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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 369-86-18
e-mail: info@belnauka.by
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»
2002 г. - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2017 №4

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

Full textKazakevich P. P., Kasjanchik S. А.
Agrarian science - the Year of science of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGanush G. I.
Methodology and method of determining production advantages of agrarian regions in the context of classical economic theories
Increase of the global hypercompetition on the background of the world economy instability in uncertain conditions necessitates searching for new ways of scientific analysis and identifying new processes for formation of sustainable competitive advantages of the national economy in general and in separate regions in particular. Competitive advantages of the region are formed by a combination of natural and geographical, social and economic, scientific and educational technical, information, cultural and institutional resources and conditions having developed in the region, distinguishing it from other regions and determining long-term perspectives for production of goods and services. Establishment of sustainable competitive advantages gives possibility to develop steadily under uncertain conditions and economic growth slowdown, which indicates the relevance of the considered subject importance. The article presents one of the possible application variants of classical scientific theories for regional advantages use in the production of goods in order to achieve economic benefits through a rational labor differentiation and activities results exchange, taking into account the specific nature and economic conditions within certain market communities. Based on classical economic theories, methodological provisions and methods for optimizing the agricultural production location are developed, taking into account the comparative (relative) advantages of the regions of Belarus. The approbation of the methodology allowed determining the ratings of economic feasibility for location of cattle milk and meat production in the regions of Belarus.

Full textBychkov N. A., Lenskaya T. I., Zaprudskaya T. A., Takun A. P., Skoropanova L. S., Herdziy V. N., Metlitskiy V. N.
Efficiency of organizational and institutional transformation changes in agriculture
Unlike most post-Soviet countries, in Belarus predominantly large-scale agricultural production is observed, so the process of organizational and institutional transformation changes in the agro-industrial complex is aimed not only at developing small forms of management, but also at improving arrangement and management of existing large enterprises. This peculiarity is in many respects unique from the point of view of world practice, therefore the analysis of achievements and problems of the organizational arrangement of domestic agro-industrial complex is of considerable interest both for Belarusian and foreign scientists. The main aim of institutional transformation changes of agro-industrial complex was to increase the efficiency of production based on gradual creation of economic mechanism for arrangement of a multi-structured economy, competition between organizations of different incorporation and management forms, equivalent exchange between the industry and agriculture, arrangement of market infrastructure and efficient state social policy regarding the rural population. The article presents the results of analysis of efficiency of structural transformation changes in agro-industrial complex, estimation of efficiency is given for various organizations forms functioning in agrarian business in the Republic of Belarus for the period of 2000-2016. Three modern directions of organizational and institutional transformations in agro-industrial complex are distinguished: business organization based on private ownership of property, including sale, lease of enterprises, unused or inefficiently used state property or its gratuitous alienation into private ownership for development of small and medium-sized businesses; implementation organizations association based on reorganization via join, merger of enterprises, trust management of property, sale of enterprises as property complexes to large integrated entities (holding companies, agricultural plants); transformation of state and non-state property into economic companies with priority state participation; conducting public (IPO) privatization of state block of shares of companies at the stock market.

