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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2002 №2

Contents:
General annual meeting
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering
Opinions of the scientists

UpGeneral annual meeting

Full textGrib S.
The results and the problems of the scientific research for the sector of arable farming and plant growing

Full textSheiko l.
The results of the work of the animal breeding and veterinary division of the Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus within 1992-2001

Full textNagorsky I., Dashkov V.
The status and the prospects for the development of the agro engineering research in Belarus

Full textGusakov V.
Scientific foundation for stabilizing the development of the agricultural production

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textKukresh L.
Costs in agro-industrial complex (AIC): the reasons and solutions
The article provides the analysis of the reasons why AIC has high costs in ali major sectors of agricultural production andsuggests ways of their reducing, appiicable to any economie entity.

Full textLeschilovsky P., Maksimchuk A., Bochonko V.
The role of the ownership in increasing the efficiency of the enterprises
The article demonstrates the essence, the role and the influence of the ownership in a transition economy, ft has been fixed that it is the main determinant in the efficiency of the economic entities, but not the only one. There are a number of other elements. The article studies competition, outside factors, the role of the stale and legislation. The above is the basis for the conclusions regarding state withdrawal and privatization.

Full textBrechko Ya., Sumonov M.
The first year of the new millennium, how the agriculture started
The article analyses the status of the agricultural enterprises, food industry and other enterprises-members to the AIC. Special attention is paid to the financial situation in agriculture, foreign economic activities, and utilization of the technological potential. The article provides suggestions and conclusions on further improving the economic relations in AIC.

Full textGorfinkel M.
The structure of the characteristics of an AIC enterprise
The structure adds the explanation of the interaction between indices to the description of the indices dynamics. The dynamics of indices is described by the components fi (t), i = 1,n, t1<t<t2 of the system. The structure is built as a transformation of the components ti(t) into the elements yi , when (t2-t1) ->0; well-known and common characteristics are used for the description of the elements: mean y=&#8721;y/n, standard deviation s =[E (yi -y)2/(n-1)]11/2 and structure Yi = (yi -y)/s. Under the inverse transformation, that is under the restoring of the condition t1<t<t2, the elements у i are restored into the components fi (t), while characteristics у; s and Yi in their turn to A(t) = &#8721; fi (t)/n, B(t) = [&#8721;(fi (t) -A(t))2/(n-1)] 1/2 and Ci (t)=[ fi (t) - A(t)]/B(t), where Ci (t) is the structure of the components. The structure Ci (t) reflects the dynamics of every index and the interaction among all the indices, it combines simplicity of the explanation and novelty of the results, as well as the comformity between the observed data and calculated values.

Full textNeusypov M.
The prerequisites for creating a cooperative organization of the small-scale farms in horticulture
The article analyses the prerequisites for creating agricultural cooperatives on purchasing, storing, processing and distributing horticulture products grown by private individuals. The article suggests the procedures of creating a cooperative, determines its optimal size and additional functions, which would contribute to increasing the efficiency of the small-scale producers. The mechanism of the cooperation with other elements of the same market has been also suggested.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textGrib O., Pavlovich L., Grib D.
The methods of creating the initial material for the barley with the high content of lysine
Comparative study of initial material was carried out. Hybrids were obtained by the classical method of donor breeding and the method of recombinative synthesis worked out by the authors and based on modern knowledge of genetical character control. The given material persuades in favour of new method, introduction of which assumes decision of the main problems of barley with high lysine content The gene system by the morphological grain structure providing transgressive variability by a given character was developed.

Full textAutko A., Rupasova Zh., Autko A.
The influence of weather conditions and mineral feeding level on the element composition of the subsurface biomass of the spicy-aroma medical plants of the Labiatae specie in Belarus
Installed aspectual particularities of accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in elevated fitomassa Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Melissa officinalis in the phase of mass blossom depending on weather conditions vegetation period and mineral feeding level.

Full textLeonovich I.
The growth and the productivity of apple trees in different types of high-density orchards
Apple trees of cvs. Antey and Tellisaare on the rootstocks of different vigor (semidwarf stock 54-118 and dwarf stock 62-396) of planting design with the planting density from 1250 till 3380 trees per a hectare in different (one-, double- and three-row) systems of tree planting, The most productive types of orchards in different age periods were screened During the periods of grows andfruiting the double-and three-row high density plantings had the advantage on the yielding, but at the fruiting and growth period the one-row high density planting had the advantage on the yielding. For 7 years of fruiting the best variants were: cultivar Antey on the dwarf stock 62-396 (the one-row planting design was 4 x 1 m with the density of2500 trees per a hectare); cultivar Tellisaare on the rootstock 62-396 (the one-row planting design was 4 x 1,5 m with the density of1665 trees per a hectare). They are recommended to use in production.

