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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 369-86-18
e-mail: info@belnauka.by
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»
2002 г. - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2018 №1

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

Full textBogdevich I. M.
Journal "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, agrarian series" – 55 years old

UpEconomics

Full textRastorgouev P. V.
Methodological approaches to evaluation of quality management system efficiency in agriculture of Belarus
Increasing competitiveness of domestic agro-industrial complex products on the external market according to qualitative parameters and sustainable production of agricultural food products with high consumer properties presupposes timely, scientifically substantiated assessment of measures efficiency aimed at ensuring and improving their quality. This problem becomes really urgent in conditions of development of regional and international integration, Eurasian Economic Union (EAEC) functioning, as solution of problem of high-quality production becomes more and more important. The article dwells on research results of methodological apparatus and tools for assessing the efficiency of quality and safety system management, considering the prevailing world practice, market management relations, as well as proposals for its application in the agroindustrial complex of Belarus. The aim of the research was to study the methodological approaches for evaluation of efficiency of methods and mechanisms for quality and safety management of agricultural products under market conditions taking into account globalization of the world economy and peculiarities of the domestic management system of agroindustrial complex. As a result, the essence of methodological approaches to the complex evaluation of quality management systems efficiency is studied and determined based on recommendations of the International Organization for Standardization. Priority directions of development of the mechanism are determined for assessing the efficiency of quality management systems for agricultural products considering industry peculiarities and the need for comprehensive assessment of efficiency the quality and safety management for agroindustrial complex products in Belarus. The basic models for assessing efficiency of quality management are determined, characteristics are given and classification is developed allowing to choose the most relevant option depending on aims and tasks the enterprise or government agencies are facing in the agroindustrial complex in the field of ensuring quality and safety of agricultural products.

Full textHylek E. K., Ostrovskiy Y.
Bioeconomics – a new perspective for development of agricultural sector and attempts to implement it in Poland
The paper dwells on the concept, rationale and attempts to implement bioeconomics being a new direction in development of agricultural sector, which includes production of renewable biological resources, transformation of primary bioproducts and biowaste into products with added value. The essence of bioeconomics is supplying these needs with biological raw materials and primary products in closed cycle (considering the biowaste maximum use and processing). A key role in development of this new direction of national economy is played by agriculture. Really important challenge for modern civilization is bioeconomics oriented on balanced development by applying the latest techniques and technologies for using natural resources. According to these assumptions, the European Union, including Poland, has taken a number of decisions to create research basis and regulations for strategies creation that will guide the economy to the closed productive cycle path. An example of such actions could be the European Commission’s “European Strategy and Action Plan for a Balanced Bioeconomics till 2020” and BIOSTRATEGIAN research and production program implemented in Poland. In order to create basis for bioeconomics implementation into the agricultural sector, the Ministry of Agriculture and Regional Development established the project “New Strategies of the European Commission for Bioeconomics in a Closed Cycle” in 2016. Within the framework of this project, regional preferences estimation was developed and evaluated for development of this area in agricultural sector.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textPrivalov F. I., Skirukha А. Ch.
40 years of stationary crop rotation experiment: fundamental development results for agricultural science and practice in Belarus
Long-term s tationary e xperiments a re t he n ecessary i nformation b ase for t he c onducting of s cience o riented arable farming. The research results obtained in such experiments are of great importance not only for solving current issues in agricultural practice, but also for developing strategic global directions for improving agricultural systems and agricultural production in whole. In stationary experiments, it is possible to trace the dynamics of land capacity, soil fertility recovery, including changes of agrochemical, physical and biological properties, the phytosanitary state of crops and soil at different levels of intensification and technology used. This makes it possible to give justified recommendations for farming in enterprises with different levels of production at different stages and in different years with different weather conditions. In the meantime, the information obtained in such experiments can serve as a basis for forecasting and modeling of the most effective technologies and systems of arable farming in future. This can not be fully achieved and achieved with high significance in short-term experiments. The article presents the results of 40-year stationary experiment on the study of different types and kinds of crop rotations for agricultural enterprises of different specializations using different fertilizing systems and levels. Over 20 schemes of field and fodder crop rotations, permanent crops of cereals, legumes and fodder crops have been studied. As a result of long-term field experiments, the possibility of adjusting crop rotations under conditions of farming intensification has been substantiated, intensive crop rotations have been developed for farms specializing in production of milk, beef and pork. The evaluation of crops as predecessors in crop rotations with substantiation for cereals, legumes, perennial grasses and tilled crops in various types of crop rotations is given. The effect of different types and kinds of crop rotations on soil fertility was studied. Application of intermediate crops has been scientifically substantiated and schemes of crop rotations with intermediate crops have been developed.

