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The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
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Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2021 №2

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus


Full textPilipuk A. V., Rastorguev P. V., Gusakov G. V., Kondratenko S. А., Karpovich N. V., Pochtovaya I. G., Lobanova L. A.
Conceptual directions for improving the mechanism for ensuring food security of the Republic of Belarus
Food security largely determines stability of the entire economic system. The Republic of Belarus overcame the deficiency and ensured food security, as well as formed a significant export potential in the agri-food sector of the economy. In this regard, outside views on the Belarusian model of ensuring food security are of particular interest. There is an objective need to ensure undeniable competitive advantages of domestic food products in terms of quality safety, expanding the marketing potential of Belarusian products in the domestic and foreign markets, and effectively integrating the national agro-industrial complex into the global market space. The paper presents conceptual directions for improving the mechanism for ensuring food security of the Republic of Belarus. Trends of physical and economic availability of food in the domestic market, some destructive factors and potential threats have been revealed. Feasibility of developing national plan for implementation of provisions of the Doctrine and the principles of its arrangement have been substantiated, including: consistency with the model of ensuring national food security and independence; compliance with the criteria for sustainable development of the social-and-economic system of the agri-food complex; stakeholder inclusiveness and accountability; operational and strategic monitoring of the efficiency of measures, etc. The main units of measures are proposed, which cover creation of an efficient monitoring and management system; ensuring quality and safety of food in the domestic market; promotion and implementation of principles of healthy diets among population; regulation of the domestic market balance; increasing the competitiveness of the domestic agri-food complex; creation of favorable competitive environment; development of scientific, innovation and investment potential. This development will increase the efficiency of the Doctrine of National Food Security as a strategic planning document, as well as substantiate and introduce the mechanisms required for solving the assigned tasks. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state scientific and technical research program “Agricultural Technologies and Food Security”, subprogram “AIC Economy” for 2021-2025.

Full textSemenov S. R., Semenov N. S.
Formation of economic and information relations in the agricultural sector of the Kyrgyz Republic
The agricultural sector of the Kyrgyz Republic needs to address a number of priority measures caused by the global crisis. The COVID-19 pandemic affected the country’s economic development, which was reflected in decrease in exports and a slowdown in economic growth. Joint cooperation with the states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) assumes interstate interaction to regulate the common agricultural market, develop international integration and cooperation, which helps to equalize economic risks, preserve and develop own production in the field of agriculture. Activation of economic and information relations processes in agriculture of the republic, development of innovation and investment activities, construction of new methods for approach to formation of the export potential of the industry, internal and external interaction of the state bodies of the country with the economic entities in agribusiness and development of market relations, is especially relevant. The paper presents the results of methodological study and offers practical recommendations for ensuring sustainable development of the agricultural sector, as well as ways to improve new legal, economic and management decisions. Based on building of system of sectoral and statistical indicators, an assessment of functioning was made for the flour-grinding industry, sector of crop and livestock products, direction of promoting the export potential and export opportunities of the agricultural industry was studied, the labor potential and its possibilities in development of food production and peasant (farm) households, the assessment of investments level in the economy and agricultural sector of the republic has been given. Recommendations have been proposed for the current assessment of agricultural production at the level of organizations and peasant (farm) households, in order to achieve better results in the field of economic and information relations based on public administration.

