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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2008 №3

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textKovel P.V.
Characteristics and problems of system evaluation of the effectiveness of measures under the conditions of the innovation development of agrarian economics
The problems on improving the methods for evaluation of the effectiveness of measures on the basis of the system approach are considered. Significance of measures is specified in the unified system of the influence of numerous factors on the production dynamics. At the same time its effect is a measurable part of costs and final economic results of the activity of an enterprise. Theoretical and applied aspects of the proposed methods and indices, which have been approved by the example of specific enterprises, are presented.

Full textGorbatovsky А.V., Svyatogor А.P., Sharatsky V.V.
Enhancement of cattle-farming efficiency
The present article outlines the main reasons which restrain the economic conducting of the branch, analyzes and offers the most important enhancement means and factors as well as a stimulating mechanism that with the rational using of production resources can provide a high level of the cattle-farming productivity and the normative repayment of the means of the agricultural organizations and the state.

Full textShyshko V.I.
Factors of increase in the competitiveness of the dairy industrial enterprises of the Grodno region
Development of market mechanisms in the agrarian sector intensifies a problem of nonmarket output capitalization. The purpose of research is the analysis of the factors of increase in the competitiveness of the enterprises of the dairy industry of the Grodno region. The analysis of the strategic potential of the enterprises of the dairy branch of the Grodno region is presented. By means of the SWOT-ANALYSIS the estimation of the competitiveness of the enterprises of the dairy industry of this region is made, strong and weak competitive positions are revealed, potential opportunities and threats for these enterprises are defined. Proceeding from the estimation of the external competitive environment and the strategic potential of the enterprises the factors of increase in the competitiveness of the enterprises of the dairy industry of the Grodno region are offered. During the research the following methods were applied: analytical, system analysis, economic-statistical.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textKukresh L.V.
Plant growing potential of Belarus and its realization
On the basis of the analysis of the agricultural product yield at sort testing for 2005–2007 years, during which the latest sorts and the technologies of their cultivation are highly optimized, it is established that the growing plant potential at its developed material-resource maintenance is characterized by rather high indices: more than 80 c/ha of grain crops, above 380 c/ha of potato, more than 800 c/ha of sugar beet, almost 220 c/ha of corn dry matter, and above 170 c/ha of dry matter of long-term grasses. However, at present the level of its realization not in all cultures exceeds 50%. The approach of the agricultural product yield to the potential achieved during state sort testing is a guiding line to increase the plant growing efficiency of the Republic at the modern stage.

Full textTivo P.F., Leuto I.E., Retsiukhina S.S.
Non-conventional organic fertilizers at amelioration of poor-drained mineral soils in Poozerre
The article presents the results on research of the efficiency of use of local non-conventional fertilizers at amelioration of non-productive drained mineral grounds in Poozerre. Entering sapropel- and non-bedding manure-based composts together with straw, lupine green mass, flax waste and other wastes of the agricultural production provides, on the mineral background, an increase in the hectare rotation area on the average for three years by 7.3–12.4 centner to unit or by 16.5–28.1%. The efficiency of use is marked at development of drained coherent mineral soils of flax waste. Entering the organic fertilizers at amelioration of grounds improves the water-physical and agrochemical properties of ground, renders a positive influence on the productivity of long-term grasses subsequent behind field cultures, and also improves ecological conditions on agrosoils. Organic fertilizers are expedient to be close to 25–30 sm, which creates a more powerful arable layer at the depth and provides an increase of the efficiency of cultures by 12–14% in comparison to tillage by 20–22 sm.

Full textRupasova J.А., Аutko А.А., Autko An.А., Varavina N.P., Rudakovskaya R.N., Vasilevskaya Т.I., Poznyak О.V.
Influence of the application of fertilizers on the accumulation of organic acids and nutrients in vegetable products under the conditions of Belarus
The results of comparative study of accumulation parameters of dry matters, free organic acids, vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in carrot, table beet, and late cabbage material with the application of mineral and organic (in the case of table beet) fertilizers of various types and doses within the frames of a 10-variant experiment on sod- podzol light loam soils are presented.

Full textSaskevitch P.A., Tsyganov A.R., Gurikova E.I.
Productivity and quality of seeds of spring rape depending on the application of natural growth regulators
The article examines the results of research on the biological, economic, and energetic efficiency of the application of natural growth regulators for growing spring rape. Optimal rates of raststim and larixin preparations, which promote the increase in the seed productivity by 0.34 and 0.29 t/ha, the output of raw fat – by 0.18 and 0.15 t/ha, the raw protein – by 0.1 and 0.08 t/ha, are determined. The fungicide activity of growth regulators is also revealed, which helps to diminish the communication and development of the disease Alternaria brassicicola and positively influences the sowing qualities of spring rape seeds.

Full textIvanyuk V.G., Ilyashenko D.A.
Influence of abiotic factors of the environment on the vitality, development, and pathogenic properties of Ditylenchus destructor Thorne – potato ditylenchus destructor
For the first time in Belarus the influence of abiotic factors of the environment on the vitality, development, and pathogenic properties of D. destructor is studied. The most optimal conditions, which provide the epiphytotic revealing of Ditylenchus on potato tubers, are determined.

