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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2001 №1

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textV. Gusakov, A. Svyatogor.
Problems and methods of increasing the efficiency of agriculture in Belarusian Polesye region
Polesye is a large agro-industrial region in Belarus. The specific of it's natural and economic conditions as well as the problem of considerable contamination needs special approach to utilization of production resources. The article is dedicated to problems and methods of increasing efficiency of agriculture in Polesye. The main aspect is the proper application of radiological control, moderate intensification, adaptive systems of farming and animal breeding necessary for preserving environment and ensuring paybacks of financial and labor inputs.

Full textP. Kovel.
Methodological problems of reliability evaluation of conclusions and suggestions in agrarian economy
The paper exposes the content and tiie importance of reliability evaluation of conclusions and suggestions of the project or undertaking by making decisions about the expediency of its realization at an agricultural enterprise. The expediency of the undertaking is determined according to the developed method, not only by its effectiveness, but also by the expected result. A distinguishing feature of this method is taking into account the peculiarities of undertakings realization at every enterprise according to 30 indices in calculation formulas from the theory ofprobability and mathematical statistics. The examples of methods aimed at the evaluation of reliability of conclusions and suggestions by restructuring a fattening complex and financial stimulation are given.

Full textP. Leschilovsky, L. Nazarchuk.
Peculiar features of labor in rural areas
The article deals with forming and utilizing labor resources in rural areas. It provides the models of employment for different Belarusian conditions. The author proposes a three stage model of distributing labor potential.

Full textM. Sumonov.
Who forms the World's agrarian market
The stale and the trends of the World and European agricultural markets. Countries-leaders in exporting and importing agricultural products (cereals, meat, milk, fish products).

Full textE. Pugacheva, N. Pugachev.
Agrarian reforms in the Ukraine
The article provides the main stages of reforming ownership in the Ukrainian agriculture. Special attention is focused on the Presidential decree of Dec, 3, 1999, which triggered agrarian reforms. The privatization results, changed organizational and legal forms, lease systems are analyzed.

Full textD. Statkevich.
The model of creating open joint stock company "Belptitseprom" in the form of a holding.
The article proposes the way for poultry breeding enterprises to come over the difficult financial situation by transforming the national association "Belptitseprom " into an open holding company. The article provides organization and management structure as well as detailed responsibilities and the system of decision taking.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textGrib O., Pavlovich L.
Creating feature collection and aspect of its utilization
The reasons on which it is expedient to create character collection on a crop under breeding are shown on the concrete examples. A version of morphological diversity regulation basing on genelical control of characters within species is proposed.

Full textZhukova P., Kamzolova O.
Present state and rational use of herbicides in vegetable growing
The authors show the effectiveness of herbicides use coupled with soil tillage, various ways of herbicides application (overall and band), use of herbicide mixtures and application of herbicides under various conditions of mineral nutrition.

Full textPiskun G.
Principles and results of breeding phytophthora resistant potatoes
Late blight of potato is one of the most dangerous disease. In epiphytotic years tubers yield loss can reach 50-60%. Creation of callirars with a high degree of field resistance is one of the way to solve tliis problem. In this case inheritance of criterion carries out intermediate character. That means polygenic control and complex type of gene interaction. The main method of Phytophthora resistant caltirars creation is interspecific hybridization. The sources of mentioned above resistance are wild and primitive species growing up in epiphytotic places. As a result, the caltirars with leaves and tubers resistance to Phytophthora has been received.

Full textYakovleva G.
Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTV). Testing BRIP wild potatoes collection in-vitro in Belarusian Potato Growing Research Institute
The paper presents short review about PSTVd: names of the disease: causal agent and host range: symptoms of disease on potato: visual diagnosis of PSTVd: conditions for disease development: pathways of PSTVd contamination: geographic distribution and technique of PSTVd eradication: methods of PSTVd identification. The results of NASH test of BRIP collection in vitro of cultivars and potato wild species on presence of PSTVd are presented at the end of paper. NASH test was conducted in collaboration with CIP (Lima, Peru). BRIP collection in vitro of initial forms for breeding and seed-growing is free from PSTVd.

Full textUsenya A.
Productivity of clover-timothy mixture and its predecessor's impact on barley yields depending on rotation type and utilization regime
The article contains the data on productivity of clover-timothy mixture and its influence, as a predecessor, on yield of barley depending on concentration and return period on the previous place in a crop rotation.

Full textRupasova Z., Ignatenko V.,Rudakovskaya R., Kukhareva L., Plenina L., Khlyustov S.
Formation of the complex of photosynthesizing pigments in (Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey) in the conditions of Belarus
Accumulation parameters and main tendencies have been determined in seasonal dynamics of chlorophylls, carotenoids and relationship of some groups of green and yellow pigments of plaslids in overground organs and phytomass of (Agastache rugosa (Fisch. et Mey) when introduced in soil and climatic conditions of Belarus. It has been established that the highest accumulation of photosynthesizing pigments in hay mass of the plant is marked at the phase of vegetation with further lowering of their level by the end of the season. Maximum content of chlorophylls and β-carotine in overground phytomass is marked at 12°° and xanthophyll - at 15°°

