it is planned to increase the production of grain by 2020 to 10 million tons. In this regard, the requirements grow for grain crops harvesting in optimal agro-technical terms with a minimum level of loss, which is impossible to be achieved without reliable high-performance combine harvesters. In recent decades, the rapid development of agricultural machinery has been noted in the Republic of Belarus making it possible to provide the agricultural sector of the country with almost all the required equipment and to export a significant part of machines abroad. The paper dwells on sore problems of various models of combine harvesters operation in agriculture of the republic. It is determined that the overwhelming part of the combine harvesters fleet in the country consists of domestic machines: they are the most attractive ones for the majority of Belarusian consumers according to price and quality ratio, they ensure the highest yield rates in the total annual grain yield, in addition, maintenance and repair cost is much lower. The advantages and problems of domestic combine harvesters in comparison with foreign analogues are revealed, a set of measures for increasing operation efficiency is developed.

Full textPerednia V.I., Kuvshinov A.A.
Optimum time period of efficient operation of milking liner
The Republic of Belarus is the European leader in production of milk and dairy products. Milk-commodity farms and complexes use milking plants of domestic and foreign manufacturers. One of the most important items of any milking plant is milking liner, since the amount of milk received, health of animals and quality of milk depend on it largely. The new milking liner is of a high elasticity, flexibility, etc., providing efficient nipple massage, udder stimulation and intensive milk production. At prolonged operation of milking liner, it increases in length, the physical and mechanical properties vary, and numerous tiny cracks are formed on the inner surface which negatively affects automated milking process and leads to cow udder diseases. The paper shows that the milking liner should not affect the milk flow from the udder and at the same time should tightly fit the nipples above the sphincter area in order to protect them from damage by vacuum during vacuum phase and completely block vacuum on nipples at compression stroke to restore normal blood circulation in nipples. Flexibility (elasticity and rigidity) and elongation should be the main parameters of milking liner to perform these functions and requirements. The researches determined efficient service life periods of the most common in our country milking liner brand DD.00.041 depending on its properties variability, which should be determined in the number of milking operations.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textBahdanava L.L., Frolov I.B., Zabelo T.N., Savelyeva T.A.
Selective methods of preparation of milk raw materials in cheese production technology
One of the priority directions of milk processing industry development in the Republic of Belarus is increase of cheese production volume. The production of cheeses by classic method is accompanied by a significant amount of whey waste, that a part of fat and milk protein pass to, and which subsequently undergoes a separate processing. Baromembrane treatment of milk allows to reduce the loss of fat and protein with serum and thereby increase the product yield. The advantage of such treatment is concentration of solids and all fractions of milk proteins in unchanged form that contributes to the preservation of their natural properties. This is the first time in the Republic of Belarus when technological solutions for concentrating dairy raw materials for cheese production have been proposed. The possibility of creation of concentrated milk mixtures for production of various kinds of cheeses by baromembrane processing methods (ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis) of skim milk was studied. The dynamics of changes in the physicochemical parameters and mineral composition of the retentate and permeate. Using these concentrates, normalized milk mixes were prepared and industrial prototypes of cheeses were produced; physicochemical and microbiological indices and organoleptic characteristics. The effect of the increased amount of protein and dry matter in milk mixture on the qualitative characteristics of the milk clot and cheese productin process parameters. The efficiency of using the methods of baromembrane concentration in the production is studied. The results of the conducted researches are of great importance for development of technologies for new types of cheese production using baromembrane methods of preparation of dairy raw materials, which make it possible to obtain an economic effect by reducing protein losses and raw material costs.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Viktor Ivanovich Shempel (To the 110th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Ivan Pavlovich Sheyko (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Vladimir Grigoryevich Gusakov (To the 65th Anniversary of Birthday)

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