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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2001 №4

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering, proccessing and storage of agrarian produce

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textGusakov V., Svyatogor A.
Current status and prospects of fodder production and animal breeding
The article analyses the current status of fodder production and animal breeding, demonstrates their interrelation and forecasts the development. The accent is made on intensifying these branches and increasing the efficiency. One of the key points is resource saving and costs pay back. Strict adherence to the technological requirements is regarded as the basis for efficient farming, where the incentive based salaries is the one of the most important factors.

Full textIlchik V., Matoh S.
The role of the state budget in financing agricultural production
Budgetary financing is the central element of the state support to the agriculture, which allows regulating the producers profits by non-price methods, solving nation-wide issues that cannot be solved at the expense of individual means. The article reflects the levels and directions of budgetary financing of agriculture and provides proposals for improvements.

Full textShebeko K.
Institutional aspects of the forms of the work of food markets operators in the commodity channels
The article provides the optimal algorithm for the deals made by food market operators, based on the theory of transactions costs and the theory of contracts. The proposed approach allows solving the problem of independent work of the operators in the market or creating accountable structures, which may be used by the operators to strengthen their position in the commodity channels The method of assessing the level of transactions costs on the basis of ordinal approach has been used. It allowed to justify the forms of the work of food markets operators in the commodity channels.

Full textShibeko A.
Intensification and efficiency are the main factors for stabilizing agricultural production
The article considers the modern level of cost efficiency of the current agricultural resources. Basing on limited material and financial inputs it is proposed to redistribute them from the low fertility soils to high fertility soils, which ensure better pay back.

Full textMalitsky M., Stankevich B.
Current status and prospects of the development of agriculture in Poland
The article considers Polish agriculture at the background of the states of European Community: and provides the national concept for the development of the agriculture in the near future. The article also analyses structural policy of developing agricultural territories in the context of functioning agriculture.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textNikonchik P.
Accumulation of yield biomass, consuming and returning nutrients into soil in rotations with intermediary cultures
The article provides the results of the research on accumulation of yield biomass, rot and crop residues as well as the amount of main nutrition elements remained after harvesting and left in soil with root and surface plant residues in crop rotations with inter-planted crops.

Full textLihatsevich A., Shkutkov E.
Assessment of decommissioning the meliorated territories in Belarus
The authors discuss possible consequences of decommissioning part of sown areas of meliorated lands. The aim of such decommissioning is to bring down the costs of treating low productivity soils. The resources saved are proposed for application to the remaining areas, which will in the long run ensure the gross product. The analysis of the experimental data demonstrated that decreasing the efficiency and increasing the NPK level cannot preserve the gross product unless the total volume of fertilizers is increased, in this case the volume of the fertilizers applied to the decommissioned areas will be more than the volume applied to the whole area. The article suggests the criteria of the choice and utilization of such areas in the conditions of decommissioning agricultural lands.

Full textSemenko N., Pochitskaya I.
Impact of the methods of applying nitrogen fertilizers on the formation of the elements of cereals' productivity on eroded soils
The impact of applying nitrogen fertilizers on the formation of the elements of cereals productivity (winter rye, barley, oats) on eroded sails has been studied on the basis of single time and repealed application, differently eroded soils and keeping in mind the soil-plant diagnosis. It has been proved that repealed applications of nitrogen, as compared with single time application of N90, on 8-12% eroded sols ensures increasing the productivity of stems, the number of grains and the weight of 1000 grains. In these conditions the yield of cereals increases on middle eroded soils by 0,37t/h for winter rye, 1,0t/h for barley, 0,74t/h for oats and on strongly eroded soils accordingly by 0,65; 1,31; and 0,63 t/h.

Full textPrischepa I.
Biological aspects of the modification of herbicide action in the conditions of their combined application with mineral salts and surfactants in spring barley and winter wheat crops
The evaluation of herbicide mixtures with mineral salts and surfactants in relation to dicotyledonous weeds in spring barley and winter wheat crops has allowed determining the availability of interaction between them. The essential amplification of herbicidal activity of basagran, pardner, desormone and dialen used in mixture with mineral fertilizers and surfactants on semi and weak sensitive weed species has been statistically determined, which would allow reducing herbicide application by 25-30%. For this the total doze of main nitrogen fertilizers used in mixtures with herbicides for outside root application of fertilizers to spring barley: and winter wheat, aimed at preventing the phytotoxic action on the crop should not be more than N10 and UAN - not more than N20.

Full textGuzhev P., Bachilo N., Bulavin L.
The impact of the main methods of soil cultivation on intensiveness of water erosion of slope areas and productivity of crop rotation
Subsoiling of slop areas allows reducing soil drainage by 38-54% in comparison with cultivating such areas. The productivity of 8-crop rotation was approximately the same for subsoiling and cultivating.

Full textEvsikov D., Ivanyuk V.
Lupine anthracnose and means to overcome it
The article provides the information on specific composition of anthracnose agents found in lupine in Belarus and determines harmfulness and sources of the infection. The dominating species causing the disease epiphytothies and the environmental factors determining the character of the disease have been outlined as well as the range of plants with the marked development of pathogens. The article also reveals most infected organs and stages of lupine development and suggests organizational, economic, agro-technical and chemical methods of reducing the harmfulness of the fungi C. gloeosporioides and K. caulivora.

