ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 374-02-45
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2022 №4

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products


Full textPilipuk A. V., Gerasenko A. V.
Institutional features of corporate investment development in the Belarusian state consortium of food industry “Belgospishcheprom”
In the modern economy, it is important to build a management vertical that will allow for an effective and prompt response to emerging challenges and threats in the food market. This, in turn, requires transformation of existing organizational forms of economic activity, as well as through creation of more advanced and aggressive ones – corporations. This work is being carried out by the Government of the Republic of Belarus. Relevant instructions have been sent to the Ministry of Industry, consortiums Bellegprom, Bellesbumprom and Belgospishcheprom. However, in the legislation of the Republic of Belarus, this form of management is not represented, respectively, there are no uniform approaches regarding its content, mechanism and methods of creation, and advantages, especially in investment activities. In this regard, the study aims to substantiate and develop practice-oriented scientific approaches to the evolution and content of the “corporation” category, to assess the role of the investment component in the development of the corporate management mechanism, to identify the most important features of corporate investment, as well as to disclose the advantages that have allowed corporations to become successful and popular forms of organization of economic relations around the world. As a result of the study, the criteria for classifying legal entities created in the Republic of Belarus as corporations were specified and an appropriate analysis was carried out for compliance.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textMikhailouskaya N. A., Kasyanchyk S. A., Mezentseva A. G., Pagirnitskaya T. V.
Enzyme diagnostics for evaluation of effect of nitrogen fertilizers on mineralization and humification processes in sod-podzolic soils
Ecological management of soil resources is an urgent task involving periodic assessment of effect of fertilizers and other anthropogenic factors on the rate and direction of organic matter transformation. Mineralization and humification of organic residues are the most important functions of the soil, which determine its fertility and are closely related to the biochemical activity of microbial communities. When using intensive agricultural technologies, it is required to timely identify potential risks of reducing soil fertility. Taking into account the biochemical nature of the processes of mineralization and humification of organic substances, it is advisable to use indicators of enzymatic activity for this purpose. Enzymes are the most important metabolites of microorganisms. When choosing enzymatic indicators for a reliable assessment of influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the activity of mineralization and humification, we took into account large-scale and universal processes in the cycles of the main biogenic elements – carbon and nitrogen. Soil enzyme diagnostics was shown to be likely useful instrument for evaluation of natural and anthropogenic factors effect on mineralization and humification processes in sod-podzolic soils. The most informative enzymatic tests for characterization of soil biochemical status in C and N cycles were determined. Biochemical coefficient was proposed as a resulting criteria for interpretation of enzymes activity data, allowing to compare humification and mineralization activities, reveal their disbalance and control of anthropogenic impact on soils. Experimental data on the effect of nitrogen fertilizers on the activity and ratio of humification and mineralization, obtained in long-term field experiments on soddy-podzolic soils of different granulometric composition and level of fertility are presented.

