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The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
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Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2022 №1

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products


Full textKireyenka N. V., Arnatovich M. A.
Organizational and economic mechanism of balanced development of the vegetable market in the Republic of Belarus
Formation of a competitive national economy in the Republic of Belarus in conditions of international economic relations should be based on a stably functioning and well-developed system of commodity markets, with food market taking a key place in their structure. One of the most important segments of the latter is the vegetable market, which is developing dynamically at the present stage, providing population with valuable food products, and industry - with raw materials for processing. At the same time, specificity of domestic vegetable market of the Republic of Belarus in the context of ensuring national food security is determined by new tasks, objectively generated by the development of modern trends in domestic and global agricultural economy. The paper substantiates theoretical foundations of the mechanism of its balanced development in the food supply system, which contain scientific approaches, conditions and factors of the internal and external market environments, as well as modern trends in the vegetable market and its main segments in foreign countries. In the context of national food security, new directions of organizational and economic mechanism for the vegetable market functioning, effective measures of economic regulation of production and sale of products based on international rules, a mechanism of marketing support for domestic producers have been developed. Scientific novelty of this development lies in application of an integrated approach to balancing the vegetable market, increasing efficiency of the subjects functioning in the value chain and ensuring competitiveness of these products in the domestic and foreign markets. These developments can be used to substantiate the priority directions for development of food markets, as well as to fulfill medium- and long-term forecasts of provision level of the population of the republic with vegetable products. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out within the framework of the State Research Program “Agricultural Technologies and Food Security” for 2021-2025, subprogram 9.7 “Economy of agro-industrial complex”.

Full textSemenov S. R., Semenov N. S.
Development of information and consulting services in the system of information relations in the agricultural industry of the Kyrgyz Republic
Information relations in agricultural sector of the Kyrgyz Republic (KR) needs further development based on the digitalization processes taking place in the society. Spread of COVID-19 pandemic introduced a number of economic adjustments to the country’s digital interactions, which significantly influenced the development of information and consulting services in the industry. Cooperation of the Kyrgyz Republic with the states of the Eurasian Economic Union presupposes close interaction on issues of regulation of the common agricultural market and development of international trade in the field of agriculture, which also affects digitalization of the country’s economy. The paper presents the results of methodological study on development of information and consulting services in the agricultural sector, analysis of organizational structure of the country’s agriculture according to categories of farms, and entities requiring these services have been determined. Recommendations are proposed for digitalization of the industry, taking into account development of information and consulting services, based on the current state of agricultural production, as son as the main consumers of information services turn to be peasant (farmer) households as the main producers of agricultural products. Building a system of information and consulting services will contribute to development of its own market for agricultural products, processing information from agricultural producers and consumers of agricultural products, creating profitable trade relations and marketing of agricultural products.

