ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
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The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
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Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2022 №2

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering


Full textMakrak S. V.
Regional energy efficiency management of alternative energy sources in the context of strengthening food security of Republic of Belarus
Development of the circular and green economy, including its individual areas, makes certain adjustments to the national management model, bringing the development of alternative energy sources to the forefront, taking into account the possibilities of their application in specific regions while respecting the effectiveness of commercial activities. The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the use of fuel and energy resources in agriculture (2000–2020), gives a brief description of the existing installations in terms of energy types. Taking into account the peculiarities of alternative energy sources development (availability of a number of benefits when using alternative energy generation plants; quotas for the size of energy in the context of business entities; lack of recommendations on the establishment and distribution of limits, etc.) methodological provisions are proposed to substantiate the effective consumer of energy from alternative sources, which are based on scientifically sound approaches to assessing energy consumers within quotas, taking into account the importance of their products and with a focus on strengthening food security in conjunction with strengthening the energy security of regions. It has been determined that quotas should be considered as a method of increasing the efficiency of using alternative energy sources, which takes into account the effectiveness of the application of installations, transferred to the final product. The scientific novelty of the development lies in substantiation and development of scientific and theoretical provisions for the management of alternative energy sources at the regional level in relation to agricultural sectors in conjunction with other sectors of the economy, practical implementation of those will contribute to development of solutions agreed between individual economic entities for sustainable development of regions, taking into account formation of optimal levels of use of alternative energy sources.

Full textGanush G. I., Grigoryeva V. B.
Current directions for increasing the role of marketing in qualitative improvement of agro management
Under conditions of modern transformations of social-and-economic processes in domestic and foreign markets a new architecture of marketing relations is being formed, characterizing the essence of marketing as a tool of economic development of the enterprise, including the agricultural sector. Therefore, consideration of characteristics of this model predetermines the methodological basis for development of a forward-looking management strategy for the organisation. The paper outlines the theoretical and applied foundations of the marketing approach to improving and increasing the quality of management in agricultural sector. Substantiation of relevancy of reorientation of management from the production dominant to the marketing dominant is presented, according to which business entities orient their production and sales activities to the real market demand, i.e. to satisfy the constantly growing and changing consumer demands. Transformation of principles, functions and methods of management are formed, as well as its content, that are adequate to the new (dominant) role of marketing, taking into account the predicted evolution of social, economic, institutional, ideological and moral foundations of human society. Based on the studies carried out, it was concluded that the practical implementation of new principles, methods and functions of management in the agricultural sector will be carried out mainly by ensuring the key role of scientific marketing in managing the adaptation of production and marketing of agricultural products, the structure and content of organizational and economic relations in the agro-industrial complex, processes of social rural development to modern and future economic conditions, reflecting in the aggregate innovative and market transformations in the economy and society. Economic, environmental and social advantages of adaptive farming systems based on the dialectical interaction of economic, natural and market factors of agricultural production have been substantiated. Priority directions for development of adaptive agro-ecosystems have been identified, with important place given to improve the specialization and diversification of production, development of organic technologies, production of meat products in accordance with the requirements of the Halal certificate, intended for the Muslim population. Proposals have been made to increase the level of marketing training based on improving the educational process and organizing consulting, disseminating advanced business practices.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textUrban E. P., Hardzei S. I., Artjukh D. U., Hardzei I. S.
Directions, methods and results of rye (Secale cereale L.) breeding in Belarus
At the present stage of science development, breeding of new varieties of plants using modern, including molecular methods, is one of the main links in the intensification of the agricultural industry. Rye is no exception in this respect. This is a traditional strategic crop for Belarus, that largely determines the country’s food security. In the paper, in a historical context, the main achievements in breeding of rye varieties for different uses are outlined. The main approaches are described, including: screening of the world diversity of winter rye in the conditions of Belarus; use of methods of experimental polyploidy, hybridization, stabilizing selection, molecular-genetic methods and techniques. Development and application of modern methods have allowed a number of genetic mechanisms and regularities to be discovered, which, in turn, has significantly increased the efficiency of rye breeding in different directions (population and heterosis). At present, RUE "Scientific and Practical Center of the NAS of Belarus for Arable Farming", State Scientific Institution "Institute of Genetics and Cytology of the NAS of Belarus", as well as jointly with other institutions have developed new breeding methods, including molecular-genetic ones, which is especially important for increasing the efficiency of obtaining competitive varieties. Significant results have been achieved on the use of the effect of heterosis based on cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). To date, a system of highly productive competitive rye varieties has been created for soils of different levels of fertility: population tetraploid and diploid, as well as F1 hybrids – LoBel-103, Galinka, Plisa, and Belgi.

