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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2004 №1

Contents:
Economics and Information Technologies
Economics and Information Technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and Power Engineering

UpEconomics and Information Technologies

Full textV. Gusakov
The main measures of financial-economic improvement of the agricultural enterprisese
The article reveals current economic situation and provides general characteristic of the present stage of the development of AIC. In considers specific approaches to restructuring agricultural enterprises on market principles. The organizational measures of economic reorganization and improvement of the competitiveness of agricultural organizations are suggested.

Full textN. Bychkov
How to evaluate the loss making enterprisese in the process of restructuring
Assessing a loss making organization is a comprehensive and scheduled process aimed at evaluating in terms of money the value of the enterprise keeping in mind real and potential points of the specific markets. The aim is to arrive at a sum which could be used as the orientation, most close to the sale amount. It determines the property of the enterprise as a commodity, i.e. its benefits and the costs of using such benefits. The whole enterprise o part of it could be a commodity, deposit, lease and subject of other deals changing or establishing the new forms of ownership. The article reveals the evaluating methods for loss making agricultural enterprises and the patterns of applying such methods on the basis of the specific examples in Belarus.

Full textA. Naumchik
The multifaced nature of the agrarian sector: perspectives or reality
Forming the multifaceted nature of the agrarian production is an important instrument in improving the financial-economic situation in the AIC. Cooperatives and integrated structures have an important role in this process. The article investigates the nature of the relations between the economic entities in the agrarian-financial groups, with regard to the market environment, cooperation and mutual deals.

Full textA. Espolov
Theory and practice in ensuring competitiveness of the economic entities in the agrarian sector
Nowadays developing the agrarian productions is linked to soling a number of vital tasks. This is overcoming the crisis in the agricultures and its restructurization, reforming the relations, curbing monopolism in neighboring branches of the AIC, forming market infrastructure but also making the farms competitive. The article deals with the methods of ensuring competitiveness.

Full textA. Mikulich
Managing the incentives
The article describes the theory of motivating labor. It deals with the essence, the details and the structure of the theory. A complex model has been suggested. It includes a system of such notions as main incentive requirements, efforts, capabilities, results, internal and external rewards, satisfaction and attitude.

Full textP. Kovel
Methodological issues for assessing the credit relations in the agricultural
The article deals with three stage trends of the evaluation of credit investments into enterprises: 1 – receiving and using the credit flow, 2 – determining the effect and the efficiency of the project and the credit investment, 3 – evaluating reproduction consequences of making use of the credit resources. The article offers the methodological approach and the system of indexes as well as some examples.

Full textA. Shpak, V. Chabatul
Current problems of using the cargo automobile transport at the enterprises of the Belarusian AIC and the solutions
The current situation in the cargo automobile transport of the AIC of Belarus is analyzed in the article. The article determines the problems of using the hardware. It is proposed to extend the functions of the transport service of agriculture by “Agroservice” system of enterprises. The authors justified the need for improving the system of the drivers’ wages and suggested the measures for improving the informational instruments of increasing the efficiency of the cargo automobile transport utilization.

Full textT. Vorobyeva
The components of the competitiveness of the AIC’s products
The author justifies the means of increasing the competitiveness of the products of AIC. The system of factors contributing to the goal has been determined. The article suggests the mechanism of motivating constant increasing the production volumes. “Snov” enterprise taken as an example, the means for increasing the products of plant growing and animal breeding are demonstrated.

Full textM. Baigot
Protecting internal food market in the conditions of developing market processed
In view of the current economic situation in national agriculture it has been determined that protecting internal food market in the market-economy conditions must be based on improving the system of main instruments of the international trade policy. In particular: customs duties, internal protection, export subsidies and protectionist measures.

Full textI. Kulaga
Forming the integrated structures in potato sub-sector
Based on the theoretical analysis the author concludes that today the structures in the potato sub-sector are integrated in their nature, which requires developing the mechanism of their formation. The article determines the main prerequisites for such formation as well as the factors stimulating the producers to cooperate. The article analyses the advantages and disadvantages of different forms of integration, which may be chosen depending on the aim of each particular formation. The author suggests that is possible to create in the potato sub-sector integrated structures allowed by the law, keeping in mind their goals and economic opportunities and possible assistance from the state.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textV. Gusakov, A. Lihatsevich, A. Meerovsky, S. Kasyanchik
Intensification of meadow farming is the key point in optimizing the fodder production in Belarus
Stabilization and further development of the agrarian sector to a great degree depend on the status of the production, processing and sales of the products from the animal breeding sector. In view of above the main priority for the Belarusian agriculture in the coming years is increasing the production and sales volumes of in the animal breeding sector. The forecasted production volumes in the public sectors till 2008 are: gross milk production – 5400 thousand tons, yield per cow – 4500 kg, meat production – 1026 thousand tons, 24hours weight gain – 800g cattle, 440g pigs. For reaching these levels it is needed to ensure the appropriate volumes of fodder, 11,8-12,0 m tons for cattle (including pastures). It requires producing 68-70 m tons of plant based fodder. To reach this objective it is required to increase the productivity of the hey-making and pasture areas.