Full textLoginov V. F., Khitrykau М. А.
Predicting changes in bioclimatic potential in the territory of Belarus for the period of 2016–2035
Active temperature increase, trends in atmospheric precipitation changes and other indicators necessitates compilation of climate forecasts both for the near future and for distant period. Development of such prospective scenarios is essential for successful adaptation of agricultural production in the prevailing agro-climatic conditions. The aim of the paper is prediction of changes of bioclimatic potential (BCP) in the territory of Belarus for the near future, to determine general patterns of BCP changes in the future and to assess the favorable bioclimatic conditions for growing specific crops. Forecast of BCP changes is developed for the period of 2016–2035 based on the global climate model HadCM3. The method of D. I. Shashko was used for BCP calculation. Based on the data on optimal heat and moisture resources for growth and development of agricultural crops, the optimal BCP values were calculated. Prediction showed further significant increase in BCP values during the forecast period, while maintaining the trends of changes peculiar of the period of modern climate warming. It is determined that the general patterns of spatial BCP changes, including optimal BCP for growing specific crops, will be relevant in the future.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textGerman Y. I.
Riding horse breeding system in the Republic of Belarus
There are no domestic breeds of riding horses in Belarus. Historically it has been reasonable to breed horses of German origin here – Trakehner and Hanoverian breeds. There are some horses of other half-blood breeds successful in various kinds of equestrian sport. The paper dwells on the results of development of riding horse breeding system for creation of a domestic pedigree base for sports horse breeding. Work stages for improvement of pedigree horse breeding in Belarus, and the main elements of technology of aimed breeding and training of young animals at farms are determined. The results of evaluation of mares of Trakehner and Hanoverian breeds according to the set of traits at basic farms are presented. Perspective programs for breeding horses of Trakehner and Hanoverian breeds in Belarus have been developed being the basis for the aimed breeding and the system itself. Genetic parameters of selected traits of riding horses reared in Belarus (height at the withers, girth of chest and pastern, evaluation of type, measurements, exterior and performance) are determined, which are distinguished by significant phenotypic diversity. High coefficients of phenotypic correlation between individual traits are determined. Dynamics of genetic similarity and inbreeding coefficients in Hanoverian breed is presented. The developed horse breeding system for creation of domestic pedigree base for sports horse breeding will ensure production of high-quality world-class horses for creation of national and regional equestrian teams, active development of leisure horse breeding, export of horses and import substitution.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textOrda А. N., Kruk I. S., Nazarov F. I., Vorobey А. S., Selehi А. B.
Assessment of soil properties change under effect of soil cultivating agricultural machines
High-quality and timely soil cultivation allows forming the basis of the future crop and reducing costs of subsequent tillage operations. The structure of soil determines the energy intensity and quality of its mechanical treatment. The quality of soil treatment is determined by crumbling, mixing, leveling and compacting of the surface layer. To determine these parameters, different mathematical dependencies are used, allowing for calculation of varied accuracy degree. The article dwells on analysis of the existing and development of new dependencies, allowing to determine qualitative indicators of soil condition before and after the effect of operating units of agricultural machines. The article presents analysis of the existing dependencies, allowing to determine the effect degree of agricultural machines’ rollers on the soil. As a result of the studies, the possibility of using the Rozin-Rammler formula for determining the degree of soil crumbling is substantiated and dependency between stress and porosity coefficient was determined to substantiate the optimum pressure during soil cultivation rollers impact. The obtained results supplement the theory of impact of soil cultivation rollers on soil when designing combined soil cultivation agricultural machines.

