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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2004 №3

Contents:
Economics and Information Technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Jubilees

UpEconomics and Information Technologies

Full textV. Gusakov, A. Svyatogor
Rational utilization of the resource potential is the basis for intensification and efficiency of fodder production
The article provides the scientific evaluation of the nation’s need in agricultural produce, including food and fodder cereals and fodder recourses. In view of above the authors did the estimation of the optimal structure of the crops areas and formulated the recommendations on improving the structure and organization of the agricultural production, utilizing resources on the pay off principles, intensifying arable farming and optimizing fodder production.

Full textN. Bychkov
How to sell a business?
Transition to the market economy in the agrarian sector of Belarus, reorganization of the loss making businesses led to the situation when a range of entities became part of the economic turnover. A business has special role in it. Sale of a business is a separate paragraph in the national civil code, which can be viewed as the proof of the conceptually new approach to the role of the properties of the businesses in the economic turnover. The article reveals some acute points in regulation the deals with selling businesses; the criteria for restricting the business as a property complex; unnecessary complications of the procedures of changing ownership; determining the content of the business prior to sale.

Full textZ. Ilyina, N. Batova
Agro-economic integration in flax sector: directions and forms
The article reveals the peculiarities of the flax sector in the country, which predetermine the development of the branch depending on the situation in the world market. The authors have justified the foundation for creating a structure that would consolidate the interests of the companies in the flax sector and adequately reacting on the dynamics of the market, keeping in mind the process of globalization. The article also considers options for possible integration in the flax sector: association, holding, financial-industrial group, economic group. It has bee determined that it is necessary to create an economic group, a corporate structure, because it best fits the tasks of the development of the branch and the current status and interrelations of the future members. The article describes the essence and organizational-legal forms of forming and running the would-be structure.

Full textL. Gerasimovich, A. Verbilo
The analysis of the energy saving efforts in Belarusian poultry production
To achieve the European level of poultry production and adequate economic performance of the industry it is required to considerably upgrade the technical infrastructure of the poultry complexes. Modernizing and introducing advanced technologies of feeding and keeping poultry is the key to increasing the potential of the technological infrastructure.

Full textA. Shpak, M. Pestis
The ways of increasing the efficiency of pork production
The article analysis the modern status of the pork production and considers the main directions of intensifying it. The authors point out that specialized pork production is more efficient than small scale one. They ground the required upgrading of the pig complexes, which is to become the basis for introducing modern resource saving technologies. It has been demonstrated setting up new production-economic integrated entities, so called agrarian financial-industrial groups, is an important reserve for increasing the efficiency. Such entities make it possible to unite the interests of the producers and processors via reorientation of their interests towards one final result.

Full textA. Saiganov
Organization and efficient operation of the mechanized teams and modern machine-technological stations (MTS) as an important direction of introducing resource saving technologies
The author has formulated the scientific definition of the mechanized teams as concerns the current status of the development of AIC. He also classified such teams and justified the principles of efficient organization and operation. The mechanism of creating MTS has been demonstrated, including legal aspects, source of investments for initial MTS's assets, recommendations for the economic relations between MTS, their clients and the state. The article analysis the existing methods of rendering services to the clients. It has been demonstrated that the new resource saving technologies must be implemented mostly via the system of MTS.

Full textP. Drozdov
Optimizing the structure of the machine-tractor stock of the machine-technological stations (MTS) rendering agrochemical services
The article provides the typical models of the mechanized teams, rendering agrochemical services to the farms on a district level, developed on the basis of economic-mathematical optimization. Each model is described by two tables. The first determines the content of each component of the MTS depending on the maximum theoretical demand for the services. It includes the number of technological links and devices in each component. The second table provides the optimal size of the machine-tractor stock and the required investments in the new machinery, annual costs and profits. The article also suggest the algorithm for structuring the being formed and perfecting the existing MTS on the basis of the typical models.

Full textM. Bazyleva
Classification of the labor relations in Belarus and the development trends
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the labor relations in Belarus and their development. The relations of the entities in the economy may be divided into micro-, macro- and intereconomic levels. The analysis of he the microeconomic peculiarities of the labor relations makes it possible to classify them, depending on the essence, into employment, organization of labor, payment etc. Macroeconomic peculiarities of the labor relations determine the categories of labor relations where the key factors are demographic aspects, availability of labor, main trends in the labor policy, specific conditions of the branches of the economy, migration. Studying the labor relations and the intereconomic level determines the activities of the international organizations on regulating labor. Complete classification of the labor relations in Belarus would require taking into consideration all three levels, which was done in the article.