Full textPashkevich V. A.
Conceptual directions of effective management of labour resources employment in agriculture
Rapid information technology progress leads to increased competition both within countries and between them. This actualizes the ability of personnel to function in market conditions, as well as to master new and promising ones. All over the world, in recent years, the processes of management of labour resources employment have acquired a fundamentally new meaning in terms of achieving competitiveness of both individual organizations and countries as a whole. In this regard, economic transformations made it necessary to study new processes in the sphere of population employment, formation and regulation of the labour market, and use of labour resources in production field. The paper describes the current trends in formation of the labour potential in agriculture, results of the personnel situation analysis in the agricultural sector of Belarus. The factors determining transformation of the forms of labour organization and employment in the economy and agriculture have been systematized. The results of ranking of economic sectors by the degree of attractiveness of employment in them are presented. The toolkit for professional identification for choosing future area of employment has been systematized. Conceptual proposals for efficient management of labour resources employment in agriculture have been substantiated; the forms of implementation of management influences on the development of the industry, employment and rural areas have been clarified. The social significance of agricultural labour and the need to increase its prestige were especially emphasized. The research results can be used in development of proposals, substantiation of concepts, program and other documents in terms of problems of strengthening the labour potential of the agro-industrial complex, enhancing the labour motivation of workers in the agricultural sector, and increasing labour productivity in agricultural organizations. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the SRTP “Agropromkompleks - 2020”, subprogram “Agropromkompleks - efficiency and quality” (No. ГР 20193 037).

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textKasatkina N. I., Nelyubina Zh. S., Fatykhov I. Sh.
Impact of weather conditions and sowing method on seed performance of meadow clover in the Middle Urals
Seed production of perennial leguminous herbs, including meadow clover (Trifolium praténse), is complicated due to the natural and climatic conditions of the region. In Middle Urals, only two to three years out of ten are favorable for seed production. Estimation of influence of the hydrothermal regime of the growing season and the sowing method has been carried out in the experimental crop rotation of the Udmurt Research Institute of Agriculture, UdmFRC Ural Branch of the RAS with the seed grass stand of meadow diploid clover varieties Pelican and Trio, tetraploid variety Kudesnik It has been revealed that seed productivity of meadow clover on sod-podzolic medium loamy soil was more dependent on the prevailing hydrothermal regimes of vegetation periods, as well as on the variety’s ploidy. A relatively high seeds yield of the Pelican variety (2n) 444-593 kg/ha and Kudesnik variety (4n) 101-116 kg/ha was formed under conditions of insufficient and optimal moisture supply of the vegetation period with a hydrothermal coefficient of 0.67-1.41. With increase in hydrothermal coefficient p to 1.56-1.69, the seeds yield of the Trio variety (2n) decreased to 251-328 kg/ha, of the Kudesnik variety (4n) - to 77-91 kg/ha. Under the same conditions, according to the hydrothermal regime of vegetation, the Kudesnik clover variety formed a relatively larger number of stems and heads, however, the heads productivity was significantly inferior to diploid varieties, which ultimately affected its seed productivity. Sowing diploid varieties of meadow clover Pelican and Trio in the usual ordinary way (15 cm), tetraploid variety Kudesnik in a wide-row way (30 cm) allowed increasing seeds yield and thereby neutralizing the negative impact of weather factors. Sstudy of the seed formation features of meadow clover varieties differing in ploidy in contrasting agrometeorological conditions may be of interest in developing methods for optimizing their seed productivity.

Full textMyslyva T. N., Sheliuta B. V., Nadtochyj P. P., Kutsaeva A. A.
Use of remote sensing data obtained from UAVs to assess the biomass productivity of Silphium perfoliatum
Agromonitoring is one of the most important sources of obtaining up-to-date and timely information about the state of agricultural crops. It is possible to speed up and reduce the cost of its implementation process using remote sensing data (RSD) obtained with the help of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Possibility of using ultra-high-resolution remote sensing to determine productivity of Silphium perfoliatum biomass has been evaluated using Phantom-4ProV 2.0 UAV. The shooting was carried out in RGB mode, the shooting height was 50 m, the spatial resolution was 2.5 cm. Based on the results of the survey, a height map and orthomosaic were created, which were later used to assess productivity of plants. To obtain the plant height values, the difference between the vegetation cover heights obtained from the surface model raster and the minimum height determined within the raster has been calculated. The actual height of plants measured in the field was compared with the data obtained using the UAV, and after the biomass productivity calculated from the actual and predicted heights was determined. The determination coefficient for equation of paired linear regression between the actual and predicted values of productivity made 0.97, and the value of the average approximation error was 3.3 %. To verify the results obtained, 60 samples of biomass were taken in the field within the study area, with the length of the plants determined using a tape measure, and the sampling sites coordinated using GPS positioning. 13 vegetation indices have been determined using pixel-based calibrated orthomosaic and normalized RGB channels, four of which (ExG, VARI, WI, and EXGR) showed to be suitable for creating a predictive model of multiple linear regression, which allows estimating and predicting the productivity of Silphium perfoliatum biomass during stemming phase with an error not exceeding 2 %. The results of the study can be useful both in development of prediction methods and in the direct prediction of Silphium perfoliatum biomass and other forage crops productivity, in particular Helianthus annuus and Helianthus tuberosus. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state scientific and technical program “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Complex”.

