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The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
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Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2021 №3

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production


Full textRastorgouev P.V.
Scientific approaches of a multi-level competitiveness assessment of quality assurance system for AIC products
High dependence of agri-food products competitiveness level on its qualitative parameters determines the need to orientate both the management of individual enterprises and the entire APC regulation system for formation of competitive advantages of domestic products in order to efficiently implement it in external and domestic markets. A prerequisite for reliably determine the direction of efficient solution to solve such a task is availability of a mechanism for objective assessment of the current product quality management system from the point of view of providing sustainable production of competitive product according to quality parameters. In connection with these objectives of the study were substantiation and development of practical oriented scientific approaches to assessment of competitiveness of the system for ensuring quality of agri-food products in modern conditions, taking into account the multi-levelness of the APC regulation system in the Republic of Belarus. As a result, system of principles of assessing competitiveness of system for ensuring quality of agri-food products has been developed. Targeted estimated criteria specifying the level of competitiveness of the system for ensuring quality differentially according to AIC regulation levels have been specified (republican, sectoral, individual business entities). Priority estimates of competitiveness of the quality assurance system for agri-food products have been developed, classified depending on the criteria of quality and safety assurance system, as well as the level of regulation of AIC and their area of application (national, regional and international markets). Implementation of proposals for assessing the competitiveness of the product quality assurance system at all levels of AIC management in practical activities will allow substantiating the most relevant areas for improving the existing quality management mechanisms, increase competitiveness of products in terms of quality parameters and strengthen the position of domestic manufacturers by increasing the confidence of potential and actual consumers in the supply system quality and safety of agri-food products. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agro-industrial Production for 2016-2020”, subprogram 1 “AIC Economy”.

Full textBatаva N.N., Tochitskaya I.E., Sachek P.V.
Circular economics in agriculture: conceptual bases and implementation possibilities in Belarus
Achieving sustainable economic growth has become an important point on the global agenda today. Harmonious coordination of sustainable development components, ensuring economic growth, social stability and ecological balance, can be achieved in the long term using the concept of circular economy, which, in turn, serves as a practical tool for transition to green economy. Despite the fact that implementation of circular economy is becoming global and competitive advantages of implementing this concept are becoming more obvious, in general, it has not been widely developed in Belarus yet. The paper reviews conceptual basis of circular agriculture, reveals peculiarities and principal differences from the traditional production model. Based on study of world experience, the importance of state support and scientific support for circular transformation of the industry has been substantiated. Sectoral specifics of plant production and livestock waste use is revealed. The results of agricultural producers survey regarding use of waste in various areas are presented: transfer for processing, sale, use of third-party secondary raw materials. Information, economic and technological barriers retaining circular transformation of Belarusian agriculture are revealed. Prospects of implementing principles of circular economy for large agricultural producers and small farm households have been substantiated. The issues covered in the paper are of interest when preparing projects of state social and economic development programs, sectoral programs for development of agro-industrial complex, strategies for ensuring environmentally safe production and efficient use of natural resources for the period until 2025. Practical use of the proposed results and proposals for implementation of circular economy principles in agriculture will ensure more efficient use of raw materials within production cycles and achieve sustainable development of agriculture in general.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textLapa V.V., Pilipuk A.V., Gusakov G.V., Brechko Ja. N.
National system of soil fertility management of the Republic of Belarus: current state and development prospects
The paper presents a comprehensive study on development of soil fertility management system in the Republic of Belarus. The history of development, as well as the modern scheme of functioning of services for agro-chemical and radiological examination of soils of agricultural lands has been studied in detail, including the sources of their financing, services provided, the list of provided consolidated analytical materials as a result, etc. Special attention is paid to the republican databank of agro-chemical and radiation indicators of agricultural soil, which, through automated information system, is considered an information basis for modeling soil fertility in order to develop recommendations for using mineral fertilizers in individual fields and working plots, farms, districts, regions calculated under requirements for agricultural crops. The authors concluded that the data bank of agro-chemical and radiological properties of soils of agri-cultural lands of the Republic of Belarus, as well as the analytical information system functioning on its basis, were of high practical value and of an applied nature for the country’s economy. However, in the modern world, digital solutions, on the basis of which the data bank functions, are worn out morally. Studies indicate that the technical requirements for functioning and use of electronic databank of agro-chemical and radiological monitoring of soils of agricultural lands in the Republic of Belarus should be formalized in the form of regulations (or rules) and enshrined in the national regulatory framework. In addition, it is necessary to develop a scheme for information content of the databank by optimizing organizational interaction of agro-chemical services of the Republic of Belarus. It is feasible to give access to a huge array of analytical information in the form of geographic information system, which will make it possible to maintain electronic register of agricultural land soils, as well as electronic certification of fields and elementary plots. Implementation of a number of measures to develop the soil fertility management system in the Republic of Belarus may lead to increase in demand for work related to agro-chemical services for agriculture by 50-60 % by 2030.