Full textGanush G. I., Tsetsiarynets T. A.
Evolution of the theory and practices of human capital management in the agricultural sector
Human capital is a factor and a result of the agrarian economy development at the same time, which determines peculiarities of its formation and use. Managing the development of human capital in agricultural sector of the economy is a complex problem, requiring development of theoretical, methodological and practical recommendations in order to ensure food security, improve in competitiveness of agricultural products and living standards of the rural population, stimulate innovative activities and innovative development of agro-industrial complex, and ensuring the growth rate of agricultural labor productivity. Social and economic, technical and technological and institutional transformations in the agricultural sector contribute to the emergence of scientific schools, defining theoretical directions and methodological approaches of management. Aggregation of conducted researches and refracting them into the plane of agro-industrial production makes it possible to identify the main stages of transformation of conceptual aspects of human capital management, depending on the stages of social and economic and technical and technological development of the agricultural sector. Study of genesis and evolution of human capital management allows to substantiate a single concept, revealing features of transformation of theoretical and methodological ideas about this process within the framework of scientific paradigm corresponding to a certain historical stage in society development. Considering the previous stages, this makes it possible to develop the concept of the essence, content and structure of human capital, taking into account industry specifications, to determine the features of its management in the agricultural sector.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textKrupenko N. A., Zhukovsky A. G., Khalaev A. N., Komarova N. V., Pochitskaya I. M.
Factors affecting the level of Fusarium mycotoxins in grain
Mycotoxins accumulation in grain is one of the most widely analyzed problem nowadays, as soon as these metabolites are of high danger to health of warm-blooded animals and humans. Producing mycotoxins with Fusarium fungi beaing causal agents of Fusarium head blight, depends on range of factors, and among measures for their accumulation decrease, chemical method is one of the most effective ones. The paper presents the results of study on factors affecting mycotoxins accumulation under the field conditions. During the experiment with artificial inoculation of winter wheat heads by F. culmorum fungi, the influence of triazole fungicides on Fusarium head blight and mycotoxins content had been estimated. Higher biological efficiency (83,2-79,2 %) for disease severity decrease was higher with fungicide Osiris, EC. Use of fungicides led to increase in indicators of economic efficiency in comparison with the option with no treatment, including the yield, by 12.3-12.8%. In the variants with head protection, the DON content was 2.0-2.1 times lower than in the control. Under conditions of natural damage to various varieties of grain crops (winter wheat and triticale, spring barley) by Fusarium head blight, its depressive manifestation had been determined. It had been determined that spring barley, regardless of the variety, was more resistant to accumulation of mycotoxins, in particular ZEN. Level of mycotoxins in winter wheat and triticale grain varied depending on variety and storage duration. The data obtained will serve as the basis for substantiating measures to reduce the level of mycotoxins in grain. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out with the financial support of the Belarusian Republican Foundation for Fundamental Research as a part of the scientific research project “Comprehensive assessment of mycotoxins accumulation during foodstuff storage” (treaty N Б19МЛДГ-009).

Full textPestis V. K., Halko N. V., Loiko I. М., Krichevtsova А. N.
Modern technologies for conducting beekeeping in the Republic of Belarus on the background of varroatous invasion
In the Republic of Belarus, as well as around the world, there is a continuous search for ways and methods of efficient struggle against the varroatous invasion of bees, however, no significant decisions are found in this struggle. In the context of this problem, scientific studies were conducted on development of modern technology of beekeeping on the background of spread varroatous invasion. Technological methods are proposed in the fight against varroatous invasion of bees, proving efficiency of the joint use of zoothechnical, biological and mechanical methods of combating the Varroa tick. It has been shown that purposeful rearing and selection of the drone brood reliably reduces the tick contamination of bee families by 5.7-17.4%. It has been substantiated that the use of intraulic pollen collector significantly reduces the number of ticks in the bees families, especially in the early spring period, when the ticks are mainly located on bees and are especially vulnerable to mechanical impact. The use of the feeding frame allows to purposefully obtain, conveniently and easily select the drone brood, and along with the drone brood, remove the Varroa tick form the bee nest. The use of the developed technology will allowed to reduce the number of tick, obtain additional products in the form of a homogenate of trutone larvae. Such system will increase the preservation of bee families, productivity of honey harvest and, as a result, increase the profitability of beekeeping production, as well as the effectiveness of pollination of entomophilic agricultural crops and their yield.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full text Suprovych T. M., Biriukova O. D., Suprovych M. P., Chepurna V. A., Karchevska T. M., Kolodii V. A., Lesniak Y. I.
Genetic specificity of the white-headed ukrainian breed according to the BоLA-DRB3 gene
The study of the genetic specificity of local breeds is a promising direction in the context of preserving the biodiversity of cattle breeds in the world. The purpose of research was to analyze the allelic polymorphism of the BoLA-DRB3 gene of the White-Headed Ukrainian breed. The study was carried out with blood samples from 49 animals (11 bulls and 38 cows) of this breed. The allelic spectrum of the BoLA-DRB3 gene was detected based on two-step PCR (primers HLO-30, HLO-31 and HLO-32). Restriction was performed with endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII, BstYI. Restriction fragments were separated by electrophoresis in 9-12 % polyacrylamide gel. According to the test results, 29 alleles were detected. Seven alleles (*03, *11, *13, *15, *22, *23 and *24) were determined with a frequency of over 5 %, that was 65.3 % of the allele pool of the breed. The most common was allele *24 with a frequency of 15.3%. In the experimental sample, 37 genotypes were identified. The predominant variant was *11/*24 (16.2%). A slight excess of heterozygotes was detected (Fis = – 0.035). White-Headed Ukrainian breed is characterized by a significant level of differentiation (or specificity) according to the BoLA-DRB3 gene (Wright fixation index He = 0.959, Shannon-Wiener index H` = 2.93), that confirms the thesis of the important role of local breeds in preserving the biodiversity of genetic resources of cattle.

