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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2008 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov V.G.
Methodical fundamentals of economic appraisal of research results and developments at the agroindustrial complex
The article presents the methodical fundamentals of objective evaluation of the results of the research activities – investigations, developments and introduction. Special attention is paid to the methods of evaluating the economic efficiency of development of investment projects. This is very important because the acting practice is lacking a unique methodology of evaluating the results of the research activities.

Full textPоpkov A.A., Ilyina Z.M.
Internal food market: tendencies and perspectives
In the article the basic directions of strategy of national food safety are stated. The problem is considered by the authors in interrelation with the tendencies of formation of world food resources. The directions of perfection of functioning of the intrarepublican grocery markets of the major kinds of agroindustrial production, their equation on a supply and demand are proved at achievement of an optimum level of maintenance of foodstuffs in the Republic by own manufacture. The measures of state regulation and support of stable development of agroindustrial manufacture are considered.

Full textKarpovich V.F.
Organizational-economic mechanism of development of the system of marketing communications in the sphere of agroindustrial manufacture
The article presents the three-level model of the organizational-economic mechanism of management of the development of the marketing communication system in the conditions of transformational socially-focused economy, which represents the development of a new theoretical-methodological basis for optimizing the process of formation and functioning of intrafirm divisions of marketing at the agroindustrial organizations.

Full textShundalov B.M., Rzheutskaya O.V.
Methodological and methodical capitalization potentiality of own production feeds
Development of market mechanisms in the agrarian sector intensifies a problem of nonmarket output capitalization. Capitalization of own production feeds on the basis of the analogies by the main parameters of its quality and standard mixed fodders allows one to determine a real cost of feeds. Calculation results show that the total value of feeds in "market" prices at the Belarusian agricultural organizations is 3.4 times more than self-cost.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textLapa V.V., V.N. Bosak V.N., Bliznyuk N.A., Lomonos M.M.
Fertilizer influence on the productivity of cereal-grass crop rotation and fertility of sod-podzolic light loamy soil
The application of complete organic-mineral fertilizer (N36P60K130 on the background of 8 t/ha manure) has provided a cereal-grass crop rotation productivity of 9.31 c/ha f. u. when the content of humus, phosphorus and potassium in the plough horizon on sod-podzolic light loamy soil is increased. The removal of nitrogen, phosphorus or potassium reduced the crop rotation productivity when the content of mobile phosphorus and potassium compounds in soils was decreased.

Full textTsybulko N.N., Zhukova I.I., Kiseleva D.V.
Use of grain crops of nitrogen of soil and fertilizers
Results on the consumption of nitrogen of soil and fertilizers by plants of grain crops (winter rye and barley) are presented. It is established that nitrogen of soil stocks (57–75%) prevails in nitric food. Nitrogen of fertilizers is to a greater measure spent for formation of grain rather than of straw. From 75–78 (winter rye) to 80–84% (barley) of all nitrogen of fertilizers absorbed by plants is concentrated in grain. As the total carrying out of nitrogen of fertilizers is increased the size of its expenses for formation of 100 g of grain grows. At fractional application and with increase in doses of nitric fertilizers their share in the production process raises. Operating ratios of nitrogen of fertilizers fluctuate depending on doses and terms of applying nitric fertilizers from 48 to 62%. Fractional application of nitric fertilizers in comparison with a single one promotes an increase in the operating ratio of nitrogen by 5–10%. As doses of applying nitrogen are increased the sizes of its consumption by plants grow, however the operating ratios decrease. Transferring some part of nitric top dressing from the tube exit phase to the flag-sheet phase also leads to a decrease in the size of nitrogen absorption of fertilizers and the operating ratio by 5%.

