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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 374-02-45
e-mail: agro-vesti@mail.ru
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2019 4

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textMakutsenia E. P., Zapolsky M. I.
Theoretical approaches for improvement of foreign trade relations in agri-food sector in the context of increased competition in the world market
The Republic of Belarus is an export-oriented country in the field of trading with agri-food products and occupies rather significant place in the world ranking of the leading countries. In the view of intensive development of world trade, Belarus is increasingly becoming a part of the international labor differentiation. Thus, of the total volume of domestic production, the republic sells about 35 % of agri-food products to foreign markets. However, the further development of foreign trade in Belarus requires improvement of regulatory methods and tools to increase the competitiveness and efficiency of foreign trade in Agro-Industrial Complex and optimize its parameters, as well as adaptation to changing conditions of the internal and external environment. The paper presents the results of studies on selecting perfect ratio of import and export of agricultural products, as well as balance of export-and-import flows and efficiency of foreign economic activity. The main research directions in studying foreign trade are highlighted, the evolution of approaches to the nature and aims of export-and-import operations in the system of world economic relations is analyzed. The main interrelations of their foreign economic activity are shown considering the main market factors that contribute to increase of importance and efficiency of foreign economic activity. The fundamental patterns influencing foreign trade relations in agri-food sector in the context of regional integration are identified, including growth of the role of international division of finished food production process into separate stages and having such stages in different countries, the strengthening of country interaction within the framework of regional trade and economic integration associations, etc. The indicators for assessing foreign trade in the economy of a country are systematized based on the proposed methodological foundations for establishing criteria of application, formed based on their importance in the countrys economic system and ensuring identification of advantages and disadvantages that the country obtains as a result of trade with agri-food products in the world and regional markets.

Full textPilipuk A. V., Kolesnev I. V.
Method for assessment of the cluster potential of export-oriented food industry enterprises in the Republic of Belarus
At the present stage of development of economic relations, the export activity of food industry enterprises is considered as one of the most important factors for increasing sustainability and positive growth dynamics of the Republic of Belarus. The urgency of current research is due to the need to conduct dynamic monitoring and analysis of the foreign trade orientation of food products marketing, timely identification and elimination of problems and obstacles in export development through implementation of measures of efficient support from the state. Theoretical foundations of efficient functioning of the export-oriented production in food industry were systematized in the conducted research and a new definition of export-oriented production in food industry was proposed. Method for assessment of the cluster potential of export-oriented food industry enterprises in the Republic of Belarus has been developed in the framework of identifying directions for improving performance of companies engaged in foreign trade with food products. During the method testing, two key aggregated types of export-oriented production (processing and preservation of meat and production of meat and meat-containing products; dairy products) of the food industry were identified; matrices of intrabranch specialization are built for the first time based on indices of competitive advantages and export effect; clusters of export-oriented production of meat and dairy industry are grouped (packaged beef, fatty cheeses (including feta cheese), semi-finished meat products, etc.); proposals to improve the product assortment policy of the industry to expand the most profitable activities are substantiated; assessment of cluster potential is proposed and rating of export-oriented enterprises of meat and dairy industry of the Republic of Belarus is compiled. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the State Research and Technical Program Agropromkompleks 2020 for 20162020, subprogram Agropromkompleks efficiency and quality.

Full textGanush G. I.