Full textIvanov D. A., Lisitsyn Y. S.
Influence of agro-landscape on the ecological sustainability of cover oats and perennial herbs phytocenoes
Biodiversity is the cornerstone of modern agro-phytocinology. Based on its records, the ecological sustainability of agricultural landscapes is predicted. The aim of the research was to study the influence of soils and the topography of the terminal moraine hill, as well as the age of phytocenoses, on the value of the coefficient of floristic similarity of oat communities with over-sowing of grasses (2019) and clover-and-timothy herbage of 1 year of use (2020). Monitoring of the botanical composition of phytocenoses was carried out on a transect – a field crossing slopes of different exposures and soils of varying degrees of swampiness, located at the agroecological station All-Russian Research Institute of Reclaimed Lands (VNIIMZ; Tver region, Russia). The standing density of oats, red clover, timothy grass, weed species, as well as other environmental parameters were taken into account on 30 systematically located land plots. It is shown that only a few plant species affect the Jaccard coefficient. The topography and soil features of the agricultural landscape, as well as the age of the plant community, have a significant impact on the stability and productivity of the agrocenosis. The main factor affecting the variability of the floristic similarity indicator is soil hydromorphism. An increase in the index of the floristic similarity coefficient is observed on all soils and slopes as the herbage matures. Productivity of grasses depends to the greatest extent on the nature of the interaction of the relief and soils – on the southern slope of the hill, a low hay yield was noted (on average, 5.34 t/ha), the minimum of which was observed on highly swampy soils (4.92 t/ha), on the northern slope, the yield of hay was higher (on average 6.57 t/ha), the minimum of which was noted on moderately swampy soils (6.26 t/ha). Based on the revealed patterns, it is possible to develop measures to adapt technologies for growing perennial grasses to the natural conditions of farms in the mode of adaptive landscape fodder production.

Full textPashkevich H. M., Tchaikovsky A. I., Rupasova Zh. A., Vasilevskaya T. I., Krinitckaya N. B., Zadalya V. S.
Effect of LED lighting duration on biochemical composition of microgreens of white cabbage
In recent years, there has been a steady increase in public interest in healthy and balanced foods all over the world. In this respect, the microgreens of white cabbage is a source of a wide range of useful substances and is characterized by a higher content of those, compared with a similar commercial vegetable. At the same time, information about technological aspects of cultivation, which relate to the duration of lighting, about their correlation with biochemical composition of microgreens of industrial varieties and hybrids of this crop is insufficient and is limited to a very narrow set of their parameters. For this reason, it is of particular relevance to identify the optimal duration of LED lighting in the white cabbage microgreens crop, which ensures accumulation of the highest nutritional and vitamin value and determines the taste qualities of this product. The results of a comparative study of 14 quantitative parameters of biochemical composition of white cabbage microgreens (content of dry, tannic and pectin substances, free organic, ascorbic and hydroxycinnamic acids, soluble sugars, the main groups of bioflavonoids – i.e. anthocyanins, leucoanthocyanins, catechins, flavonols and the indicator of sugar acid index) with different duration of LED lighting are presented (8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 hours). The less significant effect of the studied factor on biochemical composition of microgreens was revealed at 10 hour exposure, while the maximum, exceeding it three times, was at 16 hour exposure. It has been shown that the highest integral level of nutritional and vitamin value of products according to the total analyzed indicators was provided at 16 hours of LED lighting, while the minimum – at 8 hours. For the first time in the Republic of Belarus, the optimal duration of LED lighting for the accumulation of physiologically valuable compounds by microgreens of white cabbage was revealed, which made it possible to recommend it to be used for industrial production.