Full textShamonina A. I.
Optimal rates for feeding front for cows during the milking and midlactation period when contained at dairy complexes of the industrial type
Technology should combine into a single production process biotechnical methods of stimulating the development of functional capabilities and increasing the adaptive abilities of animals with zootechnical techniques that provide comfortable conditions and preservation of the existing stereotype of housing throughout the entire technological cycle, which makes it possible to exclude unjustified losses in productivity and contributes to more complete manifestation of genetic potential. Therefore, search is required for such technological solutions that would not interfere with the animal body, but, on the contrary, would have a stimulating nature. At all stages of the productive life of animals, searches are needed to develop new and improve existing technologies that would best meet the physiological needs of the body. The paper presents the results of researches aimed to establish the optimal feeding front for lactating cows during the period of milk production and mid-lactation. It has been determined that comfortable ethological signs, expressed in the indices of food, motor and general activity, were manifested during the period of milk production in cows with a feeding front of 0.60-0.65 m/animal. These animals showed higher indicators of milk yield. For cows in the mid-lactation, the optimal feeding front was 0.45-0.50 m/animals. It allows to create more comfortable conditions for cows during the main lactation period, which contributes to more complete implementation of the genetic potential of dairy performance. The research results can be used in design and construction of industrial dairy complexes. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out within the framework of the State Scientific Research Program “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production” for 2016–2020, subprogram “Livestock and breeding” (No. SR 20160395).

Full textOstrenko K. S., Koloskova E. M., Ezerskij V.A., Ovcharova A. N., Belova N. V., Il’ina L. A., Jyldyrym E. A., Laptev G. Yu.
Effect of adaptogen lithium ascorbate on the microbiota of rumen in young ewes
Health and productivity of ruminants directly depend on the state of rumen and digestion in intestinal tract. Normal microflora protects the body from pathogenic microbes, stimulates the immune system, participates in metabolic reactions and plays an important role in energy metabolism. Disturbance of species composition of microflora in rumen under effect of various factors leads to a state of dysbiosis, disorders of products digestibility, changes in enzymatic processes and other disorders. Biologically active substances of an adaptogenic nature can show immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activity. Adaptogen lithium ascorbate has stress-protective, neurotrophic, neuroprotective, antioxidant, immunomodulatory properties. In this paper, using molecular genetic methods, the effect of lithium ascorbate on composition of rumen microbiota of sheep was studied for the first time. Composition of microbiota was determined by NGS sequencing method. In total, 37 phylums, 76 classes, 98 orders, 225 families and 894 species of microorganisms were identified. It has been determined that introduction of lithium ascorbate at a dose of 10 mg/kg of body weight into the main diet of sheep contributed to increase in proportion of cellulolytic bacteria from 73.6±1.6% to 75.4±0.9% and over 40% decrease in total number of infusoria in rumen content. Cellulolytic activity of rumen fluid in sheep of the experimental group increased by 38% compared to the animals of the control group. The number of pathogenic bacteria decreased from 2.7% in sheep of the control group to 1.6% in animals of the experimental group, while the content of beneficial bacilli increased from 0.3% to 0.5%, respectively. Content of undesirable and conditionally pathogenic microflora decreased in the sheep of experimental group. The obtained data confirm positive effect of adaptogen lithium ascorbate, introduced into diet at a dosage of 10 mg/kg of body weight, on qualitative and quantitative composition of microbiota in sheep rumen. Therefore, lithium ascorbate, a broad-spectrum adaptogen, can be recommended as a feed additive to the main diet of sheep to improve rumen digestion and increase productivity. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of State program of FSBRI “Federal Research Center for Livestock - VIZH n.a. Academy Member Ernst” (topic АААА-А18-118021590136-7).

