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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 369-86-18
e-mail: info@belnauka.by
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1992 . – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 2002 . – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»
2002 . - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2019 2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textMakrak S. V.
Scientific bases of the control system improvement of material and monetary resources by agricultural production
Gaining gross production in all the sectors of the national economy in short term is constrained by the limited available resource potential, as well material and cash resources. Level of material and cash costs predetermines the competitiveness of products as well in both domestic and foreign markets. In this regard, issue of efficient management system for material resources, especially for agricultural sector, is becoming increasingly vital. It happens due to the fact that aggregate gross production level in this industry should have a positive trend of growth in order to achieve food security and increase export potential of the national economy. At the same time, management of material resources in agriculture has its own peculiarities, and management efficiency is predetermined in particular by the best combination of mineral fertilizers, plant protection products and other resources combined with the production and economic potential of a particular region or agricultural companies. The paper dwells on systematic analysis of material and cash costs in agricultural production, as well as for branches of arable farming and livestock breeding; particular attention is paid to the natural consumption of material resources under the nomenclature as a key factor determining the competitiveness of agricultural products. The main directions for improving the material resources management system for three levels (macro, micro and nano) have been substantiated, specific tools have been developed for implementing these directions, methodological implementation approaches have been proposed for each direction. Algorithm was developed and tested to substantiate the criteria for rational use of material and cash resources and to increase efficiency of agriculture. Factors (sectoral, regional and internal) are proposed having primary impact on the efficient consumption of material resources, taking into account the conditions of location and specialization of crop production. Method for assessing attractiveness of agro-resources supplier in conditions digital economy development has been proposed as an effective tool for managing material resources based on marketing approaches. The above mentioned developments can be used for drawing up regional development programs, business plans of agricultural organizations, for express analysis of suppliers at tenders for procurement of material resources for agriculture.

Full textGusakov E. V.
Theoretical and methodological basis of megacluster development of agro-industrial complex
The local and world practice shows that clustering as a form of association of business entities for development of industrial and business activities is an important direction for development of agri-food sector, as well as the arrangement of territories based on efficient use of land, labor, material, technical and financial resources. The article dwells of studies of theoretical and methodological basis of megacluster development of agro-industrial complex. It has been determined that currently four possible concepts (paradigms) can be applied regarding agro-industrial complex (AIC): AIC as a self-sufficient system, AIC as a megacorporation, AIC as a specific market, AIC as a separate society. Study has been carried out and an integrated layout has been designed for arrangement and functioning of an integrated management system for agro-industrial complex sustainable development. Groups of factors determining stability of short-term and long-term development of agro-industrial complex as a megacluster are identified. A number of principles for sustainable functioning of agro-industrial complex as a megacluster were formed: Infrastructure balance, management system improvement, rational territorial and intrasectoral distribution of production, balanced agro-industrial production in terms of resources, etc. These principles and their interpretation have been formulated for agro-industrial complex as a megacluster for the first time. Their novelty consists both in aggregate selection, reflecting stable functioning of agro-industrial complex as a megacluster under new conditions, and in reflecting the most significant aspects of megacluster's activity being the main links in its sustainable functioning chain.

