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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1998 №1

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterenary
Poultry Breeding
Fish Growing
Processing of Agricultural Produce
Mechanisation, Energy and Automation

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textKovel P.
The problems of assessment of the efficiency of agricultural enterprises at the current stage of economic reforms
The essence of efficiency and the role of an agricultural enterprise in distribution of the results, created at production, processing and marketing stages are shown. Information importance of profit indices, net and gross production considering modern features of transition to market relations is evaluated. It is offered to determini the efficiency of enterprise performance in 18 indices with their subsequent generalization on the base of complex evaluation coefficient calculation. Methods of generalization are grounded on numereous examples of practical work.

Full textIlyina Z.
The current state of the national food supply system
The publication analyses the levels of food supply, production and consumption of the main food articles in Belarus. It gives the main factors of forming the national food market.

Full textLechilovskij P., Lechilovskaja M.
Influence of agricultural production on forming and use of labour resources
It is shown that forming of new economic structure needs changing of production relations by means of collective and state farms reorganization. As a result of researches was ascertained that the reforms must consern the production organization where state and private forms of management are combined and practical market system is arising. Actual reforms of agriculture to market foundation should be accompaned by immediate personal interest in labour results and change of production relations.

Full textShapiro S.
Organizational and legal forms of economic activities
The article points out the essence of organizational and legal forms of economic activities based on different forms of ownership. Their classification is also provided. The article studies the conditions and principles which allow the enterprise to become a legal entity which include such factors as availability of separate property, legal responsibilities, the right to sue and to be sued, availability of "own" organization structure, existance independent of the persons engaged in the enterprise. The article tackles different types of organizations (cartels, syndicats, trusts, "PUL"s, concerns, corporations, holdings, consortiums, franchaisc associations, finance and industrial groups). High efficiency of big production structures with huge finance and credit resourses is pointed out.

Full textSkakun A., Dashkov V., Kolos V.
Some features of determining the economic effect of energy saving
The paper presents methodics variant of calculation possibility energy saving in agriculture and a cite as an example a data of collective farm "Ostrometchevo". Demonstration the possibility using renewebl energy in technology of agriculture. Demonstrate to need take into account the change of ecology taxis in time calculation economic effect.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textSamersov V., Prokhorova S.
The assessment of pest resistance of winter varieties of triticale grown and planned
Growing of winter triticale resistant varieties is the most reliable and safe method of plant protection against the noxious organisms. The objective of the present work is to evaluate the influence of varietal peculiarities of the crop on number and harmfulness of dominant pest species. In the article the record and supervision results on phytosanitary condition of winter triticale during the growing period are given. The quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the degree of winter triticale varieties colonization and damage by dominant species of phytophages, referring to three pest groups: intrastern, leaf chewing and sucking is given. The information on the influence of environmental factors on the settlement of the phytophages on the crop is presented The indices reflecting plant resistance to pests are determined The most harmful and dominant phytophagous species on winter triticale in the course of the last years are presented and covered in all the details. Based on biennial data results the information on the crop settlement by pests is given with the recommendation to the production on the selection of relatively resistant winter triticale varieties.

Full textUsena A., Kozlova A.
Productivity of crop rotations depending on cereals and fodder compenents
The appraisal of productivity of different types and kinds of crop rotations, depending on their satiation with grain crops is given. Specialized graingrassy and grassycultvated crop rotations. Productivity of crop rotations in many respects depends on the regime of use of grass field of the perennial grass. Those crop rotation, where the perennial grass were cultivated on the legume and legume-cereal basises, made sure the biggest productivity and with lesser expenditures of fertilizers of nitrogen. For satiation of crop rotations with grain crops over 50% from area of the field common productivity of crop rotation lowers, the crop capacity of grain crops from sown area slightly decreasea, but exit of the grain from one hectare of crop rotation area coniderly raises. Some lowering of the common productivity of crop rotations, which are satiated with grain crops, can be compensated for inclusion of intermediate cultivations.