Full textVus N. A., Vasylenko A. A., Kobyzeva L. K., Besuhla O. N., Antziferova O. V., Sylenko S. I.
Оil content in chickpea seeds of the National collection of Ukraine
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important legume crop grown and consumed worldwide. Oil content in chickpea seeds ranges from 4 % to 7 % according to various data sources. Considering the interest of breeders in this issue, as well as for the purpose of inventory of the presented chickpea genetic material in the collection of the National Center for Plant Genetic Resources of Ukraine, these studies were carried out. Field experiments were carried out in 2016-2018 in the scientific crop rotation of the Plant Production Institute n.a. V. Ya. Yuriev of NAAS (Kharkiv, Ukraine). 43 samples (21 - kabuli type and 22 - desi type) of different ecological and geographical origin were studied. Oil content in chickpea seeds was determined using gravimetric method of S. V. Rushkovsky (Yermakov, 1987) in the laboratory for genetics, biotechnology and quality of the Plant Production Institute n.a. V. Ya. Yuriev of NAAS. On average, over the years of study, in the kabuli type accessions, the oil content level in the seeds made 7.08 %; for accessions - 6.05 %. The range of variability of this trait for the kabuli chickpea ranged from 5.22 % to 8.69 %, and for desi - from 4.40 % to 7.26 %. A low variability of the studied trait was noted for both the kabuli (V = 6.88-15.04 %) and for desi (V = 8.98-14.15%) chickpea cultivars. The advantage in terms of oil content in seeds, regardless of the growing conditions, was retained for the kabuli type. The accessions with the maximum level of the “oil content in seeds” trait manifestation were selected as “reference” for each type: for kabuli - variety Pamyat (Ukraine) - 7.95 %, for desi - Yarina (Ukraine) - 7.13 %. The best oil-bearing chickpea samples can be used in specialized programs to create new genotypes with a higher oil content in seeds.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textTulinov A. G., Lobanov A. Y.
Substantiation of the basic constructive-and-technological parameters of technology for preparing haylage of the cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) using gas preservative
The most important task for the further development of animal breeding is increase of production of feed, increase of its quality and reduction of production costs. Important thing in these conditions is the parallel development of two areas - creation of highly productive agrocenoses and development of technologies capable of saving the obtained feed mass for future use during winter period. A valuable component in grass mixtures when creating highly productive hayfields in the North-West region is the cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.), which in the North conditions forms rather high yield of feed mass, as soon as it responds to fertilizer application properly. On the basis of the Institute of Agrobiotechnology Federal Research Center Komi Scientific Center Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Russia, Komi Republic, Syktyvkar), a device has been developed for treating haylage by carbon dioxide. To determine the efficiency of this technique when harvesting haylage of cocksfoot, two series of experiments were carried out - laboratory and field. In the course of the laboratory experiment, we conducted an experiment according to the Box-Behnken plan of the second order for four factors with three levels