Full textBoika S. V., Miakhtsiyeva Yu. I., Vasileuskaya L. P.
Role of neonicotinoid preparations for spike grain crop seedlings protection against click beetle and Frit fly larvae in Belarus
Recently, in winter and spring grain crops for pre-sowing seed treatment among the assortment of insecticides the preparations of insecticidal and insectofungicidal action based on neonicotinoids: acetamiprid, imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam have been widely used. At the current stage of chemical method development of plant protection against harmful arthropods, neonicotinoids are rapidly developing and promising group of neurotoxic insecticides and having a fundamentally different mechanism of action on insects – they inhibit nicotine-acetylcholine receptors. Pre-sowing seed material treatment with insecticides protects the sown seeds, hypocotyls and aboveground plant organs against soil and intrastem pests. It is revealed that during the growing seasons of 2019–2021 in the experimental field, economically significant phytophages are lined click beetle (Agriotes lineatus L.) and Frit flies of autumn and spring generations (Oscinella spp.), indicating the study of their larvae number and harmfulness and measures allowing to control the vital activity of insects in agrocenoses conditions. Plants damaged by them lag behind in growth and die. Improving the range of effective preparations with different active substances used by the method of pre-sowing treatment of grain crop seeds to protect plants during germination against phytophages is an obligatory link in the technology of crops cultivation and one of the factors of their number effective control, what has determined the relevance of the choice of our research topic. Pre-sowing winter and spring cereals seed treatment with neonicotinoid preparations based on imidacloprid (Coyote, SC, Sidoprid, FSC, Tabu, WSC), acetamiprid (Leatrin, SC, Bagrets Plus, SC, Vershina Plus, SC) and thiamethoxam (Questor Forte, SC) have provided plant seedlings high protection against click beetle and Frit fly larvae damage. The results of studies conducted in 2019–2021 have shown that the effectiveness of preparations have varied by years depending on weather conditions and pests number before sowing and at seedlings stage. The indicators of winter grain crops plant damage reduction by wireworms have made 78,8–91,1 %, Frit flies 60,0–85,0 %, spring cereals – 80,0–91,6 % and 80,7–91,1 %, respectively. Through years of research the insecticides for seed treatment have helped to increase the stored grain yield of cereal crops, on the average, from 0,7 to 6,2 cwt/ha, or 1,0–13,5 %. The data obtained will serve as a basis for justifying protective measures to reduce the number and harmfulness of soil-dwelling and terrestrial pests in order to improve the phytosanitary situation in the agrocenoses of cereals.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textMikhaljuk A. N.
Effect of the fatty acid marker gene diacylglycerol О-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) on the fatty acid composition and organoleptic properties of samples of butter produced from the milk of domestic breeds of cows
In modern conditions, effective breeding work in animal husbandry is impossible without DNA technologies. The search for selective marker genes that determine the dairy productivity of animals allows us to more reliably assess the genetic potential of breeds, adjust breeding processes, and select animals of desirable genotypes. In the Republic of Belarus, almost no work was carried out to identify genetic markers that affect the fat content, fatty acid composition of milk fat, and as a result, the yield and quality of the finished product (butter). In this regard, a special interest is the diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) gene, which determines the fat content. The paper presents a comparative assessment of the fatty acid composition and organoleptic properties of butter samples produced from the milk of cows of natural selection according to the gene marker of fatty milk diacylglycerol o-acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1). The results of tests of the fatty acid composition of butter from cow’s milk obtained from cows of different breeds and pedigreed its balance, compliance with the established values for volatile and unsaturated fatty acids, absence of phytosterols and adulteration of the fatty phase of the oil were emphasised. The practical significance of the conducted research lies in the use of the results obtained to carry out targeted breeding of dairy cattle according to the gene marker of fat content of diacylglycerol o-acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) in order to increase the mass fraction of fat in milk and the yield of the finished product, as well as to improve the technology of making butter from cow’s milk and the formation of an evidence base in case of disagreement when evaluating the fatty acid composition of the product.