Full textLaman N., Putyrsky L., Rosolenko S., Uraeva M.
The charecteristics of the winter varieties of barley as morphotypes populations against the number of leaves on the main sprout
Spring barley varieties and variety samples grown under field conditions at the sowing terms agreed-upon for soilclimatic conditions of the Republic of Belarus were shown to be morphotype population differing in the number of leaves on the main shoot, with the morphotype typical for each variety being dominant in the number in the population. Depending on the conditions of experiment conduction the morphotype ratio in the population changed slightly that allows classification of the tested varieties and variety samples into seven-, eight- and nine-leaf ones for the mentioned character. The number of leaves on the main shoot can be a convenient and objective quantitative characteristic of early maturity of spring barley varieties, since a high positive relation between the stated characters is observed.

Full textLazarevich S.
Peculiar features of the photo system of the polyploid wheat
Indices of chlorophyll fluorescence of 23 varieties of a polyploid wheat set as well as of 3 androgene haploids T.aestivum grown in a hot-house with regulated climate were defined with the fluorometer PAM101-102-103. Parameters of the photosystem were established on their basis. The research done showed variety peculiarities of the photosystem of wheat. Great variation of its parameters in the diploid group was found out. Joining up of the initial genomes at higher levels of ploidy resulted in stabilization of the studied parameters and changing their indices. The obtained data are supposed to indicate structural transformations of the wheat photosystem in the cause of evolution.

Full textAlehina Yu., Evtushenko M., Khodyrev N.
Assessment of the resourse saving methods of improving the culture pasures in the north-east of Belarus
It is recommended to improve cultured by means of undersowing into the sward Trifolium pratense and mixture of Trifolium pratense and Trifolium repense. The original stand must be used in the pasture and pasture-hay regime in the year of undersowing.

Full textRupasova Zn., Kutas E., Ignatenko V., Rusalenko V., Rudakovskaya R., Varavina N., Matyushevskaya E.
Multiplication methods and their influence on the chemical composition of the leaves of cow berry family plants. Report two - high bog whortle berry
There have been determined the main tendencies of accumulation of some chemical components by high cow berry (photosynthetic pigments - chlorophyll a and b; В carotine and xanthophyll; macro and micro elements; carbohydrate - soluable sugar, pectine sibstances, starch; the products of secondary synthesis: flavone substances - anthocyan pigments, catechins, flavonols; tannic substances; free organic acids; chlorogenic and benzoic acids; ascorbinate. The activity of peroxidase and polyphenolxidase activity during meristeme and traditional multiplication hasve been also studied.

Full textIvanyuk V., Avdei O.
Internal differences of the phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary causing potato blight
On the territory of Belarus the fungus Phytophthora infestans (Mont) de Bary is determined to be heterotallic, it means him to have two types of compatibility – A1 and A2. Since 1989 the type A2 has been nearly annually present in the population of the pathogen and the proportion of its contents is in the range of 3,8 up to 65,4%. The self-fertile type of mating A1A2 has been revealed. In the population of Ph.infestans the most competetive is the type of A2 compatibility. Under the infection of potato plants with A2 the incubation period is decreased twofold and the speed of mycelium spread in tissues is increased 1,5 fold The influence of temperature on the formation of oospores has been studied. It is determined that the oospores are formed under the temperature of +7+8 to +23+240C and the optimum conditions are created under the temperature of +13+14 to +20+22P0C.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterenary

Full textMihailov L., Loban N.
Intensification of breeding and improving specializes types of pigs
The article gives the results of using a multiplication pattern based on large scale breeding methods (in "Zadneprovsky "SGC), which made it possible to intensify the breeding process according to the previously set priorities and to make a typology of the population. The utilisation of the method of using a leader in the large scale breeding as well as the utilisation of ASU methods made it possible to automate the system of breeding management, set up a timely analysis system and evaluation of the breeding and genetic parameters of the pig populations. The new methods changed the productivity of the sows in the following way: birth rate increasedfrom 11,6 to 12,8 animals, milk content - from 55,4 to 61,1 kg, the weight of one piglet - from 9,4 to 9,5 kg. The weight gain and meat characteristics improved, the age of reaching 100 kg dropped from 188,3 days to 183,4 days.