of variation. The optimal parameters of the device were determined as a result: density of raw materials; volume of raw material processed by one spray nozzle; gas preservative consumption and its dose. In the field experiment, haylage was processed in rolls according to certain optimal parameters. The feed obtained was compared in terms of quality with haylage prepared of the same raw material in compliance with standard technology, but with no preservatives. As a result of the studies, it has been determined that carbon dioxide is most effective when harvesting the cocksfoot as raw material for haylage, with the following parameters: density of pressing the hay mass - 290-330 kg/m3; moisture content of raw materials - 53-55 %; dose of carbon dioxide introduced into the haylage - (0.40-0.50) ∙ 10-3 m3/kg; carbon dioxide consumption through a gas supply reducer 0.500.60 m3/h. This provides an increase in feed units in one kilogram of feed by 0.3, exchange energy - by 0.4 MJ, digestible protein - by 1 g. Acknowledgements. The research was carried out under the financial support of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education of the Russian Federation within the State assignment N 0412-2019-0051, Reg. N SREDTW АААА-А20-120 022 790 009-4.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textStarodub L. F.
Peculiarities of karyotype of the Ukrainian aboriginal Hutsul breed of horse
Saving biodiversity and assessment of the genetic diversity of local breeds of domestic animals as priority subjects of protection in agrobiocenoses is one of the global challenges facing humanity in the 21st century. Hutsul horse is one of the oldest horse breeds in Ukraine, which according to the gene pool subject of horses in Ukraine belongs to the group “Local (mountain and ponies)” of the I category, which is already on the verge of extinction, and according to the FAO classification it is considered to be a subject of the gene pool threatened with extinction. Since the breeding chromosomal polymorphism of horses is insufficiently studied, it is timely to carry out a cytogenetic analysis of the characteristics of spontaneous mutagenesis in Hutsul horses. Karyotypic variability of Hutsul breed horses was determined using the methods of cytogenetic analysis and micronucleus test. The paper presents the results of cytogenetic analysis and micronucleus test of karyotypic variability of Hutsul breed horses. Asynchronous divergence of centromere regions of chromosomes occurs as a result of premature replication of centromere regions of heterochromatin associated with centromere activity. In the studied Hutsul horses, the magnitude of this variability corresponds to the spontaneous level for horses as a whole (2.2-9.1 %). No structural chromosomal abnormalities (chromosomal breaks) were revealed in Hutsul breed horses at Krai Neba LLC, and in the animals of the Hutsulshchina National Nature Park, the percentage of metaphase plates with chromosomal breaks was low (1.1 %), which indicates the stability of the karyotype of the studied animals. The results of the micronucleus test showed that the proportion of lymphocytes with micronuclei in the animals at the both farms was practically the same - 4.0-4.2. It can be concluded based on the data obtained that the animals under study were in ecologically clean conditions relative to the level of radionuclide contamination and were characterized by karyotype stability and reduced sensitivity to mutagenic factors of various nature.