Full textE. Ermoletskaya
Instrument oriented approach to utilizing the method of statistic analysis
Along with standard approaches the article considers alternative (instrument oriented) methods of working with statistics, making statistical grouping for the more advanced analysis. Such approach would be most important for the managerial sphere, keeping in mind constant and up-to-date improvement and retraining of the managerial staff.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textL. Kukresh, V. Kuharchik
About applying nitrogen fertilizers to cereals
The efficiency of applying nitrogen fertilizers and the yield of legumes has been studied by the authors. According to the investigations the average fertility soils have N30 as the best dosage for vetch. Peas are more sensitive to nitrogen fertilizers. The crop has different reaction to nitrogen, depending on the variety.

Full textA. Tsyganov, O. Vildflush
Efficiency of applying micro fertilizers in pea production
The efficiency of peas of the variety Agat in 2001-2003 increase on average by 330 kg/h after applying boron at the background of N50P50K90, cobalt - by 2.8, molybdenum - by 2.6 and compound micro fertilizer "micom" by 4.3. The test were held on the sod-podzolic light loamy soils. Non-root application of micro elements were advantageous from the point of view of economy and energy. The largest potential profit and bio-energy coefficient were determined when using boron and compound micro fertilizer "micom".

Full textA. Biryukovich
Perennial grasses in the fodder hay making “conveyor”
The total area of the improved hey making areas in Belarus is 924.1 thousand hectares. Here the average yield is 1.8 tons, which equals to the level of natural fertility. In 1981-1990 the yield was 2.21-2.89 tons. The article reveals the results of the research made by the author in 1992-1997 and the data on productivity and dynamics of the development (stage of hay maturity) of the mixed cereals crops and legumes-cereals. The article would be interesting for managers, especially if they are engaged in developing efficient agro-phytocenosis of the "green conveyor".

Full textA. Autko, Zh. Rupasova, V. Ignatenko, R. Rudakovskaya, N. Dolbik, O. Pozdnyak
The influence of the type of substrate on the content of the polysaccharide and phenyl compounds of the green house tomatoes
It has been determined that nutritious and vitamin value of the production on mineral cotton wool is lower than in other substrates. This is the result of the comparative research of the levels of pectins, kl, phenyl carbonic acids and bioflavonids in the green house tomatoes cultivated on mineral cotton wool, k, mixes of peat and k (65:35), a fire of flax and in water culture.

Full textK. Padenov, G. Gadzhieva, N. Galyakevich
Agro-phytocenosis of the beet filed and controlling the density of weeds
In the study of the sugar beet filed it has been determined that the fields are very much affected by different weeds-competitors another (field sedge, coach grass, chenopodium album, barnyard grass). The proved reduction of yields of the beet took place when competing with weeds for more than 15 days from the stage of fully germinated beet, or the stage of the second pair of true leaves). To regulate the agro-cenosis of the beet field and to develop efficient methods of protection the authors have developed and suggest the main parameters and instruments of killing weeds by utilizing the new assortment of herbicides (betanal progress OF, KE, betanes, KE, pilot, VSK, goltiks, KSand SP.)

Full textV. Kartashevich
Forecasting the reasonable volumes of protection activities
The article suggests the concept of creating a typical system of forecasting the volumes of pest control activities. It is built according to the system of forecast existing in the country and includes a complex of typical algorithms for the forecasts of different periods. Planning the reasonable volumes for the next season is made on the basis of the short and long term forecast of the pest numbers. Perspective planning is based on the experience gained in many years. The hydro-meteorological data and a sheet form for tracking the pests number is common for both types of planning. The info in the form mentioned above must be submitted according to the forecasted periods of pests’ phenology.

Full textA. Zhukovsky, S. Buga
The toxic influence of the seed dressers on Fusarium nivale (Fr.) Ges. Fungus isolates- casual organism of winter triticale snow mould
The article provides the results of of the analysis of toxic influence of seed dressers: Sumi 8.2% FLO, Raxil 060, SC, Vitavax 200 FF, 34% WSC, Kolfugo duplet, SC, Ferazium, SC, Premis 200, SC on nivale fungus isolates of Priluki population resistant to Fundazol, 50% SP. These isolates were more sensitive to Sumi 8.2% FLO, Raxil 060, SC, Vitavax 200 FF, 34% WSC, Premis 200, SC preparations. Kolfugo duplet preparation exerted weak toxic influence "factor of resistance" averaged 80.9. Analysed isolates showed resistance to the preparation Ferazim.