Full textTarasenko V.
The influence of the dosage and the form of mineral fertilizers on the dynamics of the productive processes of buckwheat
The article provides the results of the experimental research on the dynamics on the productive processes in the buckwheat on the sod-podzolic loamy soils. It has been established that the nitrogen fertilizers have large impact on the development of the leaf surface, biomass accumulation, phytosynthetic potential and clear phytosynthesis productivity. Among the mineral fertilizer forms the best were ammonium sulphate, potassium sulphate and potassiumphos.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textSheiko I., Denisevich V., Levchik E.
The influence of the blood of Pietrain boars on the productive properties of the Belarusian Blackand- White pigs
Mating of the Black-and-White pigs with the Pietrain boars has not decreased sows reproductive characteristics. Average daily gain of the crossed animals with the Pietrain appear to be higher by 56,9 g, fodder per 1 kg be lower by 0,45 kg. The carcasses of the crossed animals with the Pietrain thorough-breedness equaled 50% are characterized by higher meat content (61,7%) and lower back fat thickness.

Full textYu. Lomako, N. Androsik
The antigen structure of the isolates of the Escherichia coli, specified in Belarus at the coli-bacteriosis of the newly bom calves
The purpose was to determine conformity Oserum group belonging of epizootic strains to vaccine ones. The record of E.coli, referred to thirteen О serotypes, which are included in a structure of a vaccine, varies from 30,3 % up to 55,2 % of cases of isolation of Escherichia coli. During the period of monitoring, a stable increase ofpercent of isolation rate (0,820,1 %) of E.coli isolates from diseased and died newborn calves is marked, which contain adhesive antigens K88, F41, K99, A 20, 987P, and that are absent in a biofactory vaccine.

Full textRusinovich A.
Methodological approaches to the study of the epizootic situation and the dynamics of the epizootic process of the cattle leucosis
The methods proposed for studying the epizootic situation and the dynamics of the epizootic process of the cattle leucosis made it possible to really specify the epizootic situation, develop and implement the tactics of controlling the disease in Belarus. During the 10 years of application of anti-leucosis measures the intensity of cows' infection in the treated groups was reduced from 19,6% to 0,4%, heifers -from 7,4% to 0,4%, animals held by individuals - from 9,7% to 2,5%. The number of the farms with good leucosis record was increased from 54 to 1976 (81% of the existing farms).

Full textBudevich A., Mordan G.
The improvement of the technology of cows artificial insemination
Frozen-thawed semen of different concentration (JO nun active sperm cells in a dose - experimental and 15 min sperm cells - control) was used to inseminate cows and heifers. Significant differences in their fertilization rate were not found Therefore, the content of active sperm cells in a dose can be decreased up to 10 min.

Full textObuhovsky V.
Thiamine as a factor of reducing the concentration of pyruvate and sodium lactate in the blood of calves
The article provides the results of the research of the operational efficiency of vitamin Bl on the calves during ihe lactic period. It has been established that intramuscularly injecting of lOOmg of Thiaminum at the one-day age allows lowering the concentration of the lactic acid in the blood by 16,1%, and of the pyroracemic - by 11,7%. However, is a month period the concentration of the above acids increases again, which indicates short effect of vitamin ВI on metabolism. The introduction of Thiaminum in the same dose, but four times during 30 days allows influencing the metabolism more intensively. In this case the content of pyruvate and sodium lactate in the blood comes nearer to the standard by the age of 70-100 days.

UpMechanization and power engineering

Full textKartashevich A., Belousov V.
The study of the process of the inter-electrode after-burn of the fragments of diesel soot at reactivation of the precipitation surface of the electrical filter afterburning device
One of major toxic indexs of diesel motors is smoke content oft he exhaust gases. The application of electric filters is due to periodic reactivation of a sediment surface. The way of reactivation by means of inter electrode upturning is offered. The heat balance of formed bridge of sooty fragments is drawn up and the calculation of the heating process is worked out in the absence of temperature in a plain of any cross-section. The solution of the differential equation of heating in with regard for axial temperature overfall is carried out by the numerical methods, and in the absence of heat exchange with environs analytically. The effective heat up of sooty fragments by means of weep on them of electric current comes true at reference temperature of a sample more than 200 ° C.

UpOpinions of the scientists

Full textSevernev M., Nagorsky I.
The sacred duty of a scientist
The author considers the aspects of the scientific activities, the requirements to the scientists' training, methodological approaches to the mathematical deigning of the conditions and processes of agricultural objects, statistics and systematic principles of the research.

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