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1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1998 №2

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterenary
Reviews

Full text
Annual General Meeting of the Academy of Agrarian Sciences

Full textAntonyuk V.
On the main resusts of effecting state scientific and technical programs in 1997 and scientific justification in 1998

Full textYakubovsky M.
On scientific and organizational activities of the Presidium of the AAS in 1997

Full textLihatsevich A.
The problems of rational utilization of meliorated land In the Presidium of the AAS of Belarus

Full text
Decree of the Council of Ministers of Belarus № 1660 duted 16.12.97 "On improving and developing scientific and economic infrastructure of agraria science in Belarus"

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textShapiro B.
Reforms in the agricultural enterprises: lessons, conclusions and perspectives
The article analyses the situation with the ongoing reforms in agriculture. It gives several proposals and conclusions. In particular the author points out that the most promising organisational and legal form of a farm would be production cooperative, which will be the main form of agricultural enterprise in the near future. The article suggests time and principle stages of the reformation process. It is foreseen that in the second stage, after production co-operatives gain ground as independent and stable agricultural enterprises some of them will break away to form other types of enterprises, like joint stock companies of different forms of ownership.

Full textYakovchik N.
Increasing the efficiency of agricultural production means getting competitive produce
The article analyses the economic situation in agriculture. It is pointed out that the unbalanced prices in agro-industrial complex is the reason why for already several years the main assets of the producers have not been invested in. Due to this and some other reasons the produce is not always available on the domestic and competitive on international markets. The state farm Zakozelsky located in Drogichin district of Brest region is used as the example of high production and economic performance. In 1997 the labour efficiency in this farm has increased by 30% compared with the level of the previous year. An average worker's income reached 200 million roubles (9,000 US dollars). The problems of reforming the agricultural farms are also discussed in the article.

Full textIlchik V.
The problems of solvency of agricultural enterprises
The general economic crisis in Belarusian economy lead to a lower share of financial means allocated for developing agriculture as well as to the loss of a considerable part of agricultural main and turnover means. In these conditions the generally accepted principles of the relations between enterprises in terms of respecting their payment obligations have worsened very drastically. A lot of enterprises became insolvent. The article demonstrates how during the period of 1990- 1996 turnover means of enterprises have been changing in terms of structure, sources composition. There has been made the analysis of solvency. Some recommendations on how to improve the financial situation of the enterprises are proposed.

Full textShpak A., Goncharov V., Baranovsky S.
Main aspects of reforming agricultural enterprises in Check Republic
The article analyses the reforms of the agricultural cooperatives in Check Republic in 1990-1994. It demonstrates the solution of the problem of ownership of land by means of restitution and privatisation of the state lands. There are also a description of reforming alternative structures in agriculture, which were created not on the basis of disintegrated cooperatives, but on the basis of separating parts of such cooperatives and privatisation of state farms, making them joint stock companies, partnerships etc. Special attention is paid to privatising state farms by two different patterns. The article gives the dynamics of agricultural production and the proportion of the main costs per food product in Check Republic and abroad, which demonstrate that the ongoing reforms are beneficial for the economic development of the agrarian sector.

Full textKisel R.
The necesaty for interventionist practices in Polish agriculture in the conditions of its integration into the EU
The state interventionist methods in agriculture are discussed in this article. The Polish agriculture is compared with other agriculture sectors of the EU on the basis of some principle economic indicators. It is presented as the background for the conclusion that it is necessary to undertake serious reforms in this sector in order to catch up with the level of best European standards.

Full textValuev V., Jakhjah N.
Marketing in farms commercial activities
The science-practical marketing importance, as an economic category during transition to the market relations in an agroindustrial complex is shown, Organizational-economic, technical, technological measures, directed on study of market demand and goods promotion in different segments of the market are opened.

Full textKolmykov V., Kazakevich V.
The influence of the environmental and ecological factors on the performance of agricultural production
The ecological conditions vital for agricultural production have been put into a system. The factors which greatly affect economic performance of the agricultural enterprises of Minsk region have been selected on the basis of correlation. The analysis was based on such indicators as percentage of arable land, meadows, forests, water supply, soil compaction, anthropogen tensity, erosion, melioration, the average area of the arable land contour. These indicators can be changed in the process of organising territory. The mathematical formula has been developed on how these factors influence the yield. The article also proposes the methodology of a complex assessment ecological situation on the territory of agricultural enterprises.

Full textSidorovich V., Sinkevich A., Prokhorchik V.
Information technologies in agro - industrial complex of the Republic of Belarus (forecast for the period of 2000-2015)
The transition to the usage of information technologies in Belarusian agro-industrial complex for the period of 2000-2015 will be effected in four stages, based on the proposed principles and schemes: 1. Preparatory stage (1998). 2. The stage of forming initial informational basis and functional services of the system (1999-2007). 3. The stage of forming secondary informational resourcesand developing telecommunication environment (2003-2007). 4. The stage of evolutionary development of the AIC IT (2007-2009).