Full textN. Sonkina, S. Soroka
The dynamics for forming the weed cenosis and the critical period of the harmfulness of potato weeds
The article shows how the yield of potatoes depend on the content of weeds, length of mutual vegetation of weeds and potatoes. It provides the data on the crop losses and determines the coefficients of harmfulness together with critical periods of competitors' relations, which differ depending on the variety, weed content, intensity of competition and length of mutual vegetation.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textV. Sharshunov, P. Titov, A. Titov, V. Grinkevch, A. Scherbetov, A. Chervyakov
Production and utilization of the extruded soy cake in intensive animal breeding
The article provides the results of the research of the process of making extruded soy cake in the conditions of the fodder making farm AO Ecomol of Vitebsk region, Orsha district. The authors analyze the existing technologies of the improved soy processing revealing advantages and disadvantages. Based on this analysis the experimental extruder line has been developed and tested. The article provides the results from the utilization of the cake made in this way as well as the recipe for applying the ready made cake.

Full textV. Bukas, V. Radchikov, V. Gurin
Efficiency of using sodium selenit in calves’ ratios when growing for meat
It has been determined that using sodium selenit in calves’ ratios in the dosages of 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mg per one kilo of weight is beneficial to the consumption of fodders, digestion processes, digestibility, and utilization of nutrients, biochemical content of blood and productivity of the animals. The dosage of 0.2 is more efficient. It increased daily weight gain, by 14%, from 728 to 831 g. In the feeding period this parameter was raised from 964 to 1054 g (by 9%). Simultaneously the cost of the 100kg of weight gain was reduced by 9-10%, making the profit BRB6800 per 100 of added weight.

Full textI. Postrash, V. Holod
The exchange of the serum ferrous in milk cows and young calves
Mineral elements is part of all organs and tissues of organism. They play an important role in the exchange process. If there is a lack of mineral elements the physiological processes go in the wrong way, which leads to slower growth of young animals, lower productivity, diseases, sometime fatal. The article gives comparative assessment of the status of the exchange of the serum ferrous in milk cows of 2-3 lactation and young calves. The performance of the transport fund of ferrous in the two groups considerably differ. Most calves 2-7 days and 5-6 weeks of age have two periods of ferrous deficit. The article considers their reasons and characteristics of ferrous exchange.

Full textE. Stepanova, M. Yakubovsky, T. Myastsova
Peculiarities of diagnosis and prevention of hypo-dermatosis of cattle
Hypo-dermatosis of cattle in Belarus is wide spread. The level of the damage by the larva of the gadflies depend on how the instructions of controlling hypo-dermatosis and using preparations of autumn animals' treatment are followed. The article considers the problems of the outspread of the disease and its control in the country. It reveals the data on the efficiency of used preparations for hypo-dermatosis of cattle and development of the early diagnosis means.

Full textE. Miklash, L. Kiptsevich, M. Kavrus, N. Astapovich, G. Novik
Hematological performance and formation of the microbiocenosis of the gastrointestinal system of calves when using probiotics
Getting and growing the healthy young animals in modern economic conditions is one of the most complicated tasks of the managers and scientists. Improper microbiocenosis of the gastrointestinal system is often the reason for the diseases and losses of young animals. Therefore solving the problem of creating new biopreparations for prevention and curing gastrointestinal system is acute and has great scientific and practical interest. After the research of the influence of the new biotic preparations on the hematological characteristics and formation of the microbiocenosis of young calves it has been determined that application of the probiotic in the dosage of 1ml/kg of live weight once a day improves the regulation of the acid-alkaline balance, activates energy processes, improves natural resistance factors and microbe structure of the intestinal system.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textI. Girutsky
Modernization of the control systems for pig feeding
At the moment large scale pig complexes badly need upgrading and introducing new technologies. The article describes the results of the development and introduction of the automated systems of controlling technological processes of preparing and distributing fodder at large scale pig complexes. On the basis of own experience of many years it has been determined that it is justified to upgrade the existing technological lines by using computerized control systems. The author suggests specific directions of reducing costs of pork production and discusses practical steps.

UpJubilees

Full textA. Yatusevich
The eldest institute of higher education is celebrating the jubilee

Full text
60-th anniversary of Stanislav Ivanovich Grib, academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

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