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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2006 №4

Contents:
On the 50th Anniversary of the Institute (Center) of Agrarian Economics of NAS Belarus
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus
Economics and Informatics

UpOn the 50th Anniversary of the Institute (Center) of Agrarian Economics of NAS Belarus

Full textSidorovich V.A.
Institute (Center) of Agrarian Economics of NAS Belarus – 50 years (the historical review of development)

Full textGusakov V.G., Suboch F.I.
Сoevolutionary development strategy of processing industry enteprises and agricultural commodity producers
The application of coevolutionary development theory to processing industry enterprises and agricultural organizations as to a subsystem of national economy allows one to reveal an essence of the «conversion» process in agriculture. It permits one to perceive agriculture not only as a customer of state resources, but also as a part of economy that provides necessary volumes of foodstuffs production.

Full textKrupich A.I.
Organizational structure of agroindustrial complex: composition and directions of improvement
The scheme of the organizational structure of AIC is developed with regard to its present composition, the place and the body of each of its components are determined. The measures on a further improvement of the organizational structure of the complex vith the objectives of optimization of the relations befween agriculture and refining industry, and service infrastructure.

Full textBagot M.S.
Specific features of coming Belarus in WTO: agricultural aspect
The agriculture requirements of WTO to applicant countries are substantiated, and the speufic features of forming tariff rates and using the financial support of commodity producers are formulated in the article. The author did the resume of mak-ing the international trade policies of Belarus on coming in WTO.

Full textIl’ina Z.M., Belsky V.I., Perevoznikov V.N.
Problems and prospects for flax cultivation
The tendencies of the world flax market, the analysis of the branch conditions, the proposals on rising the efficiency of the Republic flax subcomplex and the development of raw materials base, the perfection of the flax processing technology and the pro-cessing of flax products, and also the directions of improvement of the organizational structure are considered in the article. In modern conditions the world flax market is created and operated on the basis of perfecting scientific support, applying modern technologies, intensifying production at a decrease of crops and price cut on raw material. A feature of the modern market is the extension of the sphere of application of flax production. Under the forecasts of the leading foreign fashion designers in the nearest years the specific weight of flax and flax-containing fabrics in the total amount of output can be increased up to 70%. It is expected that natural fibres will be widely used in different branches of economics. In Belarus, for saving the positions on the world flax market it is necessary to take into account the present and perspective tendencies of production and usage of flax. The implementation of perspective possibilities of development of the market when actively influencing its conjuncture requires not only the overcoming of available problems of subcomplex operation, but also the support of balanced development by means of complex solution of problems of production of raw material, its processing and sales at the considerable rising of quality parameters of products.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textRupasova J.A., Autko A.A., Ignatenko V.A., Autko An.A., Pozdnyak O.V.
Adding gum influences the accumulation of phenol compounds in vegetables under the conditions of Belarus
The results of comparative study of the parameters of accumulation of bioflavonoids and phenol carbolic acids in carrot, table beet, and late cabbage material with the application of mineral and organic (in case of table beet) fertilizers of various types and doses during a 10-variant field experiment on sod-podzol light loam soils in the conditions of Belarus are presented.

Full textShlapunov V.N., Lukashevich T.N., Nadtochaeva N.F., Kapylovich V.L.
Dynamics of sweet sorghum yield formation and it dependence on the degree of nitrogen nutrition
The reaction of sweet sorghum to different doses of nitrogen fertilizers was revealed. The possibility of two hay cuttings of sorghum receiving at harvesting of the first one in the phase of leaf tube formation was found ont. It was found that on the sod-podzol and light-textured soils with a medium fertility the application of 60–90 kg/he of nitrogen provided 620–670 c/he of green mass of sorghum, 10.6–11.0 th. feed units per hectare. At this, the return of 1 kg of nitrogen in dependence on a dose is 23.7–20.2 of feed unit.