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textSemenenko N.
Optimisation of the nitrogen fertilising of winter wheat based on adaptive intensification
The article demonstrates high efficiency of the system of application nitrogen fertilisers to winter wheat, which is based on biological regime of nitrogen consumption by plants during the period of vegetation. It also promotes the system of different nitrogen dosages for principle applications and early spring application based on the evaluation of nitrogen content in soil as well as for the application at the stages of bush formation - last leave based on the volume of nitrogen consumed and the state of the plant.

Full textYakovleva G.
The current status of the trans gen agricultural plants (based on the materials of the International Symposium)
This paper is a short review of the materials that were presented on the International Symposium "Genetically Modified Crop Plants and Novel Food on the Russian Market: Safety Assessments". The Symposium was held on October 1-3,1997 in Moscow. It was devoted to the global status of transgenic crops, for growing them on the commercial basis and the safety assessment of food derived from genetically modified plants.

Full textSamersov V., Borovskaya G., Vostrukhin N.
Development of the phenological prognosis of sugar beet development
The algorithm of the model of "sugar beet phenology" is given for the Central zone of sugar beet growing of Belarus. The developed model gives an opportunity to forecast sugar beet development during the whole period of vegetation with the time of dominant pests appearance and to determine the schemes of research doing and protective measures.

Full textLoiko R., Krivorot A., Yarkhovich L.
After harvest apple cooling is an indispensable condition of the technological process of harvesting and storing
The article analysis the after harvest apple cooling on the storing properties and biological composition. It has been determined how the variety and cooling period influence the storing properties of the apples. There are also results of the studies done on the basis of three Belarusian apple varieties concerning how the modification and genotype indicators examined fluctuate depending on the length of cooling period The article proposes a conclusion that after harvest cooling is vital for successful storing.

Full textKilchevsky A.
Productivity and resistance of the cultural plants (crops). The results of the II International Congress on Biology and Crop Growing Technology
The article analysis the results of the II International Congress on Biology and Crop Growing Technology held in Delhi, India in 1996. It describes the main trends in improving productivity and stability of agrocenosis. There is also the analysis of the new stage of "green revolution" in India and other countries based on ecological technologies. The article gives the digest of the results of the studies on preserving biodiversity, new trends in genetics, breeding and biotechnology, utilisation of trans gen plants in agriculture.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterenary

Full textTelyuk S.
Economic and biological features of the specie "men-anju" in the conditions of Belarus
Conformation characteristics and productive capacity of the Men-Anjou breed of cattle under Byelorussian conditions were studied. The live weight of steers at the age of 10, 12 and 18 monthss was 313, 375, 575 kg and was higher than that of their contemporapies of the Charolais breed by 32 (11,4%), 13 (3,6%) and 21 kg (3,8%), respectively. Calves yield per 100 cows was 81-86% and their birth weight was from 41,3 to 44,6 kg depending on their dams age. The death rate of calves due to dystocia was 8,5%. Selection on easier parturition and higher viability of calves is to be necessary.

Full textKovalev N., Krasochko P., Krasochko I., Belyavskaya T.
State of the calves' immune system after the usage of cultural vaccine against infectional rhynotracheitis and viral diarrhea
The cultural vaccine against infectional rhynotracheitis and viral diarrhea of cattle was constructed. During vaccination the stimulating effect on the maine links of cell and humoral immunity was obtained The interference of monocomponents of vaccine was absent. The immunisation of calves has activare the biosynthesis of antiviral antibodies, increasead the amount of T-and B-lymphocytes, the concentration of M-and G-immunoglobulines, the titer of interferon and lysocime.

Full textAbramov S., Kovalenok Yu.
The effect of the usage of sodium hypochlorite on the state of cellular and humoral indicators of the natural resistance of calves affected by dyspepsia
Information regarding the influence of sodium hypochlorite on the state of cell and humoral factors of natural resistance to the calves affected by dyspepsy was presented in the article. Influence of the drug on phagocytosis data - phagocytosis activity, phagocytosis number, phagocytosis index and bactericidal blood serum activity with a given pathology was beind Studied. It was found out, that intravenous treatment of calves affected by dyspepsy with sodium hypochlorite was effective. The drug raises cell and humoral factors of natural resistance of calves affected by dyspepsy.

Full textButko L., Kuzmitsky B., Zakharevsky A., Yushkevich E., Nanovskaya T.
Prostoglandins: synthesis and pharmacological properties of new derivatives
The general biological role and pharmacological activity of natural prostaglandins are presented in this article. The chemical group of the prostaglandin derivatives synthetizedat the Research Institute of Biorganic Chemistry of the National Academy of Science of the Republic of Belarus and their pharmacological activity found in experiments have been revealed; their influence on smooth muscles of inner organs and vessels; thrombocytes aggregation, secretory and regeneration activity of the stomach mucous membrane, immunomodifying and antitnmour action were revealed too. The validity of synthethired compounds studies to develop new drugs has been proved.

UpReviews

Full textSkoropanov S.
"Farming in terms of millenium approach"

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