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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2000 №3

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and power engineering
Proccessing and storage of agrarian produce

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textAdashkevich V., Vorobiyov L.
The main points and problems of forming of the agrarian financial-industrial groups
It has been grounded a necessity in forming and it has been offered the ways of solving of problems for organizing of the agrarian financial-industrial groups in Belarus.

Full textVorobiyov L., Kazakevich L., Kudryavtseva T.
The management situations: classification and ways of settlement
It the article model conceptions for description and classification of the management situations are developed and defined concretely with due regards for market conditions. It has been analyzed their sources and content, elementary cycles of management and the ways of settlement used for solving of situational problems.

Full textGusakov V.
Scientific-practical recommendations for efficiency increase of functioning of Agro-Industrial Complex

Full textKireenko N.
Basic economic terms of effective functioning of marketing in the system of Agro- Industrial Complex (AIC) in Belarus
In the article it has been considered basic economic terms of effective functioning of marketing in thesystem of Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC) in the Republic of Belarus: simultaneous development of theory and practice of marketing; use of marketing in all the agrarian spheres; practical application of all marketing complex and so on. It has been analyzed an economic medium of the development of marketing activity in the agrarian sphere. It has been listed basic reasons of reduction of production and factors which promote effective functioning of farms.

Full textLeshchilovskiy P.
Employment and its regulation factors
An experience of forming and use of labour resources of the Byelorussian agriculture is generalized with taking into account available production potential and forming social relations. On the basis of analysis it has been offered a mechanism of the rational use of manpower, an activization of workers for raise of labour productivity. In the article it has been grounded a notion employment and the measures forks regulation on the basis of social-economic development of infrastructure of countryside have been offered.

Full textStarovoytova N.
The reasons of low labour remuneration in agriculture and the measures for its overcoming
In the article on the basis of the correlations between macro- and micro-economic factors of the work of industry and agriculture it has been considered the reasons of profitability cut in agrarian commodity producers and labour remuneration lowering in agriculture. It has been defined the numbers of labour remuneration lowering in agriculture due to the factors in consideration. It has been offered the ways to its оvercoming directed a t the removal of differentiation in labour pay between professional-skilled groups of the different branches and also at labour remuneration raise for agricultural workers.

Full textShapiro S., Tsylko O.
Perfecting of intra-farm relations in agrarian enterprises under conditions of transition to market economy
Common principals of building of relations inside of collective and state farms are formulated in this article. Elements of intrafarm organizing and economical mechanism in agricultural enterprises are shown. Methodical approaches to its improvement are presented.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textAndrusevich M.
Apple root system of MM106 in the different ecological regions
The soil heterogeneity influences on the forming of the root habit of the rootstock MM106 very much. The most root MM106 is in the loessial and moraine loamy sands under light mechanical soil deposit. Sandy soil horizon on a depth till 60-80 cm diminished the forming of skeleton roots.

Full textBuga S., Ushkevich L., Boyarchik V., Loban S., Radyna A.
Species composition of Fusarium genus fungi, species found in agrocoenosis of winter grain crops
Data on species composition of Fusarium genus fungi found in vegetative organs of winter crops - wheat, rye, triticale are presented. At stock shooting stage of winter crops on vegetative organs of winter triticale 9 species of Fusarium genus fungi have been discovered, for winter wheat - 10 species, for winter rye - 12 ones. At wax ripeness the specific diversity is changed by quality and quantity. The basis of Fusarium genus fungi complex is compound of the dominating species of F. oxysporum, F. culmorum, F. sporotrichiella.

Full textVoytekhovich I.
Ensilage of narrow-leaved lupin
It has been stated that narrow-leaved (angustifoliate) lupine is a valuable raw material for siloing. A maximum value of energy and protein can be reached at it's harvesting at wax bean phase. The lupine's harvesting at that phase let receive a 67% more from every hectare than at harvesting at bluish bean phase. The yield of metabolic energy per hectare has been increased a 55,7%, that one of digestible protein is up a 46,2%. The silo of narrow-leaved lupine is so nutritious as the yellow lupine one. The best results has been received under siloing of green mass of lupine with benzoide acid.

Full textZhukova P., Loban N.
Improvement in chemical weed control in intensive technologies of potato cultivation
The authors ascertained the most effective herbicides in potato plantation for control of annual and biennial dicotyledonous weeds and herbaceous weeds: arezin, zenkor, sitrin under overall and band application and mixtures of arezin with zenkor, arezin with sitrin, zencor with sitrin. The use of these herbicides increased yield, improved produce quality and increased profitableness of production.

Full textSmeyan N., Tsytron G., Shibut L., Pesetskaya O.
Peats moor transformation of the south-west part of Belarus under influence of drainage and long-lasting agricultural use (illustrated by Brest region)
On the basis of conjugate analysis of spectrophotometrical performances, morphological, hydro-physical, physic-chemical properties in a different degree worn down arable peat soils and also their productive ability it has been founded that under influence of anthropogenous activity the new soil objects has been formed. They have differed at their profile constitution, properties and diagnostic attributes of horizons from starting analogs. All these reasons permit to consider these new soil objects as subtypes (peat-mineral, mineral residual-peat, mineral post-peat) in the type of anthropogenic-transformed degraded peat soils.

Full textUsenya A., Skirukha A.
Agro-economic and energetic evaluation of the different types and kinds of crop rotation
The agro-economic and energetic evaluation of the different types and kinds of crop rotation in dependence on their satiation with grain and fodder crops has been given. Productivity, economic and energetic efficiency of crop rotations in many respects depend on their species structure and a mode of use of the perennial grasses. Consequently, an improvement of organization of grass sowing by the way of replacing the old grasses by leguminous plants and legume cereals with a duration of use not more than two years is an important reserve of field productivity increase and power saving in agriculture.