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textBakach N. G., Zhilich E. L., Kuvshinov A. A., Rogalskaya Y. N., Radchikov V. F., Romanovich A. A.
Innovative automated set of equipment for preparation of easily digestible concentrate
In the market conditions of dairy cattle breeding, the problem of increasing productivity comes to the fore of cost-effective milk production. As best practices and zootechnical studies show, the productivity of cows is already laid at the level of raising calves of the dairy period. The main feed for calves of the dairy period is currently whole milk, but due to its deficiency, various substitutes based on skimmed milk powder with various additives of vitamins and trace elements are produced. However, due to high cost, the use of whole milk replacers has not been widely used. In this regard, to increase profitability of dairy cattle breeding, as well as for accelerated development, calves are accustomed to consuming vegetable feeds. Since plant-based feeds are difficult to digest in a young body, they must be processed into easily digestible. The paper presents an innovative technology and an automated set of equipment for production of easily digestible concentrate based on local grain raw materials for replacement young animals. It has been determined that the use of an innovative automated set of equipment for production of easily digestible concentrate for feeding calves of the dairy period contributes to: faster development of rumen, higher digestibility of grain components due to proper processing, since during preparation of the concentrate, protein denaturation, inactivation of anti-nutritional substances and starch hydrolysis to maltose occur; obtaining optimal weight gain of calves (over 700 g), which will lead to creation of a basis for future high milk productivity of cows; simplification of calf feeding technology; reducing the consumption of milk or whole milk replacer for feeding calves. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the Russian-and-Belarusian program “Development of innovative energy-saving technologies and equipment for production and efficient use of biosafe feed for valuable breeds of fish, fur animals and specific species of animals” for 2018-2021 (Compound Feed-SG).

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Products

Full textGrudanov V. Ya., Torgan A. B., Barsukov V. G.
Technological and rheological bases for molding pasta in press houses with preliminary two-stage compaction, plasticization and warming of dough
One of efficient directions for pasta press designs modernization is installation of special conical-and-cylindrical inserts in the pre-matrix space and matrix wells in front of the dies having, like Venturi tubes, narrowing zones (convergent), expansion (divergent) and a cylindrical path located between them. However, rheological aspects of such method of forming tool modernizing in relation to pasta presses have not been studied, recommendations for structural elements calculation and design have not been developed. All this is a significant obstacle for using the method in engineering and industrial practice. The research purpose is to develop rheological models the pasta dough flow in the conical-cylindrical channels of convergent-divergent inserts and to evaluate with their help the impact of structural dimensions and rheological properties on resistance to pasta dough flow. Pasta dough was considered as a rheological complex nonlinearly viscous plastic material. In technical calculations contribution of shear strength was neglected and a rheological analysis was performed using the Oswald-de-Ville power law equation. Analytical dependences obtained make it possible to calculate the pressure drops in the convergent-divergent insert and its elements. Numerical modeling was performed and calculated data were obtained regarding the impact of dimensions of structural elements of the insert and rheological parameters of pasta dough on its resistance to viscous flow. The results obtained can form the basis of engineering and technological calculations in design of convergent-divergent inserts for laboratory and industrial pasta presses.

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