Full textLikhatsevich A. P.
Mathematical model of agricultural crop yield
Theoretical basis for presenting research results in agricultural science is mathematical statistics and probability theory using empirical forms of generalization of experimental data. To improve the methods of planning field experiment and processing its data using digital technologies, we proposed to use mathematical modeling based on physical principle of balance of cause-and-effect interactions in a closed physical system as a priority option. When analyzing impact of environmental factors on crop yields, the initial provisions, the mathematical modeling of the crop yield is based, on are not associated with characteristics of crops and natural conditions, therefore, the model options are universal in application and are valid for any agricultural crop, regardless of the region of cultivation. To ensure statistically correct digital information, based on the established forms of mathematical model, the field experiment layout aimed at establishing the dependence of the crop yield on yield-forming factors should include at least 4 options for nutritional levels (NPK) with a research duration of at least 4 years. To check the accuracy of the developed crop yield model, the data of independent field experiments of Professor N. N. Semenenko with barley and winter triticale has been used. It has been determined that, in Belarus, yield-forming factors, as a result of their impact on the grain yield, are arranged in the following decreasing sequence: total dose of applied NPK → the amount of precipitation during the active phases of growing season → air temperature for the same period. Calculations have shown that decrease in the number of yield-forming factors taken into account in the mathematical model from three (food, moisture and heat) to two (food and moisture) reduces the accuracy of calculating the grain crop yield insignificantly.

Full textRabinovich G.Yu., Fomicheva N.V., Smirnova Yu.D.
Efficiency of liquid-phase biological preparations when cultivating carrots on peat soils
One of priority directions in cultivation of carrots is development of new techniques in technologies allowing to increase not only the yield, but also the quality of root crops. Treatment of vegetative plants with various biological products, growth regulators and hemin preparations is the most promising technological method for increasing carrots yield and quality. The purpose of the research is to study the effect of liquid-phase biological means of various natures on yield and quality of Karini variety carrots grown on peat soil. The experiment had been carried out in 2015-2016 on peat soil of the Dmitrovsky department of VNIIMZ branch FRC V. V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute (Moscow region). Two microbiological preparations (LPB and Azotovit) and two humic (BoHum and FlorHumat) were tested. Azotovit and FlorHumat are known registered preparations, and LPB and BoHum are the latest developments of VNIIMZ. The biological means were applied three times during growing season against the background of the main fertilizer P40K60. The largest increase in carrot yield was obtained when using LPB and BoHum - 19.4 and 18.3 %. Humic preparations contributed to a higher level of mineralization processes in soil, providing plants with available nutrients. Improvement in quality indicators of carrots for all tested biological means was noted: a higher content of carotene in root crops in the variant with BoHum - 101 mg/kg, dry matter - when using Azotovit - 9.35 %, the minimum content of nitrates when using FlorHumat preparation - 101 mg/kg. In general, the impact mechanism of the biological means used was their complex effect on plants and soil, which is of certain value for fundamental research. The method of cluster analysis showed a high degree of similarity in efficiency of bio-means LPB and BoHum in terms of set of indicators (yield, quality of carrots, agro-chemical and microbiological indicators of soil). The most promising is the humic biological mean BoHum. The considered biological means used for cultivation of carrots on peat soils will improve provision of processing industry with a raw material base, and population with high-quality vegetable products. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of State program of the FSBSI VNIIMZ for 2015-2017 on the subject “To develop scientific and technological basis for obtaining new multifunctional biofertilizers and biological products based on natural and secondary biological resources for targeted use in innovative agricultural technologies in the humid zone”.

