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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2002 №4

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering proccesing and storage of agrarian produce

Full textMyasnikovich М., Gusakov V., Lishtvan I., Lihatsevich A.
Scientific analytical report: The strategy of ecologically safe reconstructing meliorative systems and increasing the productivity of the meliorated areas of Polesye: the state problem and suggestions for its solution

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textGusakov V., Belsky V.
The directions of increasing the efficiency of AIC
The article reveals the top priority measures and mechanisms for improving the organizational and economic structure of the A 1С, its technical and technological reequipping; developing regional specialization; increasing the efficiency of utilizing the production resources; forming the market system of state regulation of production and sales aimed at ensuring the competitive functioning of the A1C and balancing the agrarian market.

Full textGorfinkel I.
State regulation of the agricultural production
The most important element of the state regulation of the market is setting the internal national market prices on the main types of agricultural produce, which are usually considerably higher than the world level It protects the producers from the cheap import.

Full textBrechko Ya., Sumonov M.
Intensification of the world's production of milk
The article deals with the intensification of the world's production of milk and its distribution in continents and developed countries as well as with the status of producing cheese and butter. The article compares the levels of intensiveness of the development of the diary industry in EU and CIS and analyses the place of the Republic of Belarus in the world community. The suggestions on further intensification of milk production are provided in the article.

Full textVorobyeva T.
The ways of increasing the competitiveness of the AIC's produce
The article suggests the ways of increasing the competitiveness of the AlC's produce. An important factor in this problem is improving the market-based mechanisms, planning, pricing, financial-credit system. The article pays great attention to attracting the internal investments and considers the issues related t improving the legislation. The key point of increasing the competitiveness of the AIC's produce to the author's point of view is forming the cooperative, and integration structures of different levels.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textIvanyuk V., Zhuromsky G., Avdei O.
Features of microevolution of fungus Fhytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary - the causative agent of potato blight in Belarus
The article provides the results of studying the population of potato late blight causative agent by virulence to potato and mating types along the whole history of fungi studies in Belarus and establishes the nature of changes in the population of the pathogen as well as their reasons.

Full textKilchevsky A., Pugacheva I.
Tomato male gametophyte breeding on cold resistance
The article studies the correlation dependence between tomato sporophyte and gametophyte characteristics. There are close correlations (r = 0,726-0,965) between pollen, seedlings and mature plants cold resistance parameters among early ripening varieties. The probable reason may be the fact that tomato cold resistance attended by short ripening period. The article analyses cold stress temperature and durability influence on pollen viability; pollen tube length on artificial nutrient media; on fruit setting and average seeds amount per fruit during pollination in real conditions. On this basis two low temperature treatment regimes were chosen as well as they allowed to pick out 30% of the most resistant pollen grains. The positive effect of one time F. pollen selection on sporophyte cold resistance is hidden by low temperature modification influence on seeds development. Male gametophyte selection effects positively on the F3 sporophyte cold resistance because the rapid and the final percentage of seeds germination under the low temperature conditions are higher. Using the combined selection (in pollen F; then in seedlings FJ is more efficient in cold resistance breeding than in pollen F, only.

Full textLapa V., Bosak V.
Comparing the efficiency of various ways of mineral fertilizers embedding at the cultivation of grain crops
During the cultivation of the spring grain crops on a well-improved sod-podzolic light loamy soil the better indexes of productivity has been reached by using mineral fertilizer embedding (N80P50P90) at the time of presowing cultivation in the depth of 8-10cm, as well as the embedding of phosphorous and potassium fertilizers in autumn at the time of autumn ploughing together with nitrogen fertilizer at the time of presowing cultivation. The yield of spring wheat Ivolga amounted here to 62,8-63,2 c/ha, the barley Dzovosny - 64,8-65,4, the oats Asilak -37,7-37.8. The mineral fertilizer embedding in top layers of seed bed in the depth of 2-4 cm has led to significant yield decreases of spring wheat, barley and oats.

Full textGorbyleva A., Lalomova T.
The influence of fertilizer application systems and cultivation practices of sod-podzolic light loamy soil on its structural condition and water strength
The article provides the results of the research on the efficiency of different fertilizer systems and soil cultivation methods on the following crop rotation: winter wheat - legume mixture - spring wheat. It has been established that manure-mineral and mineral with straw added fertilizer systems improve not only soil structural condition, but also contribute to creating the water strength structure. We can observe the worst soil structure under the application of traditional mould-board soil cultivation, especially in the years with insufficient moisture.