Full textEvseev P.A., Prudnikov V.A., Samsonov V.P.
Economic efficiency of flax cultivation depending on the soil acidity
In field experiments on turfen-podsolic mead-loamy soil the influence of the optimal and high level рНКС1 on the fiber content in the trust, its quality indicators and productivity is investigated. It is established that on the soil with an optimum level of acidity for flax, the cultivation of flax of grade Blakit provides the trust productivity of 5.04–5.23 t/ha with number 1.75, the profit is 601.0–636.7 US dollars per hectare of crop and the profitability of flax cultivation is 93.5–97.0%. Processing trusts with such a quality and realizing export flax fiber enables gaining the profit of 285–353 US dollars per hectare of crop and the profitability of 15.4–18.5%. When cultivating flax on the soil with рНКС1 6.3–6.5 the application of boric and zinc fertilizers raises the trust productivity from 3.54 to 4.80 t/ha, however the number of trust does not exceed 0.75 units. Realization of such trusts can give profit of 26–30 US dollars per hectare and the profitability of its manufacture of 5.4–6.2%. Processing trusts with number 0.75 at the productivity of 4.8 t/ha can provide the profitability of 11.1–11.2% under the condition of realization of export flax fiber. When flax fiber is realized under internal prices, processing trusts becomes unprofitable even when it is cultivated on soils with favorable agrochemical parameters and at the productivity of more than 5 t/ha of trust with number 1.75.

Full textSvirshchevskaya A.M.
Triploids, diploids and haploids in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) breeding
The role of different polyploid forms and haploids of gynogenetic origin for sugar beet breeding is analyzed in the article. Originally, sugar beet is characterized by a set of diploid chromosomes (2n = 2х = 18). Sugar beet polyploids (meiotic and mitotic) can be produced experimentally. Genetic preconditions determining the importance of sugar beet polyploids for breeding are examined in the article. The fundamentals of sugar beet breeding and its methods during early non-hybrid breeding and since the 50s of XX century those of hybrid breeding are considered in the historical aspect. Two types of heterotic hybrids are possible in sugar beet – triploid and diploid, depending on the ploidy level (tetraploid or diploid) of populations with the high combining ability which serve as pollinators for maternal diploid cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The haploid technique of experimental gynogenesis in vitro can be utilized for sugar beet breeding through the achievement of homozygous fixing sterility lines and/or diploid pollinating lines with desirable stabilized genes. The data on technological traits assessment of sugar beet gynogenetic lines created at the Institute of Genetics and Cytology, National Academy of Sciences of Belarus are given. It is shown that the use of 3x and 4x polyploids and haploids/ doubled haploids is an integral part of the modern sugar beet breeding practice.

Full textMelnitchouck D.I., Rylko V.A.
Duration and dynamics of using the nutrients from seed tubers by developing potato plants
The article presents the data on the duration and dynamics of using the organic and mineral compounds from seed tubers at different stages of plant growth and development. It was shown that these compounds were used during almost the whole period of vegetation, but the most intense phases of this process were between the sprout development and the end of budding. The characteristics of this process were established for the varieties different in maturity and the other traits.

Full textZenkova N.N.
Influence of mineral fertilizers on seed capacity and productivity of the east galega
It is established that on the sod-podzol loamy soils of the Vitebsk region the east galega at an optimal dose of the fertilizer P60K90 forms the seed capacity of 459–460 kg/ha. Besides, after the harvesting of crops there is time to form 174–184 c/ha of green mass of the aftermath in the conditions of providing a fodder unit digested by protein 133–161.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textKoronec I.N., Tanana L.A., Taranenko Z.I.
Reproductive qualities of cows of the Belarusian black-motley breed of different selection
Researches are devoted to the study and the all-round analysis of reproductive qualities of cows of the Belarusian black- motley breed of different selection. It is established that in both farms the daughters of bulls of the Belarusian, Canadian, German, Danish and Dutch selection have duration service – and between calving periods that is a little exceeded by optimum norms. The duration of a dry period for all studied groups is within 51–59 days, which corresponds to physiological norms. Intense cultivation of repair heifers of the Belarusian black-motley breed of different selection with their fertilization for 15–18 months when achieving alive mass of 380–400 kg and receiving the first calving at the age of 24–27 months gives the chance to use effectively them for milk production. It is beneficial both with selection and from the economic point of view