Full textBayeva I.E., Puhachova I.G., Dabrodzkin M.M., Kilchevsky A.V.
The adaptivity and stability parameters of tomato heterosis hybrids (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in soil greenhouses
Varieties and hybrids which are stable in yield and suitable for cultivation in various soil and climatic zones have a particular value within the conditions of industrial production. New varieties created by breeders should be characterized by the highest yield in favorable conditions, and, at the same time, by the stable yield in other conditions, i.e. be highly accommodative. The aim of the research was to assess environmental stability and plasticity parameters of tomato hybrids according to the main characteristics of yield and then to select the hybrids F1 with high productivity and stability in soil greenhouses. The calculation of adaptive ability and ecological stability indexes was carried out according to the method of A. V. Kilchevsky and L. V. Khotyleva using the ADIS program. As a result, some hybrids were identified as heavy yielding and with high general adaptive ability according to the following parameters: early fruit yield - Nikola x Line‑2, Line‑4 x Line‑2, Nikola x Line 19/3, Nikola x Line-9, Line TX-144 x Irishka, Line B-3-1-8 x Line 19/0, Line C-9464 x Line 19/0; on the basis of “commercial fruit yield” - Nikola x Line-2, TX-144 x Line-2, Line TX-144 x Irishka, TX- 140 x Line-2, Line TX-140 x Line 19/3, Line B-3-1-8 x Line 19/0, Line C-9464 x Line 19/0; by the weight of commercial fruit - Nikola x Line 19/3, Line TX-144 x Line 19/3, Line B-3-1-8 x Line 19/0. Greater part of yield parameters was stable for hybrids Nikola x Line-2, Line-4 x Line-2, TX-140 x Line-2, Line B-3-1-8 x Line 19/0, Line TX-144 x Irishka. Hybrids combinations Azart and Vityaz have successfully passed the test and were recommended for planting on the territory of the Republic of Belarus. Thus, feasibility of ecological stability and plasticity assessment at the final stage of breeding process has been proven. It reduces possibility of errors in choosing hybrids for State testing procedures. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out within the framework of the State Program “Innovative Biotechnologies” for 2010-2012 and for the period up to 2015”, as well as the Interstate Target Program of the Eurasian Economic Community “Innovative Biotechnologies” for 2011-2015.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textBryula I.V.
State information system «AITS»: features of formation and directions of development
Animal breeding is a strategic branch of agri-business in the Republic of Belarus, focused on solving social and economic issues and ensuring national food security. Currently, its development is innovations based, forming a high level of the country’s production and export potential. In the world ranking by the end of 2020, the Republic of Belarus took the 5th place in terms of milk exports (4.8 million tons). As world experience shows, the key direction is implementation of electronic identification of animals as an accounting system in agriculture, including assigning identification number to an animal by tagging, registering information about it in a database and issuing an appropriate passport. The paper summarizes and systematizes legal, organizational and financial conditions for creation and functioning of national information systems in Australia, Argentina, Brazil, Great Britain, the European Union, Canada, the Netherlands, the USA, Switzerland, and Japan. It has been determined that absence of a system for identifying the registration of farm animals leads to distortion of data on the number of livestock, and also creates obstacles for selection work and livestock breeding, decreases efficiency of antiepizootic measures, and inhibits international trade in animals and animal products. In development of this, the necessity of this process in the Republic of Belarus, feasibility of creating the state information system “AITS” (SIS AITS) and corresponding management structure – SI “Center for information systems in animal husbandry” are substantiated. With Gomel region as an example, peculiarities of planning and implementation of process of identification and registration of farm animals are disclosed, the main indicators of the efficiency of SIS AITS for 2013–2020 are analyzed. The advantages of commodity producers of the Republic of Belarus in the context of strengthening production and marketing and export potential and reducing risks in the domestic and foreign markets are substantiated. The issues presented in the article are of interest in determining measures for implementation of the State Program “Agrarian Business” for 2021-2025 and a strategy for the export of agricultural products and food products for the period up to 2025.