Full textAutko A., Rupasova Zh., Autko A., Pozdnyak O.
Cultivation of spicy-aromatic medical plants of Lamiaceae family on the shaped surface of bedrock in Belarus
The article provides the scientific justification of the expediency of using the method of profiling the surface of bedrock as the basic element of the technology of cultivating plants of Lamiaceae family, which ensures essential increase of the productivity of the aboveground biomass because of the enrichment of the hydro-physical properties and fertility level.

Full textBachilo N., Sikorsky A.
Productivity of winter triticale
The article provides the scientific justification of the expediency of using the method of profiling the surface of bedrock as the basic element of the technology of cultivating plants of Lamiaceae family, which ensures essential increase of the productivity of the aboveground biomass because of the enrichment of the hydro-physical properties and fertility level.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textAndrosik N., Lysenko A., Finogenov A., Titov L., Liebiedkova N.
The method of creating the diagnosis anti toxic serum to the toxin Clostridium difficile
Clostridium difficile is often the reason for antibiotics associated diarrhea of humans and animals. We got the diagnosis antitoxic serum highly sensitive and specific, suitable for creating diagnosis systems. The serum has immune uniformity to the 26 epizootic cultures of Clostridium difficile and does not cause cross reactions with 19 kinds of other microorganisms. In I FA reaction it has the ration 1:25000 and in the reaction of neutralization on white mice has the activity of 3,2 AE.

Full textHitrinov G., Demynovich E., Slavetski V.
Forage enriched with mineral-vitamin mixture based on local raw materials in diet of cattle
The article studies the effect of the "Ushachskaya mineral vitamin mixture " on young cattle. It has been established that the effect is increased if it is added into the diet together with phosphorous. Adding the above mixture to the standard fodder KR-2B considerably increases the efficiency of feeding. The optimal dosage has been also established. Adding the mixture to the KR-3B fodder increases the growth of calves. It has been established that adding the 3%,4% and 5% of the mixture into the fodder increases the effect of feeding. It was also found out that that the productivity of animal increases if the dosage of the mixture is increases as well. However, most rational dosage is 4%.

Full textGurin V.
The efficiency of using table salt enriched with bromine and iodine while feeding meat calves
It has been found out in experiments that feeding to steers combined feed with potassium iodine and potassium bromine in their composition with salt or without it results in 17-25% lower concentration of ammonia in rumen and 12-23% (P<0,05) of urea in blood as well as 3-6% (P<0,05) nutrients digestibility and 1-11% (P<0,05) higher average daily gains. It also ensures 6-10% lower feed consumption and 6-8% lower costs.

Full textBorisevich M.
Temperature of the body of small animals while having inflammation of pericardium (quantitative assessment of the significance of indications)
The quantitative assessment of the diagnostics significance of the temperature for the small animals effected by the inflammation of pericardium has been obtained.

Full textIvanov V.
About the etiopathogencsis of the osteodystrophy of calves in the conditions of the north-east region of Belarus
In connection with the amount of the diseases related to the infringed mineral exchange in calves quite often osteodystrophy is observed. Therefore the purpose of our work was to establish its reasons and main mechanisms of the development and spread out in the farms of Lioznensky district (north-east Belarus). The objects of the research were: mineral structure of forages consumed by animals, calves on the month of pregnancy with wrong osteogenesis (unsteadiness of teeth, resorption and ramollissement of the last caudal and transversal lumbar vertebras respectively, a resorption of the last steam of ribs), compared to the control healthy animals. According to the results of our research in the conditions of the north-east region of Belarus the main cause of the osteodystrophy in calves is the improper ratio of macro and microelements in their diet, which, in its turn, results on its content in blood. If the organism of animals lacks manganese and cobalt, which influence the nodal metabolic processes ensuring growth and regeneration of bones, it results in the improper processes of hones formation, clinically visible by the signs of osteodystrophy.

UpMechanization and power engineering proccesing and storage of agrarian produce

Full textDashkov V.
Energy intensiveness of the production as the criteria for the status of the technical infrastructure of the Belarusian agriculture
The article analyses the results of the consumption of fuel and energy resources in agriculture for the past 40 years as one of the main factors of the production development It has been determined that during the past decade the specific energy-intensity has been stabilized at the level of 0,21-0,22 kg/s. t./r of gross product and its further decreasing requires technical re-equipment of the branch and application of the new energy-saving technologies of main crops cultivations and livestock breeding.

Full textGanush G., Kulaga I.
The state of production at the potato processing enterprises in the Republic of Belarus
On the base of the personal observation and statistical data the author provides the analysis of the functioning of the potato processing branch. Arguments are advanced for the necessity of further development of potato industry. Disadvantages of the technical and industrial base are revealed. The way how to get specialized enterprises out of the crisis are considered.

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