Full textPristupa N.V.
Productiveness of thoroughbred and mixedbred sows, mixedbred and hybrid pigs in different interbreeding variants
As a result of scientific researches on the effectiveness of interbreeding of thoroughbred and mixedbred sows with boars of Durok Kind and other hybrids the perfect interbreeding variants were revealed. The best one turned out to be interbreeding of Big White Kind with hybrid boars of Durok/White Meat Kind, their outcome counted 11.6 heads, milkness – 52.7 kg, the common weanlings mass and mass of one weanling – 90.3 and 9.3 kg. Compared with the control group the superiority figures were 0.4 heads, 2.6 kg, 5.4 and 0.8 kg. The best reproductive qualities among 4-breeding variants were mixedbred sows of Big White Kind/Durok in combination with hybrid boars of White Meat Kind/Landras. They produced high-quality pigs. It is stated that for 3 interbreeding variants of Big White Kind sows with hybrid boars the highest figures had hybrid pigs of Big White/(Durok/White Meat Kind) combination: the period of reaching 100 kg BW was 180.2 days, the 24-hours BW growth – 795 kg at forage spends for 1 kg BW growth – 3.33 forage units. As a result of scientific researches on the productiveness of mixedbred and hybrid pigs the perfect variants of 3 and 4-way crossing combinations are: Big White Kind/(Durok/Landras), Big White Kind/(White Meat/Durok Kind), (Big White Kind/Durok)/ (White Meat Kind/Landras) – these combinations are offered for introduction to industrial complexes of the Republic.

Full textMukhaeva N.L.
Efficiency of the use of mixed feeds with different levels of vitamin carnitin in the lipid increased rations of growing pigs
In the conditions of industrial production the need of pigs in vitamins increases and may be satisfied only when using vitamin preparations and feeds. One of the new vitamins used in feeding agricultural animals is vitamin BT or carnitin. As a result of the studies it is found that the use of mixed feeds with an increased content of lipids (3 %) and carnitin in a dose of 50 g per 1 ton of meal renders a positive influence upon the growth of saplings of pigs and their use of nutrients meals, destructive and meat quality of animals.

Full textYepishko O.A.
Genes determining the reproductive function of sows
The association of ESR, PRLR genes and FSH&#223; hormone genes is studied with reproductive traits of sows of Belarusian meat breed. The appropriateness of the positive influence of allele ESRB, PRLRA on the total quantity of the born piglets, including live piglets up to 11% (P<0.05), is determined. A tendency of the increase of a litter weight, the safety of pigs, the decrease in percentage of emergency farrows of sows with ESRBB, PRLRAA has been revealed. There is no clear appropriateness of the influence of a definite genotype on the reproductive function of sows by the FSH&#223; gene.

Full textGandja A.I., Letkevitch L.L., Rakovich E.D., Kostikova I.V., Grishkina O.V.
Possibility of using reproductive potential of culled cows with in vitro technology
The influence of the physiological condition of the ovaries, the year time and individual traits of animals on the fertilization of oocytes is stated. The ovaries at the follicular and lutein stages of the sex cycle as well as with the signs of fresh ovulation contain 60.0–54.5% of oocyte-cumulus complexes suitable for cultivation out of the organism. This enables getting 50.9–24.0% of splitting cells and 15.55 of morul-blastocysts.

Full textPetrukovich T.V., Kosyanenko S.V.
Perfection of cross ‘Temp’ of the Peking breed on growth rate and meat qualities.
Growth rate and meat qualities of hybrid ducklings from crossing of domestic and German lines of ducks of the Peking breed have been studied. It is established, that the best results have been received at crossing of drakes of combination NТ1 with ducks of combination T2N. The obtained results allow to recommend these combinations for further breeding to perfect cross "Temp" for the increase of live weight and improvement of meat qualities of ducklings.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textAzarenko V.V., Goriachev I.I., Perednia V.I.
Preparing tecnology of the whole milk substitute from grain components
A new technology and a set of equipment OPZM-0.9 for production of a whole milk substitute (WMS) from different grain components that are at the disposal of farms are presented. Use of moisture-thermal processing of grain forage enables producing fine-dispersed mass, which is very important for preparing WMS. Use of such processing does not decrease the amount of nutrient substances in a prepared product and the sugar amount even somewhat increases. The developed equipment together with the use of coarse-crushed grain components and hot water (40–50°C) permits the electric energy spent for SWM production to be decreased at minimum by a factor of 1.5, whereas the production of one liter of WMS under farm conditions needs less money resources by a factor of 1.8–2.2 as compared to the use of the foreign analog.

