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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 374-02-45
e-mail: agro-vesti@mail.ru
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»

 



2023 №2

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Products

UpEconomics

Full textVaitko I. A.
Direct budget subsidizing as a factor of sustainable development of agricultural production in the Republic of Belarus
Currently, most of the world’s countries are pursuing an active agrarian policy in order to support national agricultural producers. At the same time, the ongoing changes in the global and domestic food markets, due to rising prices, reduction in the product range, and social tension in society require optimization of costs of the country’s budgets and development of proposals for the most effective measures. The paper presents an analysis of methodological approaches to assessing the efficiency of direct budget support for agricultural production used in the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU) and in Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Taking into account the identified advantages and disadvantages of applying these approaches in practice in the Republic of Belarus, as well as using the experience of the EAEU member states, methodological approaches have been developed to assess the efficiency of state support measures aimed at subsidizing of: 1) compensation for the cost of production resources; 2) price support; 3) losses of banks related to issuing preferential loans to rural producers; 4) stimulating the volume of output and the efficiency of related types of economic activity by increasing the amount of resources produced by the agriculture. Based on the presented developments, the most rational level of production costs was determined, when each additional ruble (as well as according to types) invested in the production allows to get the maximum increase in performance indicators. In addition, a positive effect of stimulating the growth of agricultural production on the performance of manufacturing (food) industry entities has been determined. These developments can be used to justify the sources and volumes of financing the priority areas for development of agriculture in the Republic of Belarus in the mid- and long-term outlook.

Full textTsetsiarynets T. A.
Measuring the efficiency of human capital in the agricultural sector of Belarus
In the current conditions of development of the agrarian economy the problem of increasing the efficiency of human capital use is brought to the forefront. It’s happening due to the limited resources of extensive growth on the one hand, and the need for predominant use of intensive factors on the other hand. The above-mentioned circumstances increase importance of the task of developing methodological approaches to assessing the efficiency of human capital functioning in the agrarian sector of the Belarusian economy, and finding reserves and searching directions based on it for increasing the efficiency of its use. According to the above mentioned, the main purpose of the study is to form a new methodological approach to the measurement of human capital functioning efficiency in the agrarian sector, allowing to assess the probability of risk occurrence and determine the amount of lost profit due to a decrease in quantitative and qualitative indicators. The methodology of scientific search is based on application of economic and mathematical methods based on statistical analysis of studied indicators. The study of literary sources made it possible to determine the list of indicators allowing to comprehensively measure the efficiency of the agrarian human capital functioning. Comprehensive analysis of this process’s indicators shows a decrease in the efficiency of human resource use. Increase of gross calculated markers does not correlate with the dynamics of point indicators, thus, not confirming the growth of human capital functioning efficiency in the agrarian field. The calculations made it possible to outline the lines of intensive capitalization of human potential, including intellectual, social and institutional vectors of development. The proposed directions act as one of the most effective ways of intellectualization of human capital in the conditions of modern innovative transformations and can be used by public administration, scientific community and local initiative groups to develop policy documents on the national and regional level.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textKrautsou S. L., Volchkevich I. G., Krupenko N. A., Khalaeva V. I., Golubtsov D. V., Romanovich K. A.
Certain aspects of efficiency of crop production digitalization in the Republic of Belarus
Digitalization, or digital transformation, is an innovative approach to solving the key task of agricultural production in the Republic of Belarus – increasing / maintaining the profitability of crop production. Digitalization makes it possible to bring crop production to a new level of development, providing a fundamental restructuring of the decision-making and implementation of agro-technological operations, reducing risks and expanding possibilities of sustainable and efficient crop production. Efficiency of digitalization of crop production is considered in relation to certain aspects of an average agricultural organization in the Republic of Belarus. The following main interrelated areas of digitalization in crop production have been identified: soil-and-agrochemical analysis, precision arable farming, prediction of the diseases and pests of crops. Due to significant growth of energy prices nowadays (basic elements in the formation of the final cost of crop production), efficiency of digitalization was assessed not directly in terms of value, but in reducing the costs of growing products and in saved crops. The greatest effect, according to the results of the assessment, is expected from such areas of digitalization as soil- and-agrochemical analysis, as well as prediction of the diseases and pests of agricultural crops. The results of soil-and-agrochemical analysis can be used to improve the soil fertility – a vital condition for long-term increase of crop yields. Prediction of the diseases and pests of crops is one of the main elements of comprehensive protection of crops – a large reserve for increasing crop production. At the same time, despite the positive aspect of digitalization in agricultural branch of the Republic of Belarus, it is rather a labor-intensive process together with the high cost of necessary equipment and software, as well as the use complexity.