Full textMaisyuk V., Yatsko N., Khitrinov G.
Grain silage in young bulls feeding patterns
Nutritive value of silages made from maize and pea-oat mixture of milky-ripeness in comparison with silage from pea-oat mixture of wax-ripeness (grain silage) was studied. Dry matter content and energy concentration in maize of milky ripeness were almost as high as in pea-oat mixture of the same stage of ripeness. Pea-oat mixture when harvested at the stage of wax-ripeness had significantly higher dry matter content, energy value and crude protein yield per ha. Energy value of pea-oat silage was almost similar to that of maize silage while energy value of grain silage was higher by 60-70%. The level of consumption by fattening steers of pea-oat silage was higher than of maize silage. Grain silage feeding allowed to meet the requirement of steers in energy by 63%. Owing to that, growth rate of steers fed rations with a decreased level of concentrates up to 50% was higher than that of steers fed rations with maize silage.

Full textShatskaya A.
The influence of different periods of nests on the biochemical composition of piglets blood
The fact of positive influence of different jacks piglets association at early stages ofpre-wearning period on their growth energy was established. The greatest authentic distinction was market in experienced group, where animals have united in 7- days age. This association promoted increase of safety and formation of protective forces of their bodies.

Full textRadchikov V.
The influence of different doses of belarusit on digestion and utilisation of nutrients of fodder
The efficiency of using belarusit in the main feeding pattern of young bulls has been studied. It has been determined 25 ml of the substance per 100 gr of live weight stimulates digestion and metabolism. As a result the digestion of organic matter increased by 4,4%, protein - 1,2%, fat - 3,3%, cellulose - 2,9%, BEV - 5,9%. The efficiency of using fodder improved.

UpPoultry Breeding

Full textKarput I., Babina M.
Postovarial immunology og meat chickens and its correction by means of probiotic baktril
The scientific innovation of our work empties the peculiarity investigation of immune reactivity formation in chicken ontogeny being studied for the first time, and age critical immunological periods being also definedfor the first time. It has been stated that on the background of the age immune deficiency the microbiocenosis of the intestine changes and gastroenterites develop. Timely settling of useful microorganisms contained in our preparation of baktrile into digestive tract increases general and local defence, prevents gastro-enterites development, stimulates chicken growth and makes the quality of production better.

UpFish Growing

Full textKonchits V.
Developemnt of the fish related science in Belarus and its main directions
The article provides 70 years the data on the dinamics of development of fishing industry of the Republic of Belarus, negative appearances, connected with USSR disintegration. The autor proposes the new strategi of the integrational fishing industry and fishery, the next directions of investigations and international cooperation.

UpProcessing of Agricultural Produce

Full textArtemova E., Vasilenko Z.
Theoretical aspects of the preperties of foam making and emulsifying agents of natural addatives
Experience of utilization of vegetable additives in food technology with foam and emulsion structures demands to determine common regularities in the nature of their foam and emulsion forming properties. The main surface active substances of vegetable additives are proteins and pectins. A certain group of vegetables widely used in food technology is known to have saponins having a high surface activity. This paper presents the results of investigations of model system of saponin, protein and pectin imitating vegetable additives. The investigations are estimated on the base of a universal structural-mechanical factor of foam and emulsion stability.

Full textShingareva T., Gapeeva T.
The influence of coagulators and temperature of coagulation of milk on humidity and organoleptical properties of soft low fat content cheese
It's exploved the influence of two coagulants at different coagulation temperatures of milk on the moisture and organoleptic property soft low fat content cheese is produced in thermoacidifying method. We determined the parametres of thermoacidifying coagulation of milk proteins in cheese production which permit to get the product with good taste and consistency indexes.

UpMechanisation, Energy and Automation

Full textAstakhov V., Sokolov V., Shinkevich E.
The results of the tests of universal pneumatic sower for central sowing of small size seed
The results are provided for the seeds of vegetables, fodder crops and herbs. It has been demonstrated that such system was suitable for experimental sowers, which successfully passed state tests.

Full textBeresyuk D., Shulyak V.
The utilisation of thermal pumps in low temperature technologies of producing food colour agents
The article gives an energy saving scheme of producing natural beet colours by using a heat pump method. It describes an economic system of heat and cool supply.

Full textChaichits N., Gerasimov V.
Improving the row formation on corn plantations in the regions with insufficient warm conditions
With the purpose of increase production of corn on ridges in regions with unsufficient supplying of heat is offered and approved design of a working body for ridge forming allowing to increase productivity of corn with ears in the stage milk-wax on 12-17%, in recalculation on absolutely dry weight on the average on 18%, to lower draw bar resistance of cultivator on 15-17%.

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