Full textVasilyuk O.Ya., Sheiko I.P., Gridyushko I.F.
Model genetic profiles of pigs of mother breeds on genes - productivity markers
Currently, development of molecular genetics and biology allows for genomic analysis and selection directly at the DNA level (marker-dependent selection). The aim of the research was to develop model genetic profiles for marker genes of quantitative traits of productivity of pigs of planned maternal breeds used in pig breeding. Such breeds in the Republic of Belarus are as follows: Belarusian large white, Belarusian black and white and Yorkshire. The studies were carried out at the agricultural branch of Zadneprovsky SGC, Orshansky Plant of Bread Products, JSC, Zarechye SGC, Zapadny SGC with populations of purebred animals of Belarusian Large White, Belarusian Black and White and Belarusian plant type of Yorkshire pigs during 2002-2018. Genetic testing was carried out with sows, boars and finishing pigs of maternal breeds. As a starting material, tissue samples from the auricle of pigs were used with DNA isolated and optimized for the analysis of gene polymorphism using PCR - RFLP method in the laboratories of molecular biotechnology and DNA testing (Research and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Animal Breeding) and animal genetics (Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus). As a result of studies based on the established polymorphism, model genetic profiles of maternal breeds of pigs were developed for marker genes of quantitative traits of productivity. The maximum achieved level of the preferred genotype for each marker gene among the three maternal breeds served as a model profile for the evaluated breeds (breeding young animals). For breeds with an established high level of marker gene polymorphism and productivity, a model profile has been developed that exceeds the achieved indicator by 8-10 p.p.

Full textMokhnachova N.B.
Genotyping of “Ukrainian” water buffaloes by genes β-CN (A2 – milk), CSN3 and βLG
Buffalo breeding in Ukraine is an ancient traditional branch of animal husbandry of the Crimean Tatars and Rusyns of Transcarpathia. Basically, "Ukrainian" buffaloes belong to the river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) and are bred for dairy and meat production. Polymorphism of genes associated with dairy productivity will allow breeding buffaloes taking into account the “desired” genotypes in relation to economically useful traits. The paper dwells on studying allelic polymorphisms of beta-casein (β-CN), kappa-casein (CSN3) and beta-lactoglobulin (β-LG) genes in population of water buffaloes bred in Ukraine using PCR followed by restriction hydrolysis of the formed fragments (PCR-RFLP). Results of study of the “Ukrainian” population of water buffaloes are discussed, namely: the frequency of genotypes and alleles at the loci of beta-casein, kappa-casein and beta-lactoglobulin genes. Amplified fragment β-CN with the length of 121 bp was digested with DdeI restriction enzyme. A feature of the allelic spectrum of the beta-casein gene (β-CN) in the studied population was absence of A1 allele. All animals carried the β-CN A2A2 genotype of beta-casein gene, respectively, β-CN A2 allele frequency was 1.0. For the CSN3 gene, an amplified fragment in 273 bp was digested with HinfI restriction enzyme. A 100% predominance of animals with the most preferred homozygous CSN3 BB genotype was revealed. During the β-LG gene study process, an amplified fragment with a size of 247 bp was digested with HaeIII. It has been determined that the most frequent was allele βLGA and genotype βLGAA of beta-lactoglobulin gene (0.96 and 0.92, respectively). Heterozygous β-LG AB genotype is present in 8 % of buffaloes. The research results are of interest in the field of molecular genetic analysis of the buffalo genome, which are the source of specific properties. The data obtained can be useful for preserving and increasing the genetic diversity of the “Ukrainian” population of water buffaloes, as well as for obtaining valuable products from buffaloes. Acknowledgments. This research was performed with supported of the program F "Genetic assessment of animal reference populations for SNP-polymorphism of different DNA loci", SR No. 0121U109254.