Full textGusakova I. V.
System estimation of research and methodological materials of economic regulation of food security
One of the priority aims of the world community is food security. Analysis of global problems shows the long-term persistence of shortage in agricultural raw materials and food, exacerbated by unfavorable situation in the world market, the impact of globalization, political, social, economic and military crises. Reserves for increasing agricultural production are limited, and further intensification leads to decrease in quality and threats environmental safety. It becomes increasingly difficult for the agrarian food systems of countries and regions to provide population with sufficient quantities of safe and nutrition valuable food products, which is the reason for the large amount of various forms of malnutrition. The article presents assessment of research and methodological materials of economic regulation of food security. The most important for the practice of Belarus mechanisms, forms and tools for ensuring food security, used in developed countries are established. Classification of criteria and indicators of food security has been performed by a number of traits: the unity of definition, the simplicity of calculation, availability of the initial information in official statistics, etc. The main criteria have been highlighted, as well additional indicators have been formulated. A model of food safety regulation is developed based on comprehensive assessment of five spheres of management: the sphere of production of initial agricultural products; the sphere of production of finished food; the sphere of state management of agro-food complex; the sphere of material and technical (resource) support of agro-industrial complex; the sphere of market products turnover and consumption. The following measures for sustainable food security are identified as key measures: implementation of research and technological progress achievements, transfer of innovations and development of the national agrarian science.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textBogatyrova E. N., Seraya T. M., Biryukova O. M.
Organic fertilizers influence on the humus state of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil
Under the effect of various types of anthropogenic load, the number of external positive and negative factors affecting the formation and functioning of humus system of soils is increasing. So it is necessary to find indicators of humus state of soils reflecting their genetic and agronomic features. The action of different types of organic fertilizers on the humus condition of sod-podzolic sandy loam soil in field experiment is evaluated according to the results of analysis of soil samples taken a year after fertilizer application. The most positive influence on qualitative humus composition had litter manure and compost based on peat, lignin, pulp, defecate, straw and semi-liquid manure. The humification degree of organic matter increased from 26.3 to 32.5–34.6 % with the relations expansion СHA/СFA from 0.82 to 0.92–0.99. The indicator of intensity of the humification process on the stage of the tumor humic acids СHA-1/СFA-1 increased from 0.79 to 0.94–1.08, at the stage of polymerization and the complexity of humic structures (СHA-2/СFA-2) – from 0.71 to 0.81–0.83, indicating the gain characteristic of humate of humus. Humus degradation changes evidence had found in the variants of vermicompost, liquid cattle manure and effluent input. HA-2 equity participation in the humic acids total amount declined to 9–14 % with the СHA-2/СFA-2 decrease rate to 0.24–0.58.

Full textKrupenko N. A., Zhuk E. I., Buga S. F., Zhukovsky A. G.
Septoria on cereals and its harmful effect
Nowadays septoria has become widespread in many countries of the world, including in the Republic of Belarus, in winter and spring wheat crops and winter triticale. Septoria of cereal crops is caused by several types of pathogens: on leaves in the crops of studied cultures this disease is caused mainly by fungus Septoria tritici Desm., and since paniculation phase – Stagonospora nodorum ( Berk.) E . C astell. & G ermano. D evelopment o f l eaves s eptoria d epends on hydrothermal conditions of growing season and varietal characteristics. Analysis of cereal crops damage by septoria over the last 20 years indicates significant changes in phytopathological state of crops. For instance, in winter and spring wheat crops, the development of a complex of diseases of the leaf apparatus, with the dominance of septoria, reached its maximum in the vegetation seasons of 2006–2010 compared with those of other five-year periods, when the average index of disease development reached 34.3 % with deviations from 22.4 to 55.9 % and 40.9 % with fluctuations from 31.0 to 75.1 %, respectively. In recent years (2011–2015), the development of the disease in the crops of these crops has decreased to 15.7 % (4.3–40.5 %) and 32.2 % (0.2–73.0 %). There was a higher damage degree of leaves with a complex of diseases in winter triticale crop (38.8 %) was recorded in conditions of 2001–2005 at fluctuation of this indicator within the range of 14.9–72.5 %, whereas in 1996–2000 (the lowest development) on average 11.3 % with deviations from 1.6 to 20.0 %. There is a tendency to damage degree reduction in winter wheat septoria development from 36.7 % (2001–2005) to 19.7 % (2011–2015), in winter triticale on the contrary, growth in these periods from 26.3 to 36.3 %. Head of spring wheat was more intensively damaged by septoria during all the years of observations – 34.8 % in 2001–2005, 62.3 % in 2006–2010, and 44.7 % in 2011–2015.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSolyanik S. V., Khochenkov A. A., Tanana L. A., Pestis M. V.
Computer and veterinary hygiene simulation of numerical values of parameters of natural resistance, hematological profile and performance of young pigs at pig breeding complexes
Most of zoology engineering studies are based on determining of effect of factors of breeding, feeding and management of livestock on formation of a higher level of animals performance. One of the sources to understand the mechanism of effect of one or several zoology engineering factors on performance of live organisms is the level of natural resistance of animal organism and hematological profile. To confirm the biological mechanism established by researchers, the quantitative content of morphological and biochemical indices in blood of experimental animals is indicated in publications. Basically, hematological profile is represented by two or three parameters characterizing the carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism (glucose, cholesterol, total protein and its fractions, enzymes (AST, ALT), etc.), as well as macro- and microelements (calcium, phosphorus, iron, copper, etc.). For establishing the biological mechanism of the natural course of metabolic processes in organism of growing young pigs, computer models have been developed taking into account the curvilinear correlation of pigs blood indicators and their performance and allow to make quantitative "description" of average daily weight gain growth of young pigs and the corresponding level of natural resistance and hematological profile of animals with a specific performance level. Also, according to the indicators of natural resistance of pigs' organism, morphological and biochemical indicators of blood, it is possible to determine the average daily weight gain for a specific hematological indicator. The developed computer programs for correlating the pigs average daily weight gain and their blood parameters can serve for biochemists and biophysicists as a zoology engineering theoretical basis for development of kinetic models for forming the level of young pigs weight gain.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textKruk I. S., Chigarev Y. V., Nazarov F.I., Romanyuk V.
Theoretical research of effects of sealing elements of star wheeled rod working units of roller accessories
The soil treatment system based on combined units application, allows to decrease energy and labor costs per output unit and to obtain the greatest economic effect while maintaining soil fertility. Various additional accessories are used to provide the required quality of the basic soil cultivation, shrinkage and surface treatment of formation in arable units. The most universal in this case are the star wheeled rollers with various forms of sealing elements, which crumble, smooth and compact the surface of the layers that were turned over. The quality of the process is influenced by the design, geometric dimensions of the rollers, the kinematic and dynamic parameters of operation, as well as condition of the cultivated agrophone. The purpose of the study was to substantiate the geometric parameters, the shape of the sealing elements, and the theoretical studies on their effect on soil. The article analyzes shapes of the sealing elements of star wheeled rod rollers, regularities of formation and propagation of the soil compaction kernel under their influence, on the basis of which the dependences for determining the technological parameters of star wheeled rollers have been obtained. As a result of the conducted studies of the effect of rods on the soil, the equations of its motion and compaction condition are obtained. The results of the studies supplement the theory of the interaction of reinforcing elements of star wheeled rod working organs on the soil, allow to determine their structural and technological parameters and can be used for design of soil-cultivating rollers.

