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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2001 №2

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering, proccessing and storage of agrarian produce

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textBrechko Ya., Sumonov M.
The last year of the century: some results of the economic development of the agro-industrial sector
The article provides the main results of the agro-industrial complex of Belarus in 2000; the comparisons of the main products of plant breeding branch; the analysis of the trends of growing cereals, potatoes, meat, milk gross products and the trends of commercial profitability for the past decade. The article demonstrates the reasons of the stagnation in agro-industrial complex and proposes the solutions.

Full textZhudro M.
Perspectives of restructuring agroindustrial complex
The article provides the assessment of the modern practice of restructuring agro-industrial complex in Belarus and points out main positive and negative trends. The author justifies speeding up restructuring and formulates its instruments.

Full textMesnik N., Mesnik D.
Formation of tariffs for the services rendered by agro-services enterprises
The article provides the methods of assessing costs when calculating the tariffsfor the mechanization services in agriculture. Price formation is seen from the two alternative approaches towards pricing — cost and value based. The article explains when and how the calculation method of equalizing tariffs is used.

Full textOsipenko A., Stribuk P.
Systematization of the Chernobyl affected enterprises and the choice of the forms of their economic development
The procedure of systematization of agricultural enterprises with usage of a multifactor expert-statistical analysis is offered. By results of classification 181 enterprises on contaminated terrain of the Gomel and Brest ranges main directions of their specialization and cooperation within the framework of agrarian financial and industrial bunches are given.

Full textSvyatogor A., Gorbatovsky A., Roschin A.
State regulation is the most important economic condition for efficient intensification of animal breeding
At present the agricultural sector of Belarus may come out of the crisis, implement intensification of the production, ensure the increase of the output and strengthen economy only using own resources with simultaneous governmental support. The article demonstrates the necessity for improving the incentives provided by the state for increasing the efficiency of the development of animal breeding sector.

Full textFiliptsov A.
The concept of comparable advantages and the practice of governmental regulation of the agrarian sector
In Belarus, in the conditions of huge deficit of resources and large-scale governmental interference into the economy the choice of strategic elements of regulations has paramount importance. One of the most important prerequisites for international competitiveness is the comparable advantages of certain types of produce. Generally comparable advantages can be formulated as the relation of alternative production costs inside the country to the world price for this particular produce. Alternative production costs is the result of the best alternative options of resource utilization used in the production of a specific product. In the conditions of the competitive market the alternative costs are expressed by me balanced price for the product. The article proposes the method of calculating alternative production costs of agricultural produce in the conditions of me market with imperfect competition. Utilizing me concept of comparable advantages allows specifying branches (types of produce) effective from the global point of view.

Full textShebeko K.
Food wholesale markets
The author used institutional theory and its instruments to justify efficient market infrastructure, the formation of which would be reasonable to ground on regional principle, systematic approach and integration of the entities of different levels. At the same time the prerequisites for reducing transactions costs must be created as well the system of arbitrage aimed at balanced up keep of different markets. Such system creates the prerequisites for optimizing physical distribution of food, efficient use of the existing distribution system, rational investment process, competitive environment and lower asymmetry of information in this sector. The article provides the data on forming the structural system of food markets and the characteristics of main participant

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textBogdevich I., Shmigelskaya L., Efimova L., Putvatin Yu.
The volumes of accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr per specie and variety of agricultural plants
The accumulation of radionuclides in various species and varieties of agricultural plants on the same conditions of soil contaminated by radionuclides and agrochemical exponents can differ hundred times. The differences in accumulation of 137Cs and 90Sr are less - up to 3-4 times. The article grades the basic plants cultivated on contaminated soils per volume of 137Cs and 90Sr as well as per crop yield. It is possible to recommend selecting the species and varieties of agricultural plants having minimal capabilities of accumulation as a simple economically justified way of reducing the contamination of agricultural produce in general.

Full textShofman L.
Some aspects of the interrelation between the density of cenosis and the productivity of mixed perennial fodder crops
Not pretending to a comprehensive analysis of the diversity of the productivity process ofmixed crops, grown without strict placing in rows, it is possible to forecast with the sufficient degree of correcmess the dry matter content depending on the amount of plants per square unit, using the methods of linear programming and statistical biometry for such forecasts.

Full textTsyganov A., Persikova T., Kakshintsev A., Filipek T., Labuda S.
Mineral and amino acid composition of the blue lupine grain
The article summarizes the data of the two-year experiments on mineral and amino acid composition of the blue lupine grain variety "Helena ", grown in the northeast of Belarus. It also demonstrates variability of the mineral nutrition elements; variability of protein and its amino acids. The article establishes correlation between the elements in the weight and molecular form; correlation between mineral elements and amino acids; as well as between elements and amino acids. Biological value of protein corresponding to 76,8 % was established.

Full textShimansky L., Shlapunov V., Nadtochaev N.
Creation of corn inbred lines in Belarus
The seven years of breeding research at Belarus Research Institute for Arable Farming and Fodders have resulted in the creation of a number of corn lines having important economic properties. Studying the lines and their test-crosses in a wide ecological network allowed to select genotypes with high adaptive potential. The experimental hybrids of grain and silage created on their basis have the productivity not less than standards.