Full textShamonina A. I.
Substantiation of the optimal rate of straw bed in sections with different technological solutions
There is no consensus among producers and agricultural practitioners as to which bedding material is the best. The choice is largely influenced by its useful properties, duration of use and high cost. Organic (straw, sawdust, wood shavings, peat, etc.), inorganic (sand) and synthetic (rubber mats; mattresses made of chopped rubber, latex, polyurethane foam lining, waterproof wax coating, etc.) materials are used for bedding. A significant part of agricultural organizations in Belarus uses winter straw. As a bedding material, it has a number of useful properties: low thermal conductivity, high moisture absorption capacity, low cost, and comfort for animals. According to the Republican standards for the technological design of new, reconstruction and technological re-equipment of livestock facilities (RNTD-1-2004), the standards for consumption of straw bedding for cows at loose housing on deep litter is 8 kg, but there are no input standards for sections with other technological solutions. The paper presents the results of studies to determine the optimal rate of straw bedding in sections with different technological solutions. Analysis of ethological reactions of animals, contamination of the skin, presence/absence of injuries on the body, temperature characteristics of the straw bedding in different seasons of the year and the economic efficiency of using different straw bedding rates has been performed. It has been determined that the optimal straw bedding rate for the general section is 4.5 kg/animal per day, for a section with a division into a feeding area and a rest area – 3.0 kg/animal per day. Application of these rates of straw bedding will enable it to be used economically without affecting the productivity and resting comfort of cows. The research results can be used in design and construction of industrial dairy complexes and storages for rough feeds.

Full textRatko A. A., Duko Yu. V., Shevchuk V. V.
Study of effect of pig manure treatment method on emission of odor-forming substances
During operation of livestock complexes in small spaces, a large amount of animal excretions (feces, urine and undigested food) is generated, which can lead to air pollution, constant smell and release of toxic gases. With increase in productivity of complexes, complaints from residents of settlements located in the immediate vicinity of the facility increase, and pig breeding complexes in this case are no exception. Unpleasant odor is a powerful irritating factor having a significant negative impact on the life and health of people living near livestock complexes, which reduces their living standards. Often, the need to constantly monitor presence of unpleasant odor is the limiting factor for modification, expansion of existing pig farms or creation of new ones, as well as for increasing their productivity and profitability. In this research, studies were carried out for selection of chemical reagents composition for the purpose of deodorization and neutralization of liquid manure runoff at pig-breeding complex. It has been determined that composition based on ammonium persulfate with peracetic acid and formalin, as well as a composition based on sodium nitrite with ammonium molybdate (a high deodorizing effect was maintained after 21 days of exposure to the moment of introduction of reagents into manure) was the most preferable in terms of maintaining the disinfecting effect and suppressing bad odor over the long term. The manure mixtures obtained as a result of such treatment do not pose danger to the environment and can be used as the main component of complex organomineral fertilizers.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textZhdanovich C. I., Plish V. N.
Selecting pre-tensioning of rubber reinforced track on agricultural tractor with cushion suspension
Rubber reinforced tracks and cushion suspension are becoming increasingly common on agricultural tractors. They increase environmental friendliness, provide asphalt driving ability and allow for higher transport speed of crawler tractors, improving working conditions for the tractor driver. The crawler tracks of these thrusters have a high degree of suppleness, so a loss of stability of the rubber reinforced track on the drive wheel can be a problem when operating under high traction loads. The most effective measure to increase the stability of the rim in the mover is to increase the pre-static tension. However, high track tension increases losses in the undercarriage and stresses the undercarriage, resulting in reduced undercarriage life and loss of performance. Analytical dependencies are derived to determine the rational pre-static tension of rubber reinforced crawler tractors with cushion and blocked suspensions during start of moving and moving modes. The required static pre-tensioning of rubber reinforced tracks for Belarus 1802, 2102 and 2103 tractors is determined. It has been found that the greatest necessary static pre-tensioning of the rubber reinforced tracks is required at the maximum forces on the driving wheels of the tractor. It is shown that locking the suspension when operating the tractor with high traction loads at low speed allows to reduce the required static pre-tensioning of rubber reinforced tracks and, as a consequence, their loading. The results of this research can be used in design and operation of tractors with rubber reinforced tracks.

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