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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2007 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov V.G., Suboch F.I.
Food competitiveness as the strategy of the stable innovation development of the agroindustrial complex
In the article the main advantages and the results of the State Program on the Rivival and Development of a village for 2005–2010 during 2005–2006 are estimated on scientific grounds. A practical role of agrarian science is shown in implementing the Program, in stabilizing the economic development of the agroindustrial complex, and in improving the competitive capacity of the national agroindustrial production. The article proposes a new concept of formation and sustenance of the food competitiveness on the basis of the stable innovation development of the agroindustrial complex. In this connection, the concept of food competitiveness, its basic conditions and factors of its sustenance are determined. A model and а mechanism of the stable development of an enterprise are presented. The methodology of creating market production cooperation integration associations and also the methods of direct economic relationships between different structures of AIC systems is formulated with objectives to stabilize and increase the income of agents of management. The strategy of the innovation development of the agroindustrial production is described.

Full textIlyina Z.M., Kondratenko S.A.
Theoretical and methodological criteria and approaches to the estimation of national food safety
In the article the idealized and methodological approaches to the estimation of national and regional food safety are considered, the basis of which is the principle of sufficient and balanced nutrition, which takes into account physiological norms and indicators, including a different spectrum of characteristics and criteria make the model of national food safety. The complex of stability indices of the food safety system, taking into account national, demographic, and climatic and economic features with concrete threshold values, is developed, the deviation from which testifies to the creation or availability of threats. Special attention is given to the problems of contructing a research algorithm of the food safety system necessarily envisioning such stages, as the strategic monitoring with the purpose of revealing threats and forecasting the potential of their implementation and the tactical monitoring, the definition of the consequences of acting threats.

Full textZapolsky M.I., Grigorenko A.W.
Basic directions of industrial integration process development under transitional economy conditions
The problems of agroindustrial integration are the subject of long-term research of scientific establishments and investigators. It finds its reflection in numerous publications, thematic works, theses. Scientific conferences of different levels are dedicated to the problems of integration. Agroindustrial integration is the subject of constant attention from the side of executive and legeslative branches of power. Nevertheless, the variety of knowledge on this topic doesn’t mean its completeness, objectivity and effectivity. Moreover, the agroindustrial integration in the practice of the agroindustrial complex of Belarus hasn’t been widely spread under new conditions. It is obvious that the integration development between the commodity producers of different levels is one of the directions to strengthen the economic conditions of the agroindustrial complex. Being inwardly selfsufficient and logically substatiated the process of integration is able to raise the agroindustrial production effectivity to a considerable extent. The creation and development of the cooperative organization in the sphere of production, trade, credit and financial relations represent the real way of economic and social rise of agroindustrial enterprises economy of all forms together with the other factors of evolutionary development.

Full textEfimenko A.G.
Conceptual approaches to the formation of the effective market of motor transport services in the agroindustrial complex
In the conditions becoming of the market ratios in the Republic of Belarus, of significance for support of the normal course of public reproduction is the development of branches of the industrial infrastructure and, first of all, of motor transport. In the article the directions of effective operation of the market of carriages by road, which promote the increase of size of cargo carriage and the reaching of the higher quality level of motor transport services, are considered. The conceptual positions and the mechanism of creation of the market of motor transport services of the agroindustrial complex, methodical fundamentals of price creation in the market of services, scientific fundamentals of controlling technical risks in the market of motor transport services of the agroindustrial complex, the model of registration of costs with the use of systems ‘standard – cost’ and ‘direct-cost’ with reference to motor transport organizations of the agroindustrial complex, methods of definition of the efficiency of rendered motor transport services in the agroindustrial complex, based on the application of an integral index of their competitiveness in the market of services, are developed.

Full textTeterkina A.M.
Substantiation of perspective volumes of production of corn feed grain in the Republic of Belarus
The role and the importance of corn grain for animal husbandry are determined and the results on the substantiation of the demand for a given kind of feed grain for the prospect are presented on the basis of estimation of economic efficiency of production of various kinds of grain in the Republic of Belarus. Alternative calculations with the use of economic-mathematical modeling have allowed one to establish that by 2010 it is expedient to increase the production of corn grain up to 935 thousand tons, including the traditional technology – up to 606 thousand tons, whereas now the gross grain yield does not exceed 140 thousand tons. It is assumes that the expansion of sown areas is more than five times larger in comparison with 2005. Corn sowings for grain should be 3.5% in the structure of the total sown area. Because of the climatic and soil features it is necessary to place the most part of sowings, approximately 70%, in the south of the country.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textNikonchik P.I.
Organic substance balance in the soil in different type crop rotations
The results of long-time experiments are presented. The influence of different-type crop rotations: grain-grass plonghing, grain-grass, grain-plonghing, grain, plonghing in different systems of fertilizers on the organic substance accumulation due to root and after-harvest rests and the humus content in the soil is analyzed. It is shown that the humus content in a lowing layer depends on the concentration, the composition type and the regime of applying perennial grasses in the crop rotation, straw ploughing up and the use of after-harvest cultures for fodder and green fertilizers.