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textPilyuk N.
Optimization of mineral feedings of ruminant animals and use of local sources of raw materials
Mineral supplements from the local sources (MSLS) - gallites, phosphogypsum, and dolomites - were tasted in a series of field and metabolic trials on cattle and sheep of different ages in comparison with traditional mineral additives such as salt, sodium sulphate and magnesium oxide. It is estimated that die feeding of local sources in comparison with traditionally proposed increases the yield of milk containing 4 per cents of grease by 5,7 %, live weight gain by 2,9-4,3 %, the volume of ejaculate by 7-10, total number of sperm cells in ejaculate by 1,3-17,9, quantity of particles by 4,2-8,7 %, it reduces expenses for cattle feeding by 2,2 %, prime cost of cattle gaining by 6,4, the cost of every frozen particle by 4,2-8,2 %. Blood and rumen parameters, meat and milk qualities in experimental and control animals were within standard ranges. Rumen digestion, metabolism, live weight gains, wool production and reproductive performance of sheep were not negatively affected by MSLS.

Full textRumachik I., Kuznetsow N.
Different methods of approach to diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis and their efficiency
The comparative analysis of results of the allergic examination of cattle in tuberculosis - free husbandries using different methods (1 - in accordance with the instruction, 2 - method of accelerated differentiation of tuberculin reactions, 3 - use of purified specific allergen) has shown that both methods permit to decrease an ungrounded slaughter of cows reacting to tuberculin owing to sensibilization of their bodies by atypical mycobacteria.

Full textGerasimchik V.
Symptoms of experimental isosporosis in minks, caused by Isospora Laidlawi
Isosporosis in mink infected with I. laidlawi at dosage 6000 and 12000 oocysts runs acute with the characteristic clinical signs, pathoanatomic changes peculiar for the given invasion and mortal to 70% of animals, which indicates the high pathogenity of the I. laidlawi.

Full textKosianenko S.
Use of the sexual behaviour of muscovy drakes for selection
The sexual behaviour is one of the most important sign of ethology. In the article is shown that this sign can be used for selection. The Muscovy drakes were estimated by time of courtship and semen quality in die 8-monthly age. The sign of reaction on duck are determined by die time of courtship which best of all (r=0,5) was succeed from fathers to their sons. It has been established dial time of courtship for pedigree muscovy drakes cannot be longer then 40 s.

Full textKorobko A.
Productivity, natural resistance and viability of calves under the influence of biological stimulators
Problems of the estimation of natural resistance of animal by their individual immunologic blood parameters are discussed. The influence of colostrum preparations in combination with Estipfan as an immunostimulator on the growth rate and the main parameters of the immune system of calves was studied. Recommendations on how to use biological stimulators from colostrum of higher resistance cows are given. The influence of colostrum containing medicines on growth, development and immune system of calves in combination with immune stimulator is studied.

Full textBelobokaya O.
Milk protein content of BBW cows and its relationships with other milk production traits
Information about milk protein percentage of Belorussion Black and White cows and interrelationships within milk protein percentage and other milk production parameters are given. It was found that average milk protein content was 2,90-3,14% on most farms. Average milk protein percentage was found to be dependent on average milk yield on the farm: the lower is the milk yield on the farm, the lower is the average milk protein percentage. The estimate of protein content and phenotypic correlation variability between protein percentage in milk of different protein containing and other features is given. This has made it possible to make the conclusion about the necessity of cattle selection by the criterion of protein containing in milk. Here is given the forecast how the selection by the criterion of milk yield and protein percentage in milk will effect the protein containing in milk of Belarusian Black & While cattle.

Full textKovalevsky V.
The new enzymatic additive Fekord YP in rations of fattening cattle
The results of experiments on the efficiency enzymatic additive Fekord YP feeding to fattening cattle are discussed. It was found, that feeding 0,075 % of enzymatic additive in DM allowed to improve the digestion of nutrients by 0,7-6,0 % and to increase average daily gains by 12%, at the reduction of feed expenses on 1 kg of gain by 11%.

Full textGribanov V.
Mineral additive for fattening cattle on diets with distillers grains
A new complex mineral additive (CMA) has been formulated to balance diets based on distillers grains for fattening cattle. CKA included 41 % of gallites, 38 % of phosphogypsum, 21% of dolomite by weight supplemented with trace elements: copper, zinc, iodine and cobalt. It was found that better mineral nutrition of experimental steers resulted in better rumen digestion and nubrients digestibility by 3-4%, higfier arerage daily gains during 165 days of CMA feeding by 8% (830 g/day) and lower feed expenses by 0,8 F.U./kg of weidht gain including 0,5 F.U./of concentrates/kg of gain. The economical gain of CMA feeding to young fattening cattle was due to the lower self cost of gain by 20,6%.

UpMechanization and power engineering

Full textSharshunov V., Chervyakov A., Radchenko A., Kurzenkov S.
Design parameters of feeding mechanisms of grain transferors
The existing techniques of a deepened treatment of have been grain during the process of mixed feed production. Technologies which allow to increase greatly nutritious qualities of grain and realize inactivation of antinutritious substances are studied. The design of feeding mechanism and metiiods of calculations of its main parameters are proposed. Their right choice gives die possibility to provide qualitative treatment of tin; material in the stream of heat transferor.

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