Full textKlochkova O.S.
Habitus formation and the origin of organogenesis stages of winter rape plants
During 2001–2007 years the development of the central stem and side buds of winter rape plants was investigated in autumn and winter. The investigations showed that in autumn the morphological structure of a plant is set in the rosette, depends on the growing conditions, and determines its habitus and productivity with a further growth and development in spring. Depending on the climate conditions the cone of growing the main stem can be at III-VI stages before going into winter and – at VII-IX stages of organogenesis at overgrowing of winter rape plants. The formation of organs of the winter rape raceme takes place in autumn when III stage of organogenesis rises and continues in spring up to the beginning of seed formation. The habitus of winter rape plants is formed in several stages: in autumn – by the number of buds on the main stem; in spring – by the number of buds of the first and second orders, degree of their development and formation of productive sprouts.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textYepishko T.I., Kurak O.P.
Polymorphism of the kappa-casein gene of different cattle populations of the black- motley breed
The genetic structure of different cattle populations is analyzed on kappa-casein gene locus (CSN3). It is determined that the average allele CSN3B concentration in the Belarusian Black-Motley breed is 0.173 and varies depending on the population and age of animals (from 0.132 up to 0.222). The range of the variability of the allele CSN3A occurrence frequency is from 0.778 to 0.868. Animals with the genotype CSN3AA prevail (57.1–73.7%) over those with the genotype CSN3AB (26.3–41.3%) in bull populations, and the rarest genotype CSN3BB is found only in 2 animals. In the population of cows of the farm “Zarechye” the genotype CSN3BB is not found, but 3.7% of animals at this farm have the genotype CSN3BB. The milk productiveness of cows is analyzed in accordance to the genotype on the kappa-casein gene. It is determined that animals with the genotype CSN3BB prevail over those with the genotypes CSN3AA and CSN3AB.

Full textLetkevitch L.L., Hanja A.I., Rakovich E.D., Halubets L.V., Simanenka U.P., Kirylava I.V.
Regulation of folliculo- and embryogenesis of cows in vivo and in vitro under the effect of endocrine factors
The effect of folliculostimulatory preparations on the processes of folliculogenesis and the early embryogenesis of cows in vivo and in vitro is studied. Comparative analysis of the efficiency of hormone preparations is given. It gives the premise for the development of a test on preliminary estimation of the folliculostimulating activity and perfection of cultural media.

Full textKonchits V.V., Fiodorova V.G., Kibisov A.M., Minaev O.V.
Technological issues of the paadle-fish larva growing up to the viable stage
The results of the paddle-fish growing-up in the year 2007 has been analysed. Certain regularities and dependencies of the larva growing results from biotic and abiotic factors has been revealed. Some technological elements of the paddle-fish larva growing are proposed.

Full textSkuorat E.K., Grebneva E.I., Degtyarik S.M., Asadchaya R.L., Benetskaya N.A., Govor T.A.
Infusoria – causative agents of ectoparasitic diseases of fish and treatment against them
The results of investigations into the epizootic situation on ectoparasitic diseases of fish, which were carried out on 29 lakes, at 17 fish-farms, in 4 reservoirs and in 3 rivers during 2003–2008, are presented in this article. The characteristics of causative agents, the analysis of their spread in the reservoirs of Belarus, and a review of modern methods of treatment against ectoparasites are presented. The ectoparasites are found in 26 lakes, 4 reservoirs, Soz River and at 17 fish-farms. The ectoparasites are present in natural reservoirs as carrier and are not dangerous for fish (invasion extensiveness is not more than 20%, intensity – 1–2 parasite/field of microscope vision). If they get into fish-farms, they will able to cause hard diseases with the fish mortality. The compound invasion of Chilodonella, Ichthyophthirius, and Trichodina is often observed in pond fish, that is way, it is recommended to apply treatment measures with consideration of the presence of the ectoparasitic complex. These measures include the application of new preparations against ectoparasitic diseases of fish such as “Cheledum”, “Ectocide”, and “Iodinol” having high treatment and economic effectiveness in production conditions.

Full textBorodich L.M., Bogusch А.А., Dymar T.I., Safronenko L.W., Dudko N.W.
Antimicrobe activity and stability of lactobacteria and compositions of antimastitis preparations based on them for cows
The article is the analysis of the research data on the antagonistic influence of probiotic cultures of microorganisms on the pathogenic and apathogenic microflora. Our obtained data on the action of probiotic cultures and compounds are cited.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textBotyan I.N.
Improvement of a system of machines for introducing chemical meliorative agents
The liming efficiency is analyzed depending on a method of introducing, distributing in the arable horizon and inserting the lime by different cultivators. The technological layout of a combined assembly for entering the lime into the intrasoil, which joins the processes of entering lime meliorative agents and basic plow cultivating, with combined working parts, is presented.

Full textDashkov V.N., Basareuski A.N.
Substantiation of the key parameters and operating modes of the drum-type sprinkler
In the article the analysis of the works on the hydraulic design of a flexible pipeline wound on a screw line is carried out, the technique of substantiation of hydraulic and design parameters of a drum-type sprinkler is stated. The formulas are offered, which allow calculating a minimum admissible pressure at the water-supplying system input and selecting rational parameters of the flexible pipeline. The chart for definition of artificial rain characteristics and device parameters reflecting the results of theoretical research is presented. As a result of the experimental investigations the mathematical model of the response surface is constructed and, proceeding from the agrotechnical requirements on the artificial rain quality the optimal device parameters, at which the maximum productivity is reached, are determined.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textVasilenko Z. V., Redko V. V., Stephanenko N. V.
Use of the composition of vegetables and berries, and the complex polysaccaride “POLYCOM” for developing dairy cocktails
The results of investigations into a possible use of food additives from raw materials (polysaccaride complex “POLYCOM” and a composition of vegetables and berries) in the production of milk drinks of preventive function are presented in this article. Prepared drinks include complex protective substances (biological antioxidants and sorbents) that elevate the organism resistance to the unfavorable factors of the environment.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Aleksandr Davydovich Dubakh (To the 125th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Gernnadii Iosifovich Ganush (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Leonid Vasilievich Kukresh (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

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