Full textVabishchevich V. V., Volchkevich I. G., Kanapatskaya M. V.
Symptoms of Pepino mosaic virus in greenhouse tomatoes and reactions of test plants on infection
This study was carried out to detect the Pepino mosaic virus in various tomato hybrids grown in greenhouses. Total of 194 plant sample were collected from the greenhouse during 2019–2020 years. As a results of DAS-ELISA was found 54 of samples with Pepino mosaic virus, which was identified both in monoinfection and in the complex with other viruses: Cucumber mosaic virus, Tobacco mosaic virus, Tomato mosaic virus and Potato virus X. The possible symptoms of Pepino mosaic virus during the growing season of tomatoes include interveinal chlorosis, deformations, mosaic and yellow spots on leaves and also blotchy ripening fruits. The reaction of 10 plant species to the inoculation of Pepino mosaic virus was established. The results showed the greatest susceptibility of Nicotiana rustica L. and Datura stramonium L., where the maximum concentration of viral particles was detected 4 weeks after infection (OD: 0.952–1.013). The results presented in the article can be used to diagnose Pepino mosaic virus during the monitoring of greenhouse tomato plantations.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheiko I. P., Zhernosekov D. D., Pirhanov G. G.
Marker genes for productive longevity of cattle
Obtaining highly productive farm animals in dairy cattle breeding using the latest biotechnological techniques and methods in order to extend their maximum productive life is the most important world problem. This paper sets out the priority tasks for the country’s livestock farms to develop and implement new biotechnology and genetic engineering methods in order to identify the marker genes responsible for the longevity of highly productive cows. Materials on the study of the genetic potential of animals with due consideration of the following economically useful traits are presented – growth intensity, milk productivity, reproductive performance, productive longevity and disease resistance. It has been proven that this can only be achieved through targeted selection and the creation of a breeding base. It has been established that the study of allelic polymorphism of cattle longevity marker genes is a relevant area in the conditions of the Republic of Belarus. At the present stage, more and more attention is being paid to the study of polymorphism of DNA markers of production traits of farm animals. Using them as methods for a more objective assessment of breeding values of animals can accelerate and stabilize the management of selection processes. In the paper, special attention is paid to genetic evaluation and selection methods for longevity, which have been reviewed in the scientific literature of the last decade.

Full textMakarova A. V., Vakhrameev A. B., Fedorova Z. L.
Dynamics of the growth of exterior and interior indicators in ontogenesis in chickens of gene pool populations and broilers
Conformities of intensity of growth of muscles and bones of the skeleton in relation to the growth of body weight in chickens of the combined type of productivity and broilers have been studied. The research subject were chickens of meat and egg populations: experimental golden-striped (GS), Pushkinskaya from the bioresource collection of Russian Research Institute of Farm Animal Genetics and Breeding and broilers of the Ross 308 cross. The absolute values of body weight, muscle mass, length and thickness of skeletal bones in different age periods were calculated. Studies have shown that the mass of the pectoral and leg muscles has the highest growth rate in all the studied groups. The growth rate of the exterior and interior indicators decreases unevenly with age, especially in broiler chickens. The intensity of the growth of muscles and bones of the skeleton relative to the growth of body weight has been studied using an allometric equation. Studies have shown that the growth of the pectoral and leg muscles in all groups of chickens in the period up to 10 weeks of life outstrips the growth of the body as a whole. The growth of skeletal bones is characterized by negative allometry. Knowledge of the patterns of growth and development of the bird organism and its individual parts allows to adjust the feeding diet depending on the growth period, monitor the correctness of development and deviations from the standard, as well as choose the most informative periods for the selection of breeding birds.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Products

Full textKandrokov R. Kh.
Effect of white wheat in durum wheat on the yield and quality of flour and macaroni products
The results of a studying the effect of white wheat in class 3 durum wheat on the yield and quality of macaroni semolina and macaroni products are presented. For research, class 3 durum wheat of Kharkovskaya 46 variety and class 3 white wheat of Novosibirskaya 67 variety harvested in 2019 were used. It has been determined that when up to 8 % of white wheat is added to the durum wheat, the indicators of macaroni semolina and macaroni products change slightly. When processing 100 % white wheat, the properties of macaroni semolina and macaroni products significantly change for the worse compared to the properties and indicators of durum wheat macaroni products. It has been determined that up to 8 % of white wheat in the grinding mixture of durum and white wheat leads to a significant change in the quality of macaroni products. In macaroni products made of flour obtained from white wheat, a high amount of dry matter that passed into the cooking water was revealed. It has been determined that macaroni products made of flour of durum and soft wheat differ significantly according to other quality indicators. This difference is especially noticeable in the amount of yellow pigment. It has been also determined that macaroni made of white wheat flour has a higher content of white compound color component and a lower content of the black, yellow and red compound color components. Addition of up to 8 % white wheat to durum wheat had no significant effect on the color characteristics of macaroni products made of durum wheat flour. The results obtained can be used in the preparation of grinding mixtures at existing flour mills for durum wheat grain processing.

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