Full textKireyenka N. V., Kosava A. L.
Mechanism of improvement of logistics system in agro-industrial complex of Belarus in the conditions of regional trade and economic integration
In conditions of establishing market relations and development of integration processes, efficient functioning of agrarian complex of the Republic of Belarus requires searching for new mechanisms and methods to improve competitiveness. As experience of economically developed countries of the world shows, states and producers actively use diverse logistic solutions, models, strategies and methods for planning and arranging activities. Organization of resource support for agricultural producers and promotion of their products in market according to logistics principles results in a significant economic, social and environmental effect. The paper, in the context of the modern period, presents social and economic indicators of the transport and logistics sector, system of state regulation, structural characteristics of logistics centers, agricultural foreign trade and logistics infrastructure. The main factors were identified hindering development of agrologistics in Belarus. Organizational and economic mechanism has been developed for improving logistical activities at the interstate (EAEU) and national levels have been developed. In case of proposal to create a single agrologistics market of Eurasian Economic Union at the interstate level, it is planned to increase efficiency of the national agrologistics market on the national level based on expansion of logistics infrastructure. Via integration of several prediction methods (expert assessments (pessimistic, optimistic and probabilistic opinions), economic and mathematical (extrapolation, time series analysis), non-standard (verbal information)), a reasonable forecast of development of logistics centers of the Republic of Belarus until 2025 was made. The issues in the paper are of interest for preparation of draft state programs and strategies in the field of agrologistics and development of exchange activities, development of country position in implementation of the agreed agro-industrial policy of the EAEU Member States. Acknowledgments. The study was performed within the framework of the following research programs and assignments: State program of scientific research Quality and efficiency of agro-industrial production for 20162020, subprogram 1 Economics of agro-industrial complex, task 1.3 Study of theoretical and methodological basis for efficient functioning of the national food system, improvement of foreign economic activity of agro-industrial complex, methods and mechanisms of management for agricultural products quality in the context of deepening regional and international integration for 20162018; State Research and Technical Program Agropromkompleks-2020 for 20162020, subprogram Agropromkompleks efficiency and quality, task 1.1 Develop a system of scientifically substantiated recommendations ensuring sustainable and efficient functioning of the national food market, foreign trade policy of the agro-industrial complex of Belarus, forming of mechanism of state regulation of agricultural products quality in the context of development of the world trade and economic space for 20162018.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textShashko Y. K., Padorskiy M. V.
Occurrence of spackled yellows agent of winter wheat Pyrenophora triticirepentis in the Republic of Belarus and selection of sources of increased resistance to pathogen
From the point of view of economic efficiency and environmental impact in the country, the most profitable way to fight the Pyrenophora tritici-repentis agent is creation of highly resistant varieties, which is relevant and important in increasing crop gross yield and ensuring food security in the country. Pyrenophorosis (spackled yellows) is a relatively new disease of winter wheat in the Republic of Belarus. No aimed researches for occurrence monitoring, predominant racial composition, biological peculiarities of pathogen, search for resistance sources in the country were carried out, which collectively determined the relevance of the research topic. The paper presents results of study of spackled yellows agent occurrence of winter wheat leaves in the Republic of Belarus (2016-2018), as well as racial composition. Route examinations revealed disease in all the areas of the country, which indicates a potentially high risk of this disease. Analysis of racial composition showed that race No. 8 of spackled yellows pathogen prevails on the territory of the Republic of Belarus, No. 1 and No. 6 races occur insignificantly. Laboratory experiments were conducted to identify the best artificial nutrient medium, exposure at low temperatures to stimulate the pathogen sporulation in order to obtain high-quality inoculum necessary for artificial infection. Against background of artificial infection, the world and Belarusian collections of winter wheat were analyzed for resistance to pyrenophorosis Pyrenophora tritici-repentis (283 and 47 pieces, respectively). For three years of estimation, 28 variety samples of winter wheat with increased resistance to the disease were allocated from the world collection and 19 variety samples - from the Belarusian collection. It was determined that the greatest number of resistant samples to spackled yellows of winter wheat leaves come from Europe and Belarus in particular. Acknowledgments. Research was conducted as part of the state program of scientific research for 20162020 Quality and efficiency of agro-industrial production, subprogram Agriculture and Selection, task 6.13 Study of species diversity of winter wheat of various ecological and geographical origin and identification of sources of resistance to the main pathogens.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textPestis V. K., Golubets L. V., Deshko A. S.
Assisted reproductive technologies in cattle reproduction and selection
In vitro technology is one of the most dynamically developing and more and more stable biotechnological methods today accelerating selection, intensifying reproductive and genetic potential of breeding animals, allowing to increase breeding young animals production by one champion cow up to 510 calves per year, reduce generation interval and significantly accelerate process of updating and qualitative improvement of livestock. However, obtaining oocytes competent for in vitro development is one of the critical factors determining success of the method and depending on a number of biological and technical factors. This paper presents results of studies on effect of biological factors of direct and indirect impact on efficiency of obtaining oocytes in the system of transvaginal aspiration for the first time conducted in the Republic of Belarus. Yield of excellent and good quality oocytes increased during aspiration during the luteal phase of estrous cycle and remained almost unchanged during aspiration into the follicular phase. Presence of follicles with diameter over 8 mm in the ovaries during aspiration reduced yield of excellent and good quality oocytes averagely by 9.4 percentage points. Removing the dominant follicle 72 hours prior to aspiration allowed increasing the number of aspirated follicles by 41 %, and yield of oocytes by 22.9 %. Microstimulation of ovaries prior to aspiration by follicle-stimulating hormones FSG-super and Plusset increased efficiency of aspiration in terms of the main indicators by 19.245.9 %. Follicular cyst or persistent corpus luteum in one of the ovaries reduced both quantitative and qualitative indicators of aspiration. The data obtained are of practical importance for development of technology for in vitro embryo production in the system of transvaginal aspiration of oocytes which will help to accelerate breeding process and increase efficiency of breeding work in livestock production in general. Acknowledgments. The research was conducted within the two state research programs: Biotechnology, subprogram Development of biological science, biological education and biological industry for 20072011 and for the period up to 2020, High technologies and equipment for 2016-2020, subprogram 1 Innovative biotechnologies2020.