Full textN. Lukashevich, I. Zlotnik, L. Protko
Forming the yield of the pea seeds at the background of nitrogen application
If the soils are mechanically light and the main crop there is peas, it is recommended to apply mineral nitrogen at the rate 45-60kg per hectares to get the yield of 4 tons per hectare. The costs on applying ammonia saltpeter to the peas pay off 3,2-4,0 times, depending on the genetic types of the varieties.

Full textV. Bosak
Agroeconomic efficiency of applying mineral and organic fertilizers in crop rotations
The article provides the results of the research on agronomic, power and economic efficiency of the application of fertilizers in the grain-grass-tilled, flax, grain-grassy and grain-tilled crop rotations in the long term filed experiments on the cultivated sod-podzolic light loamy soils. It has been established that the balanced application of full mineral fertilizers ensures the productivity of the field crop rotations at the level 6,25-8,38t/ha of fodder units with the increase in the crop yield of 1,86-2,35t/ha of fodder units, pay off rate of 1kg of NPK of 8,5-11,6 fodder units with energy conversion efficiency 1,15-1,22 units, the net profit 58,1-94-3$/ha and profitability of 75-104%. Application of organic fertilizers in crop rotations provides an increase of crop response 0,52-1,04t/ha of fodder units with energy conversion efficiency of 1,89-210 units, the net profit 7,9-17,1$/ha and profitability 21-40%.

Full textE. Kolbanova
Saptransferring viruses elimination from black currant shoot culture by head therapy
The estimation of the various regimes of thermotherapy influence on viability of black currant cultivars and estimation of in-vitro thermotherapy efficiency in currant sap-transferring viruses elimination was carried out. Shoot cultures of black currant cultivars “Katyusha”, “Zagadka” and “Cerera” appeared to be more sensitive to heat therapy than the plants of “Belarusskaya sladkaya” and “Pamyati Vavilova”. The variable temperatures gave higher percentage of plants’ survival. Plants with well developed root system declined. Cultures in proliferation stage survived. The virus free plants of black currant were received only after high constant temperatures treatment.

Full textE. Biryuk
The influence of low temperatures on starch content in apple leaves
The data from the two years observations on the content of the starch in the apple leaves is provided in the article. It has been established that winter resistant varieties and the varieties with average stability contain a lot of starch. Besides, in these varieties have a high degree of hydrolysis of starch after freezing, as compared with the weakly resistant varieties.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textV. Bezzubov, A. Hochenkov, I. Perashvili
The influence of the fodder stresses on the indicators of the natural resistance of the repair sows
According to the existing norm-creating documentation the components of the fodder recipe SK-1 may replace one another to a high degree. This results in fodder stress, which leads to the long term tension of the immune system, which, in its turn, leads to a lower natural resistance of the animals. Replacing the components of the Sk-1 fodder caused the increased leukocytes content (by 1,1 mln/l), lower content of general protein in the blood serum and 0,8 g% lower content of globulin fractions and gamma-globulins. To prevent unwanted fluctuations of the indicators of the natural resistance of the pigs, which reduce the ability of the animals to fight unfavorable external conditions it is needed to use the stable structure of the grain part of the fodder.

Full textN. Kirienko
Cleavability of protein and digestibility of dry matter of rape cake by young bulls
The article deals with the problems of “protecting” the protein of the rape cake and the digestibility of dry matter when feeding it mixed with carbomide as part of the fodder to the young cattle.

Full textM. Nadarinskaya
The influence of the different levels of selenium on the productivity and the hematological parameters of cows with the milk yield of 6-7 thousand kg per lactation
Different levels of selenium (0,1-0,2 and 0,3 mg/kg DM) was applied into the ration of the high yielding cows at different stages of lactation. The most efficient dosage in early lactation wa 0,3mg/kg DM, in winter housing period – 0,2, in dry period – 0,2. The optimal levels of the element increased the efficiency of the animals and improved the quality of milk.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textV. Dashkov, A. Seleznev, V. Savinyh, V. Hrutsky
Justification of the main indicators of the equipment for making super concentrate
The article analyses the technological line for super concentrate production in farm conditions. The line provides for using he electronic scales system for weighing various components and the controlling unit for automated management of the technological process. The individual indicators of the system have been determined and justified.

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