Full textKlochkova O.S.
Influence of the seeding depth on the formation of plant density and productivity of summer rape
The influence of the seeding depth of summer rape seeds on the dynamics of occurrence of shoots, formation of plant density and productivity is investigated. Researches were carried out in 2002–2004 on sward-podzolic loamy soil. It is estab-lished that the field sprouting of rape seeds depends on the soil conditions at germination. The greatest field germination is obtained at a depth of seeding of 15 mm. It was varied from 34.1 to 64.7 % depending on the conditions of year. The field germination at a depth of seeding of 35 mm was up to the standard of a variant of 15 mm in favorable soil conditions and reduced to 17.9% on structureless surface soil. Germination of seeds at superficial placement occurs after loss of rains. The shoots appear late, the field germination is reduced by 58.9–81.3% at superficial (0 mm) and deep placement (50–100 mm) in comparison with a variant of the depth of seeding of 15 mm. The depth of seeding renders the essential influence on the formation of a crop by means of the action of two major fac-tors: 1 – term of occurrence of shoots; 2 – density of plants. The summer rape crop is reduced by40.0-58.1% at superficial and deep seeding in comparison with the depth of seeding of 15 mm.

Full textShelyuto B.V.
Energy and economic efficiency of cultivation of perennial grasses in the system of the raw material conveyer on the sod-podzol loam soil of the north-west region of Belarus
Results of comprehensive evaluation of the technology of perennial grasses cultivation depending on the level of mineral nutrition and the cutting regime enabled to determine their farming, energy and economic efficiency in the system of the raw material conveyer. Using perennial cereal and leguminous grasses in one variety sowings and in the leguminous-cereal mixtures - orchard grass, fescue grass, cock’s foot timothy herd’s grass, reed canary grass, early maturing orchard clover, hybrid clover which are characterised by the highest adaptability to soil-climatic conditions of the north-eastern part of Belarus, it is possible to organise a conveyer supply of the green mass during the vegetation period combining two- and three cutting technique with the aim of provision of rough and succulent feed for the winter period.

Full textMarchik T.P., Efremov A.L.
Macro-, microelements and humus in redzina soils of the north-west part of Belarus
In the article the results of research on agrophysical and agrochemical of properties of various subtypes of rendzina soils of the north-west part of Belarus, content and structure distribution of macro-, microelements and humus are presented. It is shown that the investigated soils have a high volumetric density, a significant content of particles < 0.01 mm, a neutral reac-tion of the environment, a high security by total and mobile forms of basic biogenes, a lack of the mobile forms of manganese and copper, an essential deficiency of mobile zinc and a raised content of mobile boron.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSevernev M.M., Sheiko I.P.
Urgent tasks of animal husbandry
The article considers the necessity to put all kinds of animals on fodder rations balanced on nutrions values; the reduction of energy consumptions for keeping the microclimate due to air purification from ammonia and a 2-fold decrease of air exchange. Shields of protective constructions of animal husbandary rooms against pathogen microflora are examined. An expected economic effect is shown.

Full textZhuryna N.V.
Effect of the estrogen receptor gene on reproduction traits of large white and Belarusian meaty sows
The association between the estrogen receptor (ESR) gene and reproduction traits was studied in a population of large white and Belarusian Meaty sows. There were statistically significant differences between ESR genotype females for a total number of born piglets, including alive ones, for a number of piglets at 21 days, and at weaning of piglets. Some litter traits displayed favorable, but not statistically significant trends with ESRB allele – litter weight of born piglets, litter weight at 21 days, litter weight at weaning, a number of stillborn pigs, safety of piglets.

Full textTanana L.A., Doroshko A.A.
Hormone profile and the formation of the sexual function of the heifers of Belarusian black-motley breed of various inside breed types
The researches are devoted to studying the hormone status of the heifers of Belarusian black-motley breed of various types during the pubescence, which is defined by the functional condition of the endocrine glands that stipulate the intensity of the metabolism, the completion of forming the organism and the attainment of the physiological maturity by the animals. As a result of the researches it is established that the pubescence and the valuable sexual cycles of the heifers of the milk-meat direction of productivity are revealed at the age of 8.6 months (258.8 twenty-four hours), and of the animals of the milk type – at the age of 7.9 months (237.3 twenty-four hours). The physiological matu-rity of the heifers of the milk-meat type was attained at the age of 17.1 months (512 twenty-four hours), and of the heifers of the milk type at the age of 16.2 months (487 twenty-four hours). The age of the first insemination of the animals of the milk type was by 27 twenty-four hours less than of the same of age of the milk-meat type.

Full textGutikov K.D., Pestis P.V., Kovalevsky V.F.
Efficiency of enrichment of mixed foods for a young stock of pigs with sapropelic feed additives
As a good natural source of mineral elements, the organic and biologically active substances like sapropel can serve, on the basis of which sapropelic feed additives for animals are prepared. Results of physiological researches have shown that the use of such a feed additive in rations of pigs allows enhancing the exchange processes in the organism of animals, increasing the digestion of nutrients by 1.2–3.2% and increasing the nitrogen sedimentation by 5.5–9.0%.