Priorities for development of adaptive systems of agriculture management in the Republic of Belarus in the context of agricultural theory and practice evolution
At the present stage there is a dynamic trend of transition to a new paradigm of land use in the world agriculture. Its nature is displayed in activation of practical embodiment of green economy principles, wide development of organic and other alternative agricultural technologies ensuring rational growth and efficiency of agricultural production observing scientific bases of nature orientation at maximum. One of the most important structural components of the new paradigm of land use are adaptive technologies of agricultural crops cultivation and adaptive systems of agriculture management in general. The paper presents the key aspects of evolution of the theory of adaptive improvement of agricultural processes, substantiation of the priority directions of development of adaptive systems of agriculture in Belarus is given, considering the modern innovative and market transformations. In particular, given the relevance and peculiarities of adaptation of agricultural production to economic and natural environment of functioning of business entities and regions in conditions of cooperative integration processes development, including the ones in the framework of EAEU and the Union state of the Republic of Belarus and the Russian Federation, new approaches are defined to improvement of production specialization and territorial distribution of agricultural production of the Republic. Economically and ecologically expedient measures of formation of rational structure of sown areas and adequate crop rotations based on adaptability principles are substantiated. In the context of practical implementation of the Law of the Republic of Belarus On production and circulation of organic products, the features of specialization of farms on agricultural production using organic technologies are described. Efficiency of diversification of agricultural production is substantiated. Directions of increasing the level of information support for processes of learning adaptive management systems in Agro-Industrial Complex considering digitalization of agricultural economy, and expansion of precision farming methods are presented. Expediency of taking into account provisions of classical economic theories to make the most optimal choice of options for specialization and location of agricultural production based on record of absolute and relative competitive advantages of companies and regions is substantiated.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textRomanova T. A., Berkov V. F.
Natural classification of soils in Belarus: new approach to soil operation
Soil is a multifunctional system, the main tool of agricultural production, the foundation of nature, the most important link in social well-being of society and humans. Information on soils, distribution, properties and fertility is of great scientific and practical value. Classification provides the ability to compare soils and soil cover, assess soils for various purposes. The paper dwells on principles of constructing world and regional soil classifications. Precedent of creating natural classification of soils presented on digital image in the form of combinations of natural properties and anthropogenic changes. The research subject is the natural classification of soils, the object is the soils of Belarus and water regime as an essential property of the pedosphere, marking the genesis. The method is peculiar for observing the rules of formal logic and the arrangement role of soils water regime. The method is based on formation of taxa through indexation of factual data and combinations of indices digital soil models classification units with structural diagram reflecting the general diversity of soil in the territory. When developing the proposed classification, long-term data of several generations of Belarusian soil scientists have been used. The research result is natural classification of soils an ordered sum of knowledge about soils of mixed forest zone of the Russian Plain based on realities of the Republic of Belarus as an example, with a logical substantiation of the nature of soil individuals and formalized representation of their diversity based on standard analytical data that is independent of the terminology used. It is designed based on objective indicators characterizing the natural soils of Belarus. Natural classification contributes to the classiology and general theory of soil formation, helps to determine and eliminate contradictions in existing knowledge, brings closer the possibility of biosphere-like use of natural resources, improves GIS arrangement, ensures automation of databases accumulation and use.

Full textHardzei S. I., Satsyuk I. V., Urban E. P.
Directions and main results of winter wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) breeding in the Republic of Belarus
Creation of new varieties of winter wheat is one of the primary and decisive roles in increasing the genetic potential of productivity and obtaining high-quality grain. According to global trends, the main directions are clearly defined when creating new varieties of this culture in the Republic of Belarus: increasing winter resistance, resistance to disease, lodging, stressful environmental factors, increasing the baking and forage qualities of grain. Currently, new short-stemmed, highly productive varieties of Belarusian selection are offered for agricultural production: Elegy, Ode of Augustine, Mroya, Etude, Girlianda, Amelia, which are characterized by high genetic productivity potential. New varieties have significantly increased environmental stability, general adaptability to adverse environmental factors, baking and forage advantages. During creation of new varieties, new approaches and selection methods were developed and improved, a number of fundamental problems were solved. Thanks to development and practical application of molecular genetic methods, the selection process has been accelerated. A number of genes responsible for various economically useful traits are localized for wheat. Creation of new varieties of winter wheat using modern breeding-and-genetic methods, development and improvement of breeding methods are strategically significant areas both in relation to fundamental developments, and in practical terms, to ensure food security in conditions of hard competition from Western and Eastern Europe. Acknowledgments. Works on creation of new varieties of winter wheat and improvement of the breeding process methods were performed within the framework of the following research programs: State Research and Technical Program Agropromkompleks rural revival and development; State Research and Technical Program Agropromkompleks 2020, subprogram Agropromkompleks efficiency and quality, State Program Import Substitution, EurAsEC Interstate Targeted Program Innovative Biotechnologies for 20112015, subprogram 1 Innovative biotechnologies in the Republic of Belarus; State Program Innovative biotechnologies for 20092011 and up to 2015, subprogram Agricultural biotechnology (Crop Science); State Program for Scientific Research Innovative Technologies in Agro-Industrial Complex; State program High Technologies and Engineering for 20162020, subprogram 1 Innovative biotechnologies 2020; State Program for Scientific Research Quality and Efficiency of Agricultural Production.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textKazaravets N. V., Sheiko I. P., Paulava T. V., Martynov A. V., Maiseeu K. .
