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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2003 №3

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding a n d Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering
Anniversary
In memoriam

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textGusakov V., Svyatogor A., Gorbatovsky A.
Rational location and improvement of the structure of the cereals is a most important condition for increasing the efficiency of cereals production
The article considers the new issues of increasing the efficiency of cereals production based in their rational location in the country's regions and improvement of the structure of cereals and legumes, keeping in mind natural conditions, local specializations, pay off rates, the needs of local processors and animal breeders

Full textKukresh L.
Agrarian production in Belarus: correcting the priorities
The article considers how the priorities in agribusiness should be corrected keeping in mind the context of creating market relations in the national economy.

Full textKagan A., Novikova A.
Economic justification of the distribution of the gross income at a farm
The problem of increasing the efficiency of the financial and economic activities in an agribusiness is based on rational distribution of means. From this point of view it is recommended to establish the optimal correlation between the expenses and the accumulated means. To determine the optimal correlation a specified economic-mathematical model should be used. We have added to this model the chapters on the formation and distribution of the profit and gross income.

Full textSaiganov A.
Economic justification of the distribution of the gross income at a farm
The authors have specified the trends and the main problems of leasing in Belarus. Foreign experience has been summarized and put in the foundation of the suggestions for Belarus. The article grounds the organizational and economic model of creating and utilizing the system of leasing operators in national agriculture. The organizational and economic mechanism of creating and running the efficient system of mechanized teams based on the district agricultural service renders is proposed in the article as well as the perspectives of the development of the existing technological stations.

Full textPiletsky I.
Agrarian complexes of Russia and Belarus in the new economic conditions
The article analyses the results ofthe ten years of the reforms in the agrarian complexes of Russia and Belarus, assesses the existing approaches to reforming the collective and state farms. The conclusions are based on the results of the scientific analysis, which could be applicable in the national agriculture.

Full textGridyushko A.
Optimizing the raw materials zone of a flax plant is a most important factor of raising its competitiveness
The most important problem in the flux suhsector is the low competitiveness of the produce. The article suggests the methods of optimizing the raw material zones of the processing plants, which will contribute to raising the competitiveness of the flax produce based on increasing the quality and reducing costs.

Full textIvashkevich Z.
Adjusting the agribusinesses to the market relations in Poland
The article provides the perspectives of the development of private seed businesses and determines the regional peculiarities of reforming the agriculture in Poland.

Full textSkakun A.
Social and economic problems of developing the rural areas in Belarus
The officially proclaimed purpose of reforming the national economy is creating the socially oriented market economy. This approach is based on the mentality of the local people, its history, traditions and aimed at realizing the public interests and raising the living standards. The article considers the ways of achieving the goals.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textLapa V., Fitsuro D.
The influence of the fertilizers and the granular-metric structure of soils on the biochemical properties and quality of potato tubers grown for French fries processors
The article provides the results of the research on the influence of the fertilizers and the granular-metric structure of soils on the biochemical properties and technological quality of potato tubers grown for French fries processors.

Full textLihatsevich A.
The role of the meliorated soils in the system of soils distribution in Belarus
Mellorated soils have special role in Belarus. The soviet heritage is 3.4 million hectares of meliorated soils, including 2.9 million hectares of agricultural lands. Now it has become evident that because of the lack of means the state and the land udders cannon upkeep the infrastructure of meliorated lands. Determining the priorities for spending the limited means requires ecological and economic justifications. The article provides the information on knowing and using the environmental factors, which would make melioration ecologically and biosphere friendly as well as economically useful. Increasing the efficiency of utilizing the meliorated soils requires adaptive, resource saving technologies of planning and managing the melioration infrastructure.

Full textAutko A., Rupasova Z., Ignatenko V., Dolbik N., Autko A.
The influence of weather and the type of substrate on the biochemical composition of tomatoes in Belarusian greenhouses
The comparative analysis of the biochemical composition of tomatoes (according to 43 characteristics) cultivated in the greenhouses of Brest and Minsk in the conditions of mineral cotton, water medium, high-moor peat and absorbent cialitis has demonstrated that the nutritive value of the production based on mineral cotton is considerably lower than that of the other substratum types.

Full textBoiko A., Buga S.
The role of application terms of fungicide treatments in barley ear protection against Fusarium ear blight
The article provides the results of the research on the efficiency of applying fungicides to protect spring barley against Fusarium ear blight. The optimal terms of plant treatment has been determined at the appearance of barley head. The efficiency of the fungicides Falcon, 46% EC and Alto super, 33% EC turned out to be higher than the fungicides of Tilt, 25%i EC in the protection of barley ear against Fusarium ear blight.

Full textPrischapa I., Kolyadko N., Novikova O., Naumova G.
About the necessity of applying the preparations of vegetative origin for protecting vegetable crops against pests
A possibility to apply the preparation of vegetative origin taboline isolated from the tobacco powder against vegetable crop pests in open and protected soil is demonstrated. The optimal concentrations and rates pf application of the two forms of the preparation are selected. It has been determined that the highest efficiency in relation to phytophages is in taboline 12, the preparation based on the tobacco powder by the method of its oxidation and the subsequent two step acid-alkaline hydrolysis. Taboline does not make phytotoxic effect on the protected plants of vegetable crops.