Full textKharkevich V.G., Shulyak V.A.
Development and study of equipment for grinding dried rolls and buns in the production of bread crumbs
The present article considers the results on studying the process of grinding rolls and buns in the production of bread crumbs. A new design and an operation principle of a crusher subjected to a complete complex of tests under the laboratory conditions at the Mogilev State University of Food and under the industrial conditions at ‘Mogilevkhlebprom’ are described. The experimental part of the article presents the results on the production parameters of the bread crusher ‘ИХ-500’ for the same batch of products with a simultaneous determination of several parameters of the grinding process (productivity and energy consumption of equipment, moisture content and quality grade of products to be processed, dispersed composition of products to be ground, solid phase-maintained capacity of the crusher). The results of the investigations conducted have made it possible to make clearer the methods of engineering calculation and to state the mechanisms of exact adjustment and the choice of optimal operating conditions depending on the technological problem of grinding.

Full textNosikov A.A.
Tharmal power efficiency of coolere of water revolution cycle
Methods of comprehensive estimation of the efficiency of evaporative water coolers of different type are proposed. The criteria allowing for the intimacy of the process of evaporative cooling, i. e., an attainable positive effect as well as the factors providing this effect, energy expenditures for the motion of liquid and air flows are developed. The operation efficiency of water coolers and their classification by this index together with the use of the developed criteria is estimated.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textFuryk N.N., Zhabanos N.K., Bahdanava L.L., Safronenko L.V., Dudko N.V., Kononovich K.M.
Functional sour-milk products ‘Biostyle’
The "know-how" of sour-milk products ‘Biostyle’ with the use of polyspecific bacterial concentrates Lactococcus ssp. and/or Streptococcus thermophilus and monospecific bacterial concentrates Lactobacillus ssp., Propionibacterium ssp. and Bifidobacterium ssp. is developed. The ratio of all kinds of cultures in the structure of starters microflora used for receiving sour-milk products is selected. Optimum parameters of fermentation of products are determined. Dynamics of change in the quantitative structure of probiotic microorganisms in sour-milk products ‘Biostyle’ after their manufacture and in 10 days of storage of a product is investigated at a temperature of + 4°С.

Full textIvaschenko N.I., Lilishentseva A.N., Shramchenko O.V.
Carbohydrate and acid composition of concentrated apple juices
The article presents the results on studying the maintenance of natural components (D-glucose, D-fructose, saccharose, L-malic, citric acids and D-sorbite) in the concentrated apple juices made in different geographical regions.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Vladimir Pavlovich Samsonov (To his 80th birhday)

Full textSuboch F.I.
Competitiveness of food products in the aspect of co-evolution-innovation interaction of raw material suppliers and enterprises of processing industry
The article outlines the essence and significance of the co-evolution-innovation interaction of management agents under the market conditions. Owing to this the concept of “co-evolution-innovation interaction”, main conditions and factors of its functioning are defined. The model for co-evolution-innovation interaction of the agroindustrial complex spheres and the strategy of the region development in the aspect of food competitiveness are presented. The factors most essentially influencing the formation and development of agroindustrial conglomerate are numbered, the fundamental scheme of formation and stimulation of co-evolution-innovation vectors of the economic market growth is presented. The model for the priority co- evolution-innovation development of the regional agroindustrial complex is developed, which allows establishing the dominating characteristics of the regional stability strategy and making a conclusion on the food competitive capacity as a paradigm of the agroindustrial complex development.

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