Full textZakharov A. M., Minin V. B., Murzaev E. A., Mishanov A. P., Ivanov D. Y.
Effect of deep loosening of inter-rows on physical properties of sod-podzolic soil and yield of organic potato
The purpose of this research is to study the effect of deep loosening of row spacings on the physical properties of the soil and yield of organic potatoes. Two variants of soil cultivation were used in row spacings: usual and 25 cm deep. The soil cultivation was carried out with a row-crop chisel cultivator. Its design was developed at the institute. Analysis of the data obtained as a result of experimental studies showed that deep loosening of row spacings had a positive effect on soil compaction both in the inter-row width and directly in the plough ridge. The soil compaction in the row spacing during normal tillage was in average above 20 %, and in the ridge by an average of 13 % compared to deep tillage. The assimilation of moisture by the soil with when using of deep loosening of row spacings also had a positive trend, especially under condition of a large amount of precipitation in a short period of time. Thus, with a loss of 34 mm, the soil in the variant with loosening the row spacings in a larger volume absorbed moisture and the moisture indicators increased sharply in layers, at 15 cm by 27 %, at 25 cm by 20 %, at 35 cm by 5 %. Potato yield increased by 8.7 % when using deep loosening of row spacings. The obtained results of experimental studies should be used as recommendations when carrying out technological operations aimed at caring for potato plantings.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSidorova V. Yu., Petrov E. B., Novikov N. N.
Application of digital models for improvement of beef cattle feeding graphs
The beef cattle breeding development is one of the strategic directions for the livestock development in Russia and the CIS countries, including the Republic of Belarus. The livestock fattening most important point is minimizing the costs. Studies have shown that the animals’ greatest body weight 900 kg had had adult culled cattle over a period of 120 days, as well as heifers with calving on pasture during the 30-month fattening. During 28-month fattening of suckling steers at pasture housing, the amount of feed energy unit per day turned out to be the smallest among technologies with the largest number of fattening periods, and amounted to 29.3 at animals fattening during five periods of pasture housing versus 39.7 in two periods of intensive grain fattening: 1 day of pasture housing costs 3.5 versus 12.5 feed energy unit in other periods. In young animals raised on suckling, the best average body weight was equal to 720 kg, but weaning calves showed 710 kg. The feed costs per 1 kg of weight gain were equal to 0.04, 0.10 and 0.09 respectively, i. e. the smallest amount of feed was spent for suckling young animals’ fattening, and the largest – for weaning calves. Efficiency of fattening in rubles made 21.0, 56.4 and 48.0 rubles per 1 kg of weight gain, respectively, or in terms of 1 period of fattening of grown animals – 56.4 rubles, young animals raised at suckling – 6.8, and weaning calves – 19.2. The obtained data allows, through the biological methods and mathematical models individual for each group of cattle at fattening, to obtain optimal weight gain with minimized feed costs.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textKazakevich P. P., Yurin A. N.
Theoretical study of damaging pomaceous fruits during machine harvesting
The article presents theoretical studies of contact of fruits with each other and with the transporting organs of the harvesting unit. Such contact is the main cause of damage, which negatively affects the safety of crop and the quality of products sold, and hence its cost. The paper considers the main, most probable ways of fruit contact: impact of fruit on a hard surface, impact of two free fruits and impact of fruit on the surface of densely lying fruits. It has been determined that fruits that are in contact during free rolling on the working surface receive the greatest damage. This is due to the fact that the contact pressure during the collision of free fruits is greater than the pressure when the fruit hits a flat surface. As a result of the study, the permissible speed of falling apples on the surface of their tightly lying fruits is 1.9 m/s at a falling height of 0.183 m and a ratio of the radii of the contacting fruits k = 1/2, or 1.25 m/s and 0.08 m at k =1, or 0.67 m/s and 0.023 m at k = 2. The results of the research were applied by Scientific and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Agriculture Mechanization in the development of a self-propelled universal unit for picking fruits and forming branches of fruit trees ASU-6.

Full textPryshchepau M. A.
Calculation of mechanical and electromechanical characteristics of asynchronous motors with a short-circuit rotor with variable parameters of its equivalent circuit
When calculating the mechanical and electromechanical characteristics of asynchronous motors (AM), as a rule, their T-shaped equivalent circuits (EC) are used. Parameters of these circuits, determined from reference literature or catalogs, are constant values and correspond to the working part of the characteristics in terms of the rated speed or motor slip. Calculations of the mechanical and electromechanical characteristics of the AM at constant values of the parameters of the EC of AM in a wide range of their speed or slips lead to significant errors outside the operating part of the characteristics. The paper presents a methodology and algorithm for calculating mechanical and electromechanical characteristics of АМ with a short-circuit rotor at variable parameters of their equivalent circuit, as well as checking the coincidence of the results of calculating the characteristics according to the proposed algorithm with the calculation results obtained by another well-known method.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Products

Full textBrechko E. V., Trepashko L. I.
Basic aspects determining dynamics of storage pests’ population in technocenoses of grain storage facilities of the Republic of Belarus
Nowadays the problem of storage pests is of current interest, as arthropods living in grain storage facilities and eating grain cause both direct and indirect damage. As a result of the research carried out in 2019–2020 in storehouses of Belarus, the species composition of stored grain pests including 17 species was specified. The paper focuses on the aspects affecting the change of species composition, dominance structure, dynamics of pests’ population when agricultural products are stored in grain storage facilities. It has been determined that the structure of fauna depended on the method of storage (floor storage, bin storage), purpose of products (seed or forage grain), construction and types of storage facilities (airproof, not airproof). In unfilled storehouses coleopterans dominated with a floor storage (84.4 % of the total number), and ticks at bin storage (56.3 %). In grain storage facilities for seeds grain ticks were additional species (27.5 %), and they were permanent in storage facilities for forage grain (52.9 %). The pests were not discovered in disinfected airproof grain storage facilities with seed grain. Abiotic factor (temperature and air humidity) is a key predictor regulating dynamics of the population of stored grain pests during winter and spring-summer periods. The reduction of sensitivity of lesser grain borer (death in 50 %) and ticks (death in 73.6 %) to insectoacaricide with pirimiphos methyl as well as rice weevil (50 %), rust-red grain beetle (20 %) and ticks (48.5 %) to the composition of bifenthrin and malathion was identified for the first time in Belarus. The data indicating obligatory after harvest treatment of grain (cleaning and drying) were obtained, as soon as the absence of these elements in the protection technology brings about the development of ticks during autumn-spring period. The findings can be used for the development of antiresistant and ecologically sound systems of protection against storage pests.

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