Full textLapa V.V., Lamanos M.M.
Influence of various doses of mineral fertiliers on the yield of millet grain when cultivating on the sod podzolic loamy sand soil
When cultivating millet on the sod podzolic loamy soil as an optimal system of fertilizer are the application of N90P40K90 and the foliar treatment by microelements (Cu+Mn) in bushing a phase in a doze of 25 g/ha reactant., which have ensured the millet grain yield of 4.31 t/ha. The increase due to the applied nitric fertilizer in this variant was 1.21 t/ha, the total mineral fertilizer – 1.62 t/ha. The individual share of the soil fertility in the formation of the millet grain yield according to the results of research was 62%, fertilizers – 38%, including phosphoric and potassium fertilizers in the optimal variant – 10%, nitric – 19%, microfertilizers (copper and manganese) – 9%. The positive action of macro- and microfertilizers on parameters of the structure of the millet yield is established.

Full textKilchevsky A.V., Antropenko N.Yu., Pugacheva I.G.
Results on the action of tomato cyclic gametophyte and sporophyte selection on the cold resistance and productivity
The results of experiments on cyclic tomato breeding on the productivity and the cold resistance in the north-east part of Belarus are presented. The action of pollen cyclic selection and also of a combined sporophytic and gametophytic selection on the tomato cold resistance and productivity parameters is investigated. The maximal positive influence on the investigated characteristics is revealed after the combined action of microgametophyte and sporophyte breeding.

Full textLikhatsevich A.P., Rusetsky A.P.
Substantiation of the simplified technology of operative control of the soil water regime during the vegetation period when using dried-moistened polder systems
The article considers the simplified technology of current control of the soil water regime during the vegetation period. It is based on periodic measurements of the position of ground water levels and water levels in channels. The technology includes the determination of controlling actions in order to provide a required direction of the ground stream relative to the position of a regulating system. The methods of determining the operation horizons of pumping on polders with computer- water removal for formation of necessary horizons in the channels of regulation sections are presented.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textTanana L.A., Dashkevich M.A., Doroshko A.A.
Use of the cows of the Belarusian black-montley breed of the different-line belonging in the farms with different zootechnical background
The present work is devoted to invertigations and comprehensive analysis of the economic-useful signs of the cows of Holland and Golshtin line selection in the farms with different zootechnical background, since a furter genetic improvement of the cattle of the Belarusian black-motley breed is planned to lead in the direction of making milk and milk-meat inbreed types. As a result of the made research it is established that at a rate of feeding of 49–70 and more centner к.ed. per one cow a year, the first heifers of Holland line selection surpass the coevals of Golshtin line selection in a milk rate by 167—1095 kilogram and in a milk fat content by 0.07–0.18%. The tendency of superiority of the cows of Holland line selection over the same–age cows of Golshtin line selection in the milk productiving during 3 lactations by 167–1735 kilogram and in the milk fat content by 0.03–0.18%, was revealed.

Full textSheyko I.P., Khotchenko A.A., Khodosovsky D.N., Sheyko R.I.
Peculiarities of the metabolism of growing pigs at industrial complexes and the possibilities of its modification
The results of the monitoring of the metabolism of growing pigs at pig complexes showed that 40–100% of animals are short in protein in blood, and 20–40% have a disturbed phosphorus-calcium metabolism. One of the main reasons for this is not good balance of diets (Cv in the raw protein – 8.1%, calcium – 12.1%, phosphorus – 9.2%). The growth of diets nutrition increased their productiveness and had a good influence on the biochemical activities.

Full textSidorenko R.P., Sitko V.A.
Efficiency of the L-carnitine application in diets of nursing sows
We introduced 50 mg per kg of l-carnitine in the forage of nursing sows and showed how it influenced the sows reproductive ability, the growth and the survival of sucking pigs. We noticed that the sows lost less a live weight during the suckling period and increased their milk productivity and fat, lactose and energy content in milk increase. The sows that received the l-carnitine addition secrete more nutrients and energy with milk. That leads to the increase in the growth rate of sucking pigs during the suckling period by 9.1%, their survival – by 9.2% and the weight of all the survived sucking pigs when they are weaned at the age of 35 days – by 20.1%. The gain in the weight of suckling pigs among the sows, which received the l-carnitine addition, exceeded the one in the control group by 29.1% and made up 57.3 kg. The daily pig gain in the weight in the experimental group was 1.9 kg, which was by 26.7% more than in the control group.