Full textSemenenko N.
About determining the content of the main elements of nutrition the plants have access to in the degraded peat soils
On the basis of the analysis of the content of the combinations of nitrogen, phosphorous and potash the plants have access to the authors state that there are no analytical methods for examining anthropogenic-transformed degraded peat soils. I sing for the above purposes the methods of agro-chemical analysis specified by the state standards (GOSTs) for minerals lead to considerable (3-6 times) under-estimations of the content of movable combinations of phosphorous. And it is impossible to determine the content of the innate- and ammonia-nitrogen. To determine the content of the nitrogen, phosphorous and potash the plants have access to in the degraded peat soils it is suggested to apply the new method based on multi-component extracting, which provides for a more accurate assessment of the availability of the main nutrition elements in soils as well as for 3 times higher labor efficiency of analysts at 20-30% lower costs.

Full textKartashevich V.
A system of protective measures management for weed control based on agrometeoro logical data
The main principles of creating a system of protective measures management for weed control in the conditions of Belarus based on agrometeorological data are stated. The criteria of the system optimization for a separate farm and region are determined. A single methodological approach to the logic and mathematical models is developed. Maximum using the agrometeorological data the authors suggest typical algorithms of forecasting the terms of herbicide treatments as well as the methods of optimizing decision taking, summarizing the statistical data. To select the best assortment of the herbicides the ecological and economic criteria of the management system as an integral indicator of economic, ecological, biological parameters of the formed phytosanitary field situation is proposed. The common informational resources for ensuring the algorithms are developed. The accuracy of the forecasted parameters, economic efficiency of operating the system are assessed and the final indicators are interpreted.

Full textShakovets O.
The influence of the different levels of mineral fertilizers application on the yield and the quality of oats grown the sod-podzolic light loamy soil
During the field test on the sod-podzolic light loamy soil the different systems of applying mineral fertilizers on oats, calculated for deficit, supporting and positive balance of phosphorous and potash with the crop have been studied. It has been established that the optimal system of applying fertilizers on oats is N60P40K80, which ensured the yield of grain at 37.3 c/ha. The article provides the data on grain quality (the content and the composition of protein, the composition of amino-acids).

UpAnimal Breeding a n d Veterinary

Full textKapustin N., Zinovenko A., Romanovich A.
The comparative assessment of treating the difficult to silage raw materials with bacterial preservatives agents
The Laksil bacterial preservative when applied at the rate of 1,0 lit to wilted clover - timothy allows for having 98,6 g of digestible protein, 9,2 MJ of metabolizable energy, 0,9 g of F.U. per I kg of dry matter and that is 32,5%i, 6.5% and 7,8% respectively higher than in the silage of spontaneous fermentation and 12,8%, 4,3'% and 5,6% than in the silage made with the Sillaktim bacterial preservative.

Full textGerasimchik V.
The pests fauna of polecats in the animal farms of Belarus
The article provides the results of the first study on the breeds composition and determines the locations inside the body and the morpho-biological indicators of the pests causing eimiriosis and isosporosis to polecats of different age and gender in Belarusian animal farms.

Full textBogdanovich D.
Improving the complex assessment of the quality of sperm of boars when using acroscopic method
The use of the acroscopic test for the estimation of the sperm quality of boars was found to be a reliable toolfor the prediction of fertilization rate of sows. It allows for planning the work aimed at improving the reproductive performance of sows.

Full textBorisevich M.
The temperature and sphygmus of small sized animals (correlation of indications)
The coefficient of the correlation between the temperature and sphygmus of the house hold backboned animals (puppies of small sized breeds) during the inflammation of pericardium has been established.

UpMechanization and power engineering

Full textDashkov V.
The theoretical prerequisites of utilizing the natural cold in Belarusian agriculture
The theoretical justification of natural cold seasonal availability in the agricultural technologies was implemented by our scientists according to the multiyear aerography observations in all regions of Belarus. The regression models offree air thermal changes during the cold period of the year were charted as well as confidence intervals for these temperatures were fixed. That allows for forecasting the established agricultural energy saving opportunities in different climatic zones of the country at the expense of the seasonal use of the natural cold.

Full textGirutsky I.
The foundation of automating the production in the conditions of upgrading the commercial pig breeding
The commercial production of pork has biotechnical nature and it should be treated as a most important managerial tool. The priorities in this sphere are automating the feeding process and up keeping the micro climate. From the program and technical point of view the automated systems should he based on the modern microprocessors, sensors and serially made devices. The architecture of the systems created should be open and provide for the vertical and horizontal integrations. Automating the production on the basis of the modern microprocessors can significantly reduce the cost of the production without major investments if applied during the upgrading of the existing enterprises.

UpAnniversary

Full text
Творческий путь доктора сельскохозяйственных наук, профессора Д. Шпаара

UpIn memoriam

Full text
Творческое наследие академика СИ. Назарова (к 75-летию со дня рождения)

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