Full textKazarovets N. V., Pavlova T. V., Moiseev K. .
Monitoring of production use of cows in dairy herd conditions with highly productive breeding livestock
Over the past decades, in many countries with developed dairy cattle breeding milk yield per cow per lactation has significantly increased, and period of cow productive use has been significantly reduced. The average duration of cow use in many countries is 2.52.8 lactations, and this is not enough for sustainable implementation of genetic potential of animals, which is revealed only at the 56th lactations. There is an increase in milk productivity and improvement of exterior type of black-and-white breed of cows in the Republic of Belarus, which is due to the use of Holstein cattle with outstanding milk productivity potential and a well-defined milk exterior type, however, as in other countries, there is a decrease in cow use period. The paper presents the results of monitoring of production use of cows in dairy herd conditions with highly productive breeding livestock. 5670 Holsteinized cows of Belarusian black-and-white breed were evaluated in two herds. The main causes of cows culling are determined, effect of genetic (blood level of Holstein breed, level of fathers and mothers performance) and paratypic (age of the 1st calving, level of heifers milking, inter-calving period, service period, results of the first insemination) factors for the life-long milk performance and cow use period. Correlation and heritability of indicators of productive longevity of cows is determined. A system of arrangement and breeding measures to improve longevity of highly productive livestock has been developed. Implementation of the developed system will allow to improve the integrated indices of breeding value of bulls and dairy cows and increase profitability of milk production by increasing the period of use of dairy herd maternal livestock. Acknowledgments. The work was carried out as part of the state research and technical program Agropromcomplex sustainable development for 20112015 sub-task 3.3.1 on topic Develop system of breeding work with maternal livestock of Holsteinized dairy herds of different productivity levels.