Full textPetrovets V. R., Kurzenkov S. V., Dudko N. I., Grekov D. V.
Modern tendencies in development of structure and technological schemes of disc coulters
Agricultural crops yield is determined by the sowing quality. In turn, the sowing quality depends on choice of machines for this technological operation, their technical condition and adjustment, as well as compliance of all agrotechnical requirements during sowing. The most important operating unit of grain seeders and combined soil cultivating machines is a coulter. Disc coulters are well buried on mulched soil, cut furrows in it at a given depth, without disrupting the process of laying and covering seeds. So improvement of existing design and development of fundamentally new disc coulters, theoretical and experimental substantiation of their rational parameters for the purpose of uniform laying and even distribution of seeds followed by covering and simultaneous intrasoil application of a start dose of phosphorus fertilizers, decrease of metal intensity and traction resistance is a very urgent issue. Recently, taking into account transition to precise farming, foreign and domestic seeding machines are equipped, as a rule, with one- or two-disk combined coulters, providing high-speed sowing with uniform laying and covering of seeds of agricultural crops. The article presents an overview of perspective design and engineering layouts of disc coulters. It is the result of patent search and analysis of existing designs and reflects modern trends in development of this operating unit.

Full textShilo I. N., Pozniakov V. M., Zelenko S. А.
Performance of straight-flow vibro-pneumatic separator for grain mixture
Crop yield greatly depends on quality and biological value of seeds. And biological value of seeds is characterized here not as much by geometric parameters as by their density, which is related to ripeness and nature of seed. Seeds with the greatest density have high germination energy, viability and, respectively, show high yield. The most efficient method for seed sorting by density is vibro-pneumatic sorting in a fluidized bed. Based on the studies carried out, the design and engineering layout of a direct-flow vibro-pneumatic separator with new engineering solutions has been scientifically substantiated and practically implemented. To study the process of seed sorting in a fluidized bed, a test rig was designed and manufactured, with the main element of developed direct-flow vibro-pneumatic separator allowing to significantly improve the efficiency of sorting the components of grain mixture into fractions that differ in density by 10–15 %. Based on the theoretical and experimental studies carried out, a mathematical model is obtained to determine the performance of vibro-pneumatic equipment, considering physical and mechanical properties of processed seeds and design features of the equipment. Analysis of mathematical equations allowed to determine the main directions for increasing the efficiency of vibro-pneumatic sorting of grain and seeds in a fluidized bed. The obtained mathematical dependencies can be used in substantiating rational mode and constructive parameters of vibro-pneumatic equipment operation for seed sorting by density. Implementation of research results will allow forming research and engineering basis for creation of high-performance machines for pre-seeding grain and seed preparation.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textVasylenko S. L., Furyk N. N., Kazak А. N.
Studying the diversity of lactococci bacteriophages obtained from fermented dairy products using molecular genetic methods
For production of fermented milk products in the territory of the Republic of Belarus, lactic acid bacteria related to p. Lactococcus are used more often. Continuous phage monitoring makes it possible to limit economic losses due to phagolysis at production of fermented milk products, as well as to reduce the risk of contamination of finished products with pathogenic microbiota. It is necessary to identify and determine the properties of bacteriophages for that circulating at enterprises, considering that at each individual enterprise there are no specific types (kinds) of phages, which is due to the assortment of products, types of ferments used and hygiene conditions. The article dwells on studies on isolation and characterization of lactococci bacteriophages. Of the 51 phagocontaining samples of products selected in the territory of the Republic of Belarus, 68 bacteriophages have been isolated. The spectrum of their lytic activity was determined. Based on the results of PCR with species specific primers, 39 bacteriophages are classified as C2 type. One bacteriophage was identified as P335 according to PCR results. 939 type bacteriophages were not detected among the isolated viruses. Differentiation of C2 type lactococcal phages was carried out. A selection of the restriction enzymes allowing to distinguish phages inside the C2 type is carried out. A scheme of intraspecific differentiation of lactococci bacteriophages was developed using RFLP analysis. RFLP-analysis allowed to divide 39 lactophages of type C2 into six groups. Acknowledgements. The work was carried out within the framework of research under task 9.5.50 “Study of species diversity of lactic acid bacteria obtained from natural sources, variability of lactococci phages obtained at milk processing plants, depending on season and region” of GPNI “Innovative technologies in agro-industrial complex”.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Yakov Nikitich Aphanasyev (To the 140th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Ivan Matveevich Karputs (To the 80th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Vladimir Vitalyevich Azarenko (To the 60th Anniversary of Birthday)

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