Full textGrib O., Pavlovich L.
The genetic control of a morphological trait, of awnedness in barley
The hybridological analysis of awnedness in barley hybrids was carried out both by classical variant and by given in this paper one. The latter demonstrated that morphological trait awn is controlled by regulator gene and structural gene, the first of them determines level of expression while the second indicates differences in quality - awn or furca. Lines 259 and 66, which were studied, - are the donors of recessive awnlessness, thev are allelic by regulator gene but have different alleles by structural gene. Line 259 has allele A-awn, line 66 has that of A2-furca. Line 26 is a donor of dominant awnlessness by structural gene A2-furca.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textBakhtiyarova O.
The influence of feeding on the lactation curve of heifers
In the article it has been discussed the influence of an increased level of feeding owing to the ration supplementation with mixed feeds during the last two months of gestation on their lactation curve after parturition. It has been found that higher levels of heifers nutrition by 11,6% and 23,8% in comparison with recommended levels (VASKHNIL, 1985) improved their milk productivity, the shape of lactation curve and did not negatively affect their health.

Full textDremach G., Maksimovich V., Zaytsev V., Dremach V.
Immunogenesis of piglets inoculated by deposit vaccination against erysipelas of swine in combination with BST-1
In the article it has been listed results of the study of immunogenesis of piglets inoculated by deposit vaccination against erysipelas of swine in combination with immunostimulant BST-1. It has been stated by researches that applied immunostimulant BST-1 exerts a positive influence upon immunogenesis of piglets under vaccination against erysipelas and in near future this preparation may being used for stimulation of immunity answer from piglets inoculated by deposit vaccination against erysipelas of swine.

Full textKireenko N.
The methods of optimum work of rumen digestion of young cattle
The possibility of the leguminous protein protection in the diets for young cattle by means of chemical additives was studied. Feeding diets treated with both propionic and acetic acids (50 ml/head/day) or with the condense of low molecular acids (5% of feed weight) as well as pelleted mixed feeds treated with 50 ml of propionic acid resulted in the activization of microbiological processes in the rumen, in lower protein degradation and GAО energy losses which in their turn caused better use of feed nitrogen by animals and their higher growth rate.

Full textKhochenkov A., Khodosovskiy D., Solyanik V., Bezmen V.
Role of standards for grain forage in provision of industry of ecological-pure production of cattle-breeding
То obtain ecological pure food-stuffs (pork, eggs, fowl and so on) it is necessary to pro vide animals with high quality grain forage. Widely spreading fungi diseases of cereals in medico-biological aspect have deteriorated the quality of grain and have polluted it by micotoxins. While the standard methods and appropriate instruments for express-determination of these micro-poisons are absent in Belarus, more thorough control of lots of grain forage containing a heightened quantity of frail, light weight and low grade grain, is indispensable. To prevent a penetration of micotoxins to digestive chain the Byelorussian Institute of Cattle Breeding has worked out the standards for feeding grain that included the additional requirements to safety indices.

Full textYakubovskiy M.
The modern methods of therapy and prophylaxis of parasitical diseases of animals
In the article it has been stated the data of epizootology of the most spread parasitical diseases of animals and economic damage caused by these diseases to country's economy. The most effective, accessible and economically acceptable means of therapy and prophylaxis of animal parasitical diseases have been described.

UpMechanization and power engineering

Full textBasyonok G.
Reducing of power consumption and increasing of the carrying capacity and durability of meat processing plant technological conveyers
Optimal parameter's calculations of load-carrying facilities in dependence of load, specific pressure, form and correlations of cramps dimensions have been stated. It has been given an example of practical application of these calculations.

Full textKartashevich A., Kondral A.
Investigation of the process of dehydration of diesel oil in inhomogeneous electric field
Work reliability of the fuel equipment of high-speed engine to a marked degree depends on the quality of fuel moving to precision machine parts. A water content even in small concentrations worsens low-temperature, energetic, anti-wear and anti-split indices of fuel and augments a corrosion rate of the parts of fuel-feeding apparatus. It leads to significant lowering of the reliability of fuel engines. For reliability we have offered to use settling filter for the refinement fuel from water in inhomogeneous electric field. In this article it has been worked out a mathematical model determining a dependence of the effective work of filter on its main characteristics: fuel outlay, filter diameter, voltage and distance between electrodes. The obtained data permit to determine construction parameters of the filter for the different kinds of fuel engines. This filter will be able to guarantee the required degree of the fuel refinement from water. As an example it has been given a calculation of efficiency of the filter for engine 6 CN 13/11 (SMD-62).

UpProccessing and storage of agrarian produce

Full textPastukhova Z., Galushko V.
The graines made from whey
It has been a description of organ-leptic and physic chemical properties of the new kind of graines: graines made from whey. It has been stated efficiency of use of that graines as a component of mixed feeds for cattle and pigs. A complex of the standard documentation for production and applying of graines made from whey has been worked out.

Full textSharshunov V., Chervyakov A., Kozlov S., Kurzenkov S., Talaluev A., Radchenko A.
Substantiation of the direction of perfection of grain treatment technology on the basis of "extrusion-expanding"
The classification of treatment of grain of cereals and leguminous cultures is presented. The most perspective of them have been described. Actually, new progressive technologies of grain treatment have been worked out. In the article as an alternative technology it has been offered a progressive grain treatment - by the aid of expanders. With the aim of analysis of processes flowing in expanders a definition of the treatment mode of grain material and their influence on the qualitative indices of the obtained yield, experimental inventory for expanding of forages has been designed. Technological scheme of the device and action of experimental inventory of grain expanding have been described.

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