Full textSheyko R. I.
Evaluation of breeding traits of parental forms of sows and boars using selection indices
Breeding indices represent qualitatively new approach to evaluation of animals. They are the selection scale the animals can be quantitatively differentiated by breeding value with. They are needed also due to the fact that at present, when creating new breeds and types, selection is carried out according to many quantitative traits of various breeding and economic importance. The paper presents results of evaluation of parental forms animals (Y × L and L × Y) by reproductive traits, and also breeding value of animals is analyzed based on breeding indices. Complex index of the breeding value of sows of the final parental forms (Y × L) made 99.3 scores, sows of Landrace breed - 98.7 scores. Growth and development indicators of sows, as well as boars aged 12 months are studied according to fattening traits. The breeding value of pigs was determined according to the following performance indicators: number of nipples, average daily weight gain of animal from birth to 100 kg of body weight, backfat thickness, lean meat level in carcass. Using modern genetic methods, calculations were carried out to evaluate the breeding value of sows by their performance traits, which made it possible to identify the true genetic potential of animals and predict performance traits of their offspring. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state scientific and technical program of the State Pedagogical Institute for Scientific Research Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production, subprogram Livestock and breeding for 20162020 on the topic Methodology for creating highly productive genotypes of pigs of meat productivity using classical breeding techniques in combination with marker selection.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textBasareusky A. N., Kravtsov A. M., Shakhrai D. S.
Criterion similarity equation for determining the drops diameter of artificial rain
Development and implementation of water-saving technologies into irrigation agriculture aimed at increasing the efficiency of irrigation water use, is one of the priorities for achieving guaranteed and stable yields of agricultural crops. Study of parameters of artificial rain is one of the key moments in design of irrigation equipment. Research of the rain formation process is necessary in order to avoid negative effect on soil cover and vegetation, and also to increase efficiency of artificial irrigation, also reducing the power consumption. At the same time, one of the key characteristics is the diameter of drops created by rain-forming devices, which directly affects the other main characteristics of artificial rain and depends on the physical and mechanical properties of water, parameters of working fluid flow and geometric parameters of rainforming devices. Based on the theoretical studies, a criterion similarity equation was obtained, allowing to calculate the drop diameter using parameters characterizing the process of artificial rain formation, to predict the size of drops when designing sprinkling equipment. The parameters having greatest effect on drop diameter are determined. It was revealed that, in accordance with the criterion equation obtained, the process of formation of artificial rain drops can be characterized by a geometric similarity criterion, as well as by Ohnezorge and Froude number. Calculations on the proposed formulas are well correlated with the results of other authors experiments. The studies conducted further allow to significantly improve the accuracy of determining the diameter of drops for various types of sprinkling nozzles, match design parameters and operating fluid flow parameters for the specified conditions.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textPushkar A. A., Khlimankov D. V., Solovei V. I., Pusovskaya Y. S.
Dynamics of changes of physical and chemical indicators of the wort at alcohol production and stages of mechanical and enzymatic treatment at increase of grain concentration
The article presents the results of studies on the dynamics of changes in the physicochemical parameters of wort at the stages of mechano-enzymatic treatment with increasing concentration of grain mixtures. The influence of physicochemical indices of wort on the stages of mechano-enzymatic treatment with an increase in the concentration of grain mixtures is established. Increasing the concentration of rye mixtures significantly worsens the conditions of enzymatic degradation of starch-containing raw materials in the process of mechanical and enzymatic processing. It has been established that rye processing at wort concentrations of more than 22.5 % is possible only in a mixture with triticale, which will contribute to a decrease in the yield strength of grain mixtures and wort both at the stage of mechanical and enzymatic processing and at the stage of fermentation. At the same time, the key element in the possibility of efficient processing of highly concentrated wort with a concentration of 23.526.9 %, both in the case of rye processing and triticale processing, is the need to develop technological methods to reduce the viscosity of the wort entering the fermentation. Combined use enzyme preparation, hydrolyzing non-starch polysaccharides, at the stages of batch preparation and saccharification showed a high perspective of this technological method, since wola get more mobile environment, entering the fermentation, providing further reduce the viscosity of the wort during fermentation. Acknowledgments. The work was carried out within the framework of the state program of scientific research Quality and efficiency of agro-industrial production, sub-programme food security, task 3.5. Study of the biosynthesis of ethanol metabolism by directional yeast cells and processes for the production of aged spirits based on grain distillates (Republican budget).

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Vitold Kazimirovich Pestis (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

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Nikolay Vladimirovich Kazarovets (To the 70th Anniversary of Birthday)

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