Organizational and methodological methods used in formation of the perfect structure of Belarusian population of black-and-white cattle
The result of the dairy industry efficiency is a well-arranged genealogical structure of the reared livestock breed, and, consequently, of dairy herds. The paper presents the results of studying the evolution of formation and assessment of the state of genealogical structure of black-and-white cattle population, and its qualitative characteristics. The formation chronology of the Belarusian population of black-and-white cattle is substantiated. It includes three stages: the first 19301980, the second 19801995, the third 1995 to the present. It is shown that historically creation of Belarusian population of black-and-white cattle is based on use of breeding material of Dutch first of all and then Holstein breeds. It has been determined that during the period of independent state development of the Republic of Belarus (from 1992 to the present), formation of dairy cattle population was performed on a planned basis. Thanks to local selection, 8 plant lines and three related groups bred at the republics collective farms were formed in the breed. Plant lines and related groups allow for the systematic use of producing bulls in the marketable livestock due to scientifically substantiated rotation of the lines and increasing the genetic potential of cows dairy performance, and also contribute to the further improvement of the breed using the best world and local genetic resources. It has been determined that the sore issue at present is use of local selection producers of at least 80 % of their total number. Producing bulls of local selection provide not only increase in the productive longevity of the progeny, but also contribute to optimization of genealogical structure of the population. The method of systematic analysis of breeding and genetic parameters made it possible to identify the most informative factors having effect on the economically useful traits display. Reliability of effect of each specific factor on breeding traits display is determined. The research results allow to substantiate the concept of formation of dairy cattle population perfect structure as a basis for development of largescale selection programs at the level of population and regions, breeding plans for breeding farms with the aim to produce cost-effective breeding and dairy products. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of business development for 20162020, subprogram Breeding Business Development in Livestock Breeding.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textKazakevich P. P.
Amelioratory plowing of peat bogs and substantiation of the basic parameters of a double-cut plow
Drained peat soils in Belarus occupy 11.3 % of agricultural land. These soils lost their genetic traits on the area of almost 260 thousand hectares, and moved into the category of anthropogenically transformed, over 190 thousand hectares of those into the category of degraded. The most important condition for improving the properties of low-ash peat soils is an increase of ash elements level up to 5070 % in the plowing layer. The anthropogenically formed layer-mixed culture of soil profile with deep reclamation plowing method corresponds to this to the fullest extent. Its use is important on shallow peatlands that quickly lose their organic layer. It has been determined that the depth of such plowing is determined both by the thickness of peat bog and by the thickness of plowed mineral soil (sand or sandy loam). Based on the obtained analytical expressions, analysis of process layouts for formation of new soil profile by the plow, taking into account availability of peat soil areas according to deposit capacity, feasibility of using two types of special plows is substantiated: double-cut mounted type with plowing depth of 50100 cm and single-cut trailed type with plowing depth of 90150 cm. Technologically rational is plow operation according to layout with undercut equal to the width of sandy layer in sub-plowing horizon. At the same time, the interval of rational values of structural width of double-cut plow grip (on the II cut body) bk = 5067 cm, and the width of plow grip shall not exceed 100 cm. Ratio of its actual value to the accepted design width of the bodies is in the range of (5 : 4)(2 : 1) depending on agrotechnical requirements. The designed PTN-0.9 double-cut plow for deep amelioratory plowing has passed acceptance tests and is recommended for serial production. The result of the study is theory of dump plowing. The results allow for development of special double-cut plows for deep amelioratory treatment of shallow peat bogs, which ensures their preservation during agricultural use.