Full textPrishchepov M.A., Zelenkevich A.I., Zbrodyga V.M.
Advanced power transformer with improved characteristics for rural mains
The problem of power quality supply is relevant for rural electrical networks, due to long distance and branching, as well as connection of a large number of single-phase and non-linear loads. Asymmetry of electrical loads causes voltage asymmetry, which adversely affects the operation of all elements of the electrical system, causing additional power losses, reducing the service life of electrical equipment and its economic performance, as well as reliability of operation of individual electrical equipment and power supply system as a whole. Reduction of voltage asymmetry can be ensured by rational construction of electrical network circuit and use of special correcting devices. The authors consider it reasonable to use relatively simple and reliable by design and inexpensive power transformers with a “star - double zigzag with a zero wire” (Y/2Zн) winding connection circuit with a neutral winding connection group. The paper deals with design and processes of converting electrical energy in a transformer. It has been proved that phase EMF of the secondary winding coincides in phase with the same EMF of the primary winding, i.e. the proposed circuit has a neutral windings’ connection group. Results of theoretical studies of transformer operation with an asymmetric and non-linear load are presented. Decrease in voltage asymmetry is due to the neutral sequence components compensation. Decrease of the higher harmonic voltage components level occurs due to the compensation of the higher harmonics multiplied three times. It is theoretically substantiated that transformer will not emit higher harmonic components of zero sequence voltages into the supply network. Experimental studies have confirmed the theoretical conclusions that a transformer with Y/2Zн winding connection circuit allows obtaining the highest level of voltage symmetry with an asymmetric load. In single-phase load mode, the values of voltage unbalance factor in reverse sequence do not exceed 1.7 %, in neutral sequence - 2.9 %. The transformer allows obtaining 1.2-1.5 times lower value of total harmonic components factor at non-linear load, which is the best result among circuits studied. This power transformer is resistant to load effects that distort voltage quality and is capable to provide a high level of symmetry and sinusoidal voltage as well as parallel operation with commercially available transformers. This makes it possible to use it in rural electrical networks to reduce power losses, increase service life and efficiency of electrical equipment, and increase reliability of the power supply system.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textMerzlov S.V., Fedoruk N.N., Andriichuk A.V., Fedoruk Yu.V., Nadtochii V.N., Hrebelnyk O.P., Kalinina H.P., Polishchuk S.A.
Impact of lactic acid product on quality indices of raw meat for the smoked sausages production
Background: Conducted research pertains to technologies of animal products processing and the development of biotechnological methods for stabilizing microbial and enzymatic biological leaven for meat. Materials and Methods. The studies were conducted in the conditions of the Research Institute of Food and Animal Processing Technologies and Laboratory of Microbiological Research Methods, Department of Microbiology of Bila Tserkva National Agrarian University. Moisture retaining capacity and bacterial contamination of beef and pork were determined. Results. The effect of processing raw meat with lactic acid product – yogurt on the moisture retaining capacity was experimentally established. With the highest titratable acidity of yoghurt of 100-110 °T, the moisture retaining capacity of pork and beef was inferior to control on 2.13 and 1.29 % and amounted to 51.88 and 62.73 %. Under a titratable acidity of lactic acid beverage of 100-110 °T with total number of lactic acid bacteria on the surface of raw meat, it was 8.1 x 108 and 8.5 x 108, which prevailed samples with acidity level of 60-70 °T on 24.5 and 24.3 %. Conclusions. The results of studies have revealed the effect of processing raw meat by yogurt with different titratable acidity on moisture retaining capacity and bacterial contamination.

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