Full textBosak V.
The impact of the long-term application of fertilizers on the nutrient balance of grain crop rotations and their dynamics on sody-podzolic light loamy soils
The average annual application of nitrogen fertilizers N62-90 on the background of 16 t/ha of manure and P60K104 on sody-podzolic light loamy soils ensures the productivity of the grain crop rotations (potatoes - barley - oats-pea mixture - winter wheat) at the level of 7,6-8,0 t/ha per unit with maximum agronomic, energetic and economic efficiency. It also ensures good balance of nitrogen and positive balance of phosphorous and potassium. On soils with the high content of mobile forms of phosphorous and potassium it is advisable to apply mineral phosphorous and potassium fertilizers on the basis of 100% intensity of their balance.

Full textAtrashkova A.
Influence of pesticides on the micro flora of sody-podzolic soil
The effect of the intensive chemical oat protection on the main groups of soil microorganisms was studied in the field experiment. It was determined that the production doses of pesticides (vitavax 200FF, 34% w.s.c. 2,5 kg/t regent 300 EC, 70 ml/ha pardner, 22,5% c.e., 1,01 l/ha, granit, 20% c.e. 1,01 l/ha) increased the number of cellulose-destroying, nitrifying, ammonifying bacteria and microorganisms, using mineral forms of nitrogen. Temporal inhibition of azotobacter, fungi and aclinomycetes was observed. By the end of the vegetation period the number of studied groups of microorganisms have restored to the control level.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textMedvedev G., Anikevich L.
The properties of milk extender with different composition used for dilution of the bull's sperm
The article provides the results of the research on physical and biological properties of the two components milk extender for dilution of the bull's sperm. The skimmilk with fat content of 0,05-0,08%, homogenized cream, glycerin and polygene are the basic components of the first option of the extender, another option requires adding fructose solution, glycerin and polygene. The osmotic pressure of the extenders was 290±1 and 284±I mOsms; pH 6,66±0,01 and 6,61 ±0,01 respectively. When diluting and freezing the bull's sperm in granules or pellets milk extender ensured the viability 30-40% of spermatozoa as well as preservation of their structure and biological properties. The percentage of the cells with damaged acrosoma (among mobile) did not exceed 7-8. Insemination of heifers and cows with such sperm yielded higher results offertilization (77,5% on average). The insemination with the sperm diluted with lactosa-egg-glycerine extender had 62,1%.

Full textPochebut O., Vasilyuk Ya., Dadashko V.
The comparison of the efficiency of ferment additives in the rations of meat chickens
The research demonstrated that the multy-enzyme ferments compound "Fecord-M" produced in the Republic of Belarus allows using wheat instead of maize in the diet of meat chickens. It is not inferior in its efficiency to the world-known compound "Hostazym X" made by German "Hoechst".

Full textRusinovich A.
The impact of the territory contamination on the epizootic process of cattle infection
The article deals with specifying the influence of natural, geographic and ecological conditions on the epizootic process of cattle infection. The tests were conducted in northern districts (Rossony, Verhnedvinsk, Vitebsk) with no territorial contamination and in the two contaminated southern farms in Vetkovsk and Narovlya districts, having 15-40 curie/sq.km. The results on the intensity of cattle infections, clinic-morphological and immunological properties of the infection proved that the epizootic process of cattle infection in Chernobyl affected areas differ from "clean" districts.

Full textBabina M.
Protective factors of eggs and hatchability of chickens depending on the period of laying
The article provides information on the regularities of the formation of the embryos immune status and hatchability of meat chickens depending on the content of protective factors in eggs and on the periods of laying eggs.

Full textKamenskaya T.
Sanitary-biological and physical-chemical characteristics of the meet and sub products depending on the form of the hemophilic polyserositis disease
The article provides the results of the research of meat and sub products of pigs having acute and chronic forms of the hemophilic polyserositis. It has been stated that the organoleplical, physical, chemical and biological properties are reduced. The micro flora of the disease, causing toxicosis and toxic infections has been specified.

Full textMoskaleva N.
The diagnosis of anaerobic enterotoximia, caused by enterotoxigene cultures Cl.perfringens type A, by reaction of counter immune electroosmophoresis
The article provides the data on developing the optimal conditions for the counter immune electroosmophoresis to diagnose anaerobic enterotoximia of calves. The research established that the counter immune electroosmophoresis is a specific, highly sensitive express test for the diagnosis of anaerobic enterotoximia of Cl. perfringens type A and it also has 26% higher sensitivity than the neutralization test, which was proved on the tests with white mice.

Full textGribanov V.
Productive and hematological parameters of young steers depending on the magnesium content in rations with distillers grains
Two scientific and commercial experiments were conducted in the collective farm "Urechsky" (Luban district, Minsk region), specializing in beef production. The experiments studied the influence of higher levels of magnesium in steers rations, containing 30% and 56% distillers grain, on physiological state and growth rates. It has been stated that increasing the magnesium content of the standard norms by 23% and 32% had a beneficial effect on digestibility and nutrients absorption, increased the growth rate by 9,0% and 7,0% as well as reduced feedstuff costs by 8,8% and 7,4%.

Full textPoloz S.
The peculiarities of the pathogeny of associative helminthiasis of fur animals
The results of our studies demonstrate the peculiarities of the pathogeny of associative helminttiiasis of fur animals; the impact of izambenum, panakurum and combined application of panakurum and thymalinum on the organism of polar fox; as well as the efficiency of some anthelmintic and immunostimulators at a mixed invasion.

UpMechanization and power engineering, proccessing and storage of agrarian produce

Full textSharshunov V., Bortnik S., Kostukevich S., Melnik S., Kurilovich K.
The choice of the optimal technology of adding fluid additives to the feedstuff
The article provides the classification of fluid additives with provisions for the forms and methods of their utilization in producing the feedstuff. It also suggests classification and analysis of the equipment, used for adding fluid components at different stages of the technological process.

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