Full textPryshchepau M. A., Daineka Y. A., Pryshchepava A. M.
Block diagram of asynchronous motor with short-circuit rotor for a variable frequency drive with scalar and vector control
Modern control systems for variable-frequency asynchronous electric drives (ED) are based on three-phase asynchronous motor (AM) represented by two-phase general electric machine. This simplifies mathematical description of AM and practical implementation of control systems of frequency-controlled asynchronous EDs, while the mathematical description of AM can be carried out in various coordinate systems. In practice, when studying processes in AM, mathematical description and their structural schemes are most often used in fixed coordinate system α, β rigidly connected to the stator and axis d synchronously rotating with the stator magnetic field coordinate system d, g, oriented on rotor interlinkage vector ψ2, which greatly simplifies the study of their mathematical models. The obtained structural layouts contain internal back couplings, including nonlinear ones, resulting from the equations of the stator voltage projections. To compensate for the internal EMF of the motor induced in its stator, back couplings are used at the input of the converters, allowing to simplify the block diagrams of motors and, accordingly, the analysis of control systems. The resulting mathematical models and block diagrams of AM in a fixed coordinate system α, β and axis d synchronously rotating d, g, oriented on rotor interlinkage vector ψ2, it is feasible to use in systems of frequency-controlled asynchronous EDs, respectively, with scalar and vector control. The introduction of back couplings voltages at the inlet of the converter into the system of the mentioned ED, compensating the EMF of the AM rotation, by analogy with DC motors, ensures independent control of their magnetic flux and electromagnetic moment. The obtained mathematical models and AM block diagrams can be used for development of sensorless systems of frequency-controlled asynchronous EDs, where the motor parameters such as interlinkage, angular velocity, electromagnetic moment, etc. are calculated from the measured values of phase current and stator voltage of electric motor.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textLovkis Z. V., Pochitskaya I. M., Morgunova E. M.
Research and methodological basis for identification of palm oil in food
In connection with the widespread use of palm oil in the food industry and the recommendations of the World Health Organization to reduce its consumption due to the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases and obesity, it is very important to control its content in food. The problems associated with the identification and quantification of fats, fat mixtures in food products due to their similar composition have not been completely resolved. The purpose of the work is to conduct comprehensive studies to develop an algorithm for identifying and quantifying the components of the fat composition of food products and detecting the presence of palm oil in them. As a result of studies of the component composition of palm oil and its fractions, various types of vegetable fats, model mixtures of fats, methodological approaches to the identification of palm oil in food products have been developed. The feasibility of using chromatographic and isotope spectral analysis methods to solve applied problems in the food industry is theoretically substantiated and experimentally confirmed. In order to identify the fat base of food products, the following markers of the presence of palm oil have been established: phytosterols: sitosterol, campasterol, stigmasterol in a quantitative ratio of about 50 : 25 : 25; sitosterol the prevailing component (66200 μg/g); traces or lack of brassicosterol; substances with E-vitamin activity (enantomers of vitamin E); up to 90 % are represented by tocotrienols, the remaining 10 % are represented by tocopherols. The analysis of the isotopic composition revealed differences in the isotopic composition of carbon and hydrogen depending on the type of oil and fat, and also determined which group of fixation of atmospheric carbon dioxide during photosynthesis (C3 or C4) belongs to the plant from which the analyzed oil is made. The results of scientific research can be used to identify and quantify palm oil and its fractions in food products, which will improve the food security of the Republic of Belarus and provide the domestic market with high-quality domestic food products. Acknowledgments. The work was carried out as part of a separate project of fundamental and applied research of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus Development of scientific and methodological foundations for the identification and quantification of palm oil as one of the constituents of vegetable fats in food products (republican budget).

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
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