Full textPrivalov F.
The impact of "multamin'" preparation on the process of growth
Treatment of barley seeds with multamin ensures yield surplus by 0,59 tons per hectare in comparison with non-treated seeds.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textSheiko I., Shatsky M.
Interrelation and forecasting of the pigs reproductive properties of Belarusian meat breed and white heavy breed
The article describes the peculiarities of the reproductive properties of Belarusian meal breed and while heavy breed of pigs (the volume of ejaculation, sperm concentration, mobility, longevity of the sperm, fecundate ability and prolificacy). Interbreed differences of couple and multiple coefficients of correlation as well us coefficients of determination, which reveal priority: traits (sperm concentration, its longevity, ejaculation volume) for forecasting reproductive, indicators have been determined in the article. The article also provides the equations for multiple regressions allowing to forecast some parameters on the basis of the existing ones, which have small differences with the actual quantities. It gives the opportunity lo use them as additional criteria while selecting the above breeds.

Full textKarput I., Nikoladze M.
Iron metabolism in healthy piglets and those having alimentary anaemia
Alimentary anaemia, appearing in piglets by 9-17 day of life results in iron metabolism disorder, which is demonstrated by the decrease of iron content in the serum, the increase of general and latent iron-binding capacity of the blood as well as transferrin content in the blood. At the same time the saturation ratio of transferring is reduced. The treatment of the piglets with ferroglucin-75 or a complex mineral compound (KMP) normalizes iron metabolism and prevents the development of anaemia.

Full textBudevich I., Budevich A., Kozel A.
The efficiency of vitamin B6 in the technology of cryopreservation of bovine embryos
The article studies the influence of vitamin B6, input in cryoprotective mediums, on the safety and frequency of implantation of bovine embryos after thawing. Introduction of the vitamin in cryoprotective medium on the basis of glycerin has allowed increasing the safely of the germs in the experiment by 7,5% (97,5 vs 90,6) and the frequency of implantation by 5,25 (51,4 vs 56,2) in comparison with the control group of embryos, frozen without the vitamin. Introduction of the vitamin into cryoprotector of ethylene glycol has not revealed essential differences in the safety of defrosted zygotes in experiment and control groups (95,0% and 95,2% accordingly). However, it ensured the increase of the percentage of the frequency of implantation of the germ by 5,4% in the experimental group (54,1% and 48,7%). Consequently, the usage of vitamin B6 in composition with cryoprotective mediums renders positive influence on rising cryoresistancy of implantation of bovine embryos.

Full textGidranovich V., Akhtanina M.
Influence of ascorbic acid and selenium on carbohydrates metabolism in sows and sucking piglets growth
The prevalence of phosphate pathway of carbohydrates metabolism in the blood of pregnant and lactating sows as well as sucking piglets has been found. The article studies on a comparative basis the role of ascorbic acid in the dosage of 2,5 and 10,0 milligrams per kilogram and sodium selenite in the dosage of 0,1 milligram per kilogram in connection with glycolysis and pentose phosphate pathway regulation on the organisms of the sows during pregnancy, lactation and their influence on the development of sucking piglets and their growth via mothers organism. The stimulating effect of ascorbic acid on pentose phosphate pathway in the organism of brood-sows, sucking piglets, embryonic development, growth and safety of pigs has been studied.

Full textMorozov D., Abramov S.
The comparative efficiency of enterosgel and sodium hypocloritis while treating calves with gastroenteritis
The purpose of the research was to develop a new method of treating calves with gastroenteritis by new means of desintoxication therapy with many side properties, without any application of anti microbe preparations. The calves analogues at the age of one month were the object of the research. They were distributed into four groups, 3 experimental and one control, 15 heads each. Experiment used the sorbent enterosgel, which was set inside in intervals between feedings two time per day in a doze of 0,3g/kg and the solution of sodium hypocloritis intra abdominally once per day in a doze of 5ml/kg and their complex under the same pattern. The control group was treated by the method, usually used by the farms. The studies were focused on the impact of the treatments on the gemotology, biochemical parameters, natural resistance factors and immune reactance. The results demonstrated high therapeutic effeel of the new drugs without anti microbe preparations. Enterosgel and sodium hypocloritis had fast normalizing effect on parameters researched approximately equally. These facts dictate the necessity of their use in veterinary.

UpMechanization and power engineering, proccessing and storage of agrarian produce

Full textKorotkevich A., Kolodich P., Yatsko N., Tsai V., Piunovsky I., Borisenko E., Rimburg A., Karelin V.
Efficiency of forage making and storing in polymeric package
Grass silage made of cut grass stored in cylindrical bales in polymeric package in comparison with traditional storing allows reducing dry matter waste by 1,2-4,2%, feeding units - by 2,6-7,4 and protein by 3,1-15,1%. Forage pressing by pick-up-balers and winding bales with a net allowed increasing bales weight by 50% and decreasing the costs by 24%, time of bale making was also considerably less. When this silage was fed to growing cattle, animals average daily gains were 7-7,4% higher and feed expenses 6-7,1% lower. This technology of grass silage making allows to get extra 120 kg of weight gain.

Full textDashkov V., Kitikov V.
The prospects for the improvement of milking installations in Belarus
The directions of restructuring and reequippingmilk diary farms and complexes in Belarus have been pointed out on the basis of the comparative analysis of the efficiency of milking installations of different types, the performance of production lines and economic analysis of the sets advertised for the industry. This will allow considerably raise the milk quality and reduce technological losses by 10-15%.

Full textIvanov V.
Improvement of the organization of spares restoration
A new concept of the preparation for repair production has been suggested. It is based on restoration of the characteristics of wear and tear components (parts). Methodological principle of the conception is the possibility of using limited number of modulus technological processes and at the same time restoration of unlimited number of components. A content of technological modulus of restoration of basic characteristics of component elements is cited. Using the results of the work can ensure decreasing labor consumption and periods of technological preparation for repair production.

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