Full textSinyakov M. P.
Associative parasitoses of the gastrointestinal tract of horses and assessment of anti-parasitic drugs efficiency
Invasive diseases of horses are an urgent problem in the horse breeding industry of the Republic of Belarus, as well as in the near and far abroad countries. The main role among the parasitic pathology is occupied by helminths of the small and large intestine, as well as larvae of gasterophilus. In associative course, they are the cause of significant economic losses associated with the growth and development of sick young animals, reduced performance, endurance of animals, increased susceptibility to other diseases, and even the death of animals. Planned therapeutic and preventive measures using broad-spectrum anthelmintics is a priority measure to reduce economic damage in development of the horse breeding industry. The paper provides data on spread of parasitoses of gastrointestinal tract in horses in the Republic of Belarus during period of 2004-2020. The paper presents the species composition of horse parasites localized in the stomach, small and large intestines. Data on extensiveness and intensity of invasions of horses by parasitocenosis of digestive tract in terms of age are presented. Therapeutic efficiency of antiparasitic drugs of various pharmacological groups in mono- and polyinfestations of gastrointestinal tract of horses are studied. High extensibility of Avermectin series preparations (Avermectin paste 1 %, Rivertin 1 %) has been determined for nematodes of gastrointestinal tract of horses and gastrointestinal disease. High efficiency has been obtained from a new complex antiparasitic preparation for horses “Prazimax” in mono- and polyinfestations caused by parasites of gastrointestinal tract, including nematodes of the small and large intestines, larvae of gasterophilus and Anoplocephala perfoliata cestodes. Data on spread of associative course of parasitocenoses of the digestive tract of horses, age and seasonal dynamics will allow veterinary specialists to make timely diagnosis, conduct differential diagnostics, determine the optimal timing of diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive treatments, taking into account the specifics of parasitocenosis. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program p. 2 “Priority areas of scientific and technical activities in the Republic of Belarus” for 2016-2020, within the framework of the subject of the Department of Parasitology and Invasive Animal Diseases of ARSAVM “Study of parasitic systems and development of new means of treatment and prevention of invasive animal diseases” for 2016-2020.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textAzarenko V. V., Komlach D. I., Goldyban V. V., Baranovsky I. A., Prokopovich G. A.
Development of mounted system for controlling row crop cultivator in automatic mode
Weed control automation appears to be a very promising technology based on the tremendous advances in computer processing, machine vision and robotics. Machine vision systems are based on size differences between crops and weeds and or on the regular structure of crop rows, allowing the system to recognize crop plants and control surrounding weeds. The paper provides description of the mounted system for orienting the row cultivator in rows and its displacement relative to the tractor using vision systems and automatic control. The developed technical vision system is capable of clearly identifying sugar beet leaves based on the deep learning artificial neural networks technology, and a specially developed algorithm for identifying the center of the row spacing to control the moving part of the cultivator in the required direction to level the inaccuracy of the tractor. The use of controlled mounted device with a tractor and an implement based on vision systems, the accuracy of technological operations for the row crops care, will increase the technical level of the machine and tractor unit, and reduce labor costs. Technical vision systems and automatic control of the cultivator will improve the quality of inter-row cultivation of row crops and reduce the pesticide load on the environment. The results of these studies can be used to create machines for cultivation of agricultural crops with an automated control system. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out within the framework of the State Scientific Research Program “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production” for 2016-2020, subprogram “Mechanization and Automation of Processes in the Agroindustrial Complex”.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textVaskina V. A., Kandrokov R. Kh., Haydar-Zade L. N.
Study of impact of amaranth flour and wall material of enclosed nut oil on quality of raw gummy gingerbread
In recent years, development of confectionery industry is aimed at creating products of increased nutritional value, enriched with macro- and micronutrients, for dietary and prophylactic purposes. One of the most common flour confectionery products in Russia is raw gummy gingerbread. The aim of the research is to study the impact of amaranth flour and encapsulated vegetable oil wall material on the quality of raw gummy gingerbread, development of technology and formulations for raw gingerbread. The optimal ratio of the mixture of starch and amaranth flour has been determined, amounting to 70 and 30 %, respectively. Amaranth flour showed to reduce the density of raw gingerbread to 732 kg/m3, and moisture content increases to 14.1 % for gingerbread with BPS on IBS, and for gingerbread on BPS with whey - 743 kg/m3, and humidity increases to 14.9 %. At the same time, organoleptic characteristics and structure of the crumb are fundamentally different from those inherent in gingerbread products: porous structure of the crumb, fragility, irregular shape, uneven color, tears on the surface of gingerbread. Direct impact of protein structural component of encapsulation in the nut oil emulsion on organoleptic indicators of the gingerbread quality (taste, color, smell, appearance, shape, surface, and others) has been revealed. It has been determined that moisture content in gingerbread cooked according to the developed formulation was 1.0-2.0 % higher and they have longer shelf life compared to traditional gingerbread. Formulations with high and low fat content and technology for production of raw gingerbread with encapsulated nut butter have been developed. The developed technology received a patent of the Russian Federation No. 2734620 “Gingerbread with vegetable oils and milk whey”, which testifies not only to its scientific, but also practical significance.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Igor Stanislavovich Nagorsky (To the 90th Anniversary of Birthday)

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