Full textKazakevich P. P., Zayats P. V.
Substantiation of machine with elastic blade rotor for mechanical collection of Colorado beetle
Potato is the main food product in diet of many people around the world and takes the second place after rice in terms of the global spread. However, the high yields of potatoes are largely affected by pests - Colorado beetles. Colorado beetle control is one of the decisive factors for achieving high yield of potatoes. The widely used chemical method is not suitable for obtaining ecologically clean potatoes. in this case a timely and high-quality collection of the beetle from the tops of potatoes is required, but there are no machines manufactured for these purposes in our country. The use of special equipment for collection of Colorado beetle will make it possible to obtain ecologically clean potatoes and is economically and energetically justified at the present stage of development of agricultural production. The technological scheme of the machine as a part of combined unit for collecting Colorado beetle and inter-row potato cultivation ensuring production of potatoes without chemical protection is proposed. The main design parameters of the machine are theoretically and experimentally substantiated. Based on the research results, experimental unit was assembled for collecting Colorado beetle and potato hilling, it was tested and evaluated in the field.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textLovkis Z. V.
Hydrodynamic processes in food industry
Development of food industry in the Republic of Belarus is aimed at a whole new organizational level of production and implementation of technologies ensuring competitiveness of domestic food products. The following factors of innovative development of food industry shall be considered as the main one: creation and wide dissemination of new technologies, equipment, modern ways of production arrangement, as well as ensuring appropriate professional level and qualification of engineering and technical personnel. In all the branches of food industry hydrodynamic processes are used, and therefore issues relating study and improvement of such processes are relevant and perspective. The article presents results of theoretical and experimental researches of various hydrodynamic processes in food industry, taking into account the effect of structural and mechanical properties of the treated media. The calculated dependences for determination of local hydraulic resistances in various elements of pipeline systems, resistance along the hydraulic impact length, etc. are presented. The obtained results can be applied for development of energy efficient equipment for food production, and also for optimization of such technological processes as heat exchange, dosing, transportation, mixing, etc.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Zinaida Makarovna Ilyina (To the 80th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Iosif Mikhailovich Bogdevich (To the 80th Anniversary of Birthday)

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