Full textKovaliov N.A., Buchukuri J.V., Usenia M.M.
Development and study of the vaccine efficacy for immunization of animals against rabies (Strain 71 BelNIIEV – VGNKI)
Rabies is a dangerous disease for warm blood animals, including humane and creates the economical and social emergency for many countries. Belarus also has the same problems. General measures for rabies prophylaxis is a rabies vaccination of animals. Belarus does not produce rabies vaccine. Therefore, the Belarusian Institute of Experimental Veterinary-Medicine worked out a liquid inactivated rabies vaccine based on strain 71 BelNIIEV-VGNKI and a melhod of production. This rabies vaccine is a safety, steril and high immunogenic drug. This vaccine has been registrated at the Central Board of Veterinary Medicine Ministry of Agriculture and Food for factory production and use in Belarus.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textLensky A.V., Rodov E.G., Shmarlovsky P.M.
Standardization of the conditions for exploitation is the basis for
Standardization of natural-manufacturing conditions of agriculture in the Republic of Belarus has been executed on the influence upon the capacity of mobile units at plant growing, the required to this objective volume of sampled total combination of facts on each of accountable factors has been determined, the laws and parameters of their distribution have been established. For factors, which have different size and range, to be adduced, the method of transformation of the corresponding to them indices into dimensionless quantities and the method of finding the integrated assessment of the maintenance machine conditions are proposed. The example of such integrated assessment is presented.

Full textGorin G.S., Golovach V.M.
Stabilization of the tractor turning with draft load
On the basis of F. A. Opeyko’s mathematical theory of friction, the calculation procedures are proposed: additional tangential reactions (parasitic forces), operating in contacts of wheels of all-wheel-drive running system with the soil; eccentricities of center rotations; stabilizing moments for calculating indices of the tractor turning with the draft load using the characteristics of interaxle differentials (IAD). The purpose of calculation is the creation of control algorithms IAD for improving tractor circular turn. Experimental data on the kinematic front and rear wheels circular velocity relationships (about the center of turn) for a tractor with a kinematic discrepancy of interaxle block drive KV = 1,05 and KV = 0,93 and IAD drive, are presented. On the basis of these data, the design schemes of front steering and rear unsteering driving axles and also the dependences for calculation of accentricites of rotation centers, wheels-soil contact shear deformation and kinematic slips angles are proposed.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textMasanskiy S.L.
Actual problems of the development of school catering in the Republic of Belarus
The problems of development of school catering were studied. Two trends of industrialization, which supplement each other, are determined. They are the development of industrial methods of school catering products and the development of special school catering production at food processing enterprises of the agroindustrial complex. Special requirements for these products are determined. The strategy of ‘plant intervention’ into the methods of school catering production for increasing the functional ingredient consumption in children’s food is substantiated. Required organizational and technological methods are suggested.

Full textPachytskaya I.M., Vostruchin N.P., Litvjak V.V.
Technological qualitative parameters of sugar beet of different raw zones of Belarus
Technological quality indicators of the sugar beet of different raw zones of Belarus near Open Society, ‘The Slutsk Sugar Combine’, Open Society ‘The Gorodeya Sugar Combine’ (GSC), Open Society ‘The Gorodeya Sugar Combine’ (GSC), Open Society ‘The Zhabinka Sugar Factory’ are investigated during 1998–2004. It is established that the sugariness of sugar beet to be processed changed depending on the year of research and was within 14.6–17.9%, allowing one to obtain an output of sugar of 13–14%. The content of alpha-amino nitrogen varied within 1.99–3.98 мM/100 g beet. The highest content of alpha-amino nitrogen was marked in 2002 at GSC and was egul to 3.98 мM/100 g beet. The size of total impurity changed from 5.7 to 10.1%. The amount of root crops with mechanical damages made 25– 30%, and the fifth part of them had strong mechanical damages. On the basis of the analysis of the long-term data on technological qualities of root crops of sugar beet, the parameters normalizing those of the quality of sugar beet in storing have been established: the content of alpha-amino nitrogen is not more than 2.5 мM/100 g beet, total impurity is not more than 15%.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Nikonchik Petr Ivanovick (To the 75th Anniversary)

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Kovaliov Nikolai Andreevich (To the 70th Anniversary)

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Likhatsevich Anatolii Pavlovich (To the 60th Anniversary)

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