Full textSharshunov V.A., Rukshan L.V., Vetoshkina A.A.
Prospects of use of nonconventional fodder additives in manufacturing mixed fodders for animal husbandry and poultry farming
Researches of the quality of nonconventional kinds of raw material for mixed fodder industry are carried out. The scheme of classification of nonconventional kinds of raw material is given. The scheme of researches is presented. Physical and chemical properties and parameters of safety are determined. The opportunity and the expediency of manufacturing fodder additives with the use of the waste products of sugar (filtra-tion sludge) and strong drinks industry (distillery grains) industries, etc. are established. The opportunity of using nonconventional kinds of raw material for manufacturing fodder additives and mixed fodders is determined. The efficiency of use of nonconventional kinds of raw material is shown by particular examples. The «know-how» of fodder additives is offered and has passed industrial approbation. Technical normative legal certifi-cates are developed and authorized. The technological process of manufacturing mixed fodders with the use of the offered fodder additives is developed. The economic efficiency of output of fodder additives and mixed fodders on their basis is determined.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textZhdanovich Ch.I., Mamonov M.I.
Methods of choosing the parameters of hydromachines of the transvering mechanism of a crawler tractor
The methods of choosing the parameters of hydromachines of volume hydrotransmissions of differential planetary tranversing mechanisms of crawler tractors, which provide a minimum turn radium of a tractor and an optimum pressure of working liquid in the volume hydrotransmission with regard to tractor slipping, power spent for turning and elimination of its skidding, are developed. The initial data for making calculations are: parameters of a tractor and its transmission, soil on which the tractor is moving, a moment of resistance to the turning under the main operating regimes of a tractor, a required radius of turn of a tractor, a maximum working liquid pressure drop in the force hydrolines of the volume hydrotransmission. The developed methods allow choosing the working volume of hydromachines both with regulated and nonregulated hydro-motors and can be used for choosing the parameters of hydromachines of a designed tractor as well as for improving construction of transversing mechanisms of the existing tractors.

Full textDashkov V.N., Kapustin N.F., Barareuski A.N.
Substantiation of the efficiency criteria of application of artificial overhead irrigation
In article the basic requirements and the conditions of the efficiency of sprinkling are described, the calculation and graphic dependences for definition of characteristics of artificial rain are resulted, the parameters of the quality of natural rains are specified, and similar parameters in various irrigating devices are analysed. On the basis of the analysis the criteria of efficiency of application of artificial sprinkling are determined, and also the necessity to take them in account is shown by the optimization of irrigating devices with the purpose of increasing the ecological quality of rain. These criteria are most satisfied with mobile drum-type sprinklers, whose intensity of rain (basic integrating criterion), is within 0.28–0.36 mm/min.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textPaulouskaya L.M.
Designing of compoundings of canned food for the children’s meal using mathematical modeling
The mathematical model of designing of compoundings of homogeneous canned food for a children’s meal on a fruit-and-vegetable basis with certain physical and chemical characteristics and stages of its realization is offered.

Full textLovkis Z.V., Рetjushev N.N., Litjak V.V.
«Know-how» of a potato concentrate and a nonalcoholic aerated drink prepared on its basis
The technology of a concentrate is developed and introduced on the basis of potato, and also nonalcoholic aerated drink «Мikоlа» prepared on its basis. The major importance in the formation organoleptic properties of a concentrate and a drink belongs to the reaction of melanoidin formation. The developed technologies can form a basis for creation of the whole spectrum of domestic soft drinks of the functional purpose possessing treatment-and-prophylactic properties.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Mikhail Maksimovich Severnev (To the 85th Anniversary)

Full text
Albert Fedorovich Trofimov (To the 70th Anniversary)

Full text
Zenon Valentinovich Lovkis (To the 60th Anniversary)

UpEconomics and Informatics

Full textBaigot M.S.
Application of tariff’s quotas in Belarusian agriculture
The article deals with the experience of application, possibility and advisability of using tariff’s quotas for imported products (one of the methods of international trade regulation) in the context of Belarus joining to the WTO. The researches show that according to the situation at the domestic market of agricultural products the application of this method is advisable for poultry meat, beef and pork.

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