ISSN 1817-7204 (Print)
ISSN 1817-7239 (Online)

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
1, room 118, Akademicheskaya Str., Minsk 220072, Republic of Belarus
phone/fax +375 17 374-02-45
Information about the titles change:
1963 - 1991 – «Proceedings of Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992 - 1995 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian sciences of Belarus»
1996 - 2002 – «Proceedings of Academy of Agrarian Sciences of the Republic of Belarus»
2002 - till present – «Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. Agrarian Series»


2020 №1

Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

Full textGusakov V. G.
Factors and methods of effective management. P. 1. Intensification, concentration and production location
There is an active search for ways and mechanisms to upgrade the agrarian economy in the Republic of Belarus and increase its efficiency in conditions of stiffen market situation, but no efficient mechanisms have yet been found. In this regard, we’ve carried out systematic research and prepared a research papers that answer many questions regarding raising the agricultural economy and market challenges. We believe that it can become the basis for accepting specific recommendations. Conditions forming market stability and determining an enterprise’s strategy are determined during the research. A range of factors have been identified. Implementation of these factors will mobilize the entire arrangement and production system and the practice of management to achieve targeted economic and financial results, especially for profitability and profit. The first part of the paper defines the role, functions and significance of such fundamental factors of efficient agriculture management as intensification, concentration, specialization and distribution of production facilities.


Full textKireyenka N. V.
WTO Agreement on agriculture and peculiarities of its implementation under conditions of the Republic of Belarus
The article presents the stages of formation and development of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture, its structure and content of the main sections. It has been established that agriculture is one of the strategic and vulnerable sectors of the economy of any state, the development of which determines the level of national economic and food security. It is determined that the adopted document establishes a system of rules and obligations of countries in relation to agricultural policy measures related to the regulation of market access, domestic support, and export competition. The current trends in the development of the agri-food sector of Belarus in terms of agricultural production, food security, foreign trade are justified. The features of the implementation of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture in the conditions of the republic, taking into account external and internal factors of industry competitiveness, are highlighted. At the country level, directions for the development of agricultural trade policy, improvement of support measures that do not fall under obligations to limit in accordance with international requirements of the World Trade Organization, and ensure competitive advantages in foreign agricultural markets are proposed. It was noted that promising areas and criteria for the effective functioning of the agri-food sector should take into account national priorities, provide measures and mechanisms for the development of competitive and environmentally friendly production of agricultural products, expand market infrastructure, create favorable organizational and economic conditions for the functioning of the industry, and form its scientific and innovative potential. The issues disclosed in the article are of interest in developing a set of measures to increase the efficiency of foreign trade in the context of expanding the country’s participation in international and regional trade and economic integration, justifying mechanisms for improving agricultural regulation, and developing a system for promoting agri-food products on the domestic and foreign markets.

Full textPilipuk A. V., Gusakov G. V., Karpovich N. V., Yonchik L. T., Lobanova L. A., Svistun O. V.
Food security of the Republic of Belarus: achievements and prospects
The role and importance is growing fast in the world for international trade, technology transfer, interstate financial cooperation, cooperative and integration, interdisciplinary, regional and international cooperation, including the one in agriculture and food security fields. At the same time, the cases of food insecurity due to situation changes in foreign markets for agricultural raw materials and prepared food are becoming frequent. Access to food becomes a lever of foreign policy influence, and the weight of food expenditures in the structure of consumer spending takes a decisive role in ensuring food security. In this regard, the problem of hunger and malnutrition is still relevant in many regions due lack or deficiency of population income. The paper presents a comprehensive research of modern aspects for ensuring food security at global and national levels, including the current state of agricultural production and its development prospects, international assessment of food security level in countries and regions of the world, global trends in world agricultural trade of raw materials and prepared food, assessment of physical and economic affordability of foodstuff, nutrition level, welfare and public health. The results of assessing the environmental sustainability of agricultural production are presented. The level of public awareness in the field of food security is analyzed. It was determined that in general, there are prospects for Belarus for more efficient food security gaining due to qualitative parameters, for instance, increasing efficiency of resource potential, growth of consumer purchasing power, expansion of domestic market by increasing the proportion of safe functional nutrition for specific population categories according to occupation, age, health status, etc. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out in accordance with the provisions, criteria and parameters of the Doctrine of National Food Security of the Republic of Belarus until 2030.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textMalyuga A. A., Chulikova N. S.
Role of previous crops and mineral fertilizers in pathogenesis of potato black scab and crop productivity
One of the main factors limiting the potato yield in Western Siberia is various crop diseases, among which soil and tuber infections hold a special place. The sore issue in potatoes production is black scab. The economic significance of this disease is estimated at 50 % yield loss during the growing season. The results of analyzing the effect of previous crops (potatoes, oats and tendergreen) and mineral fertilizers (N40P40K80) on pathogenesis of black scab in potato plantations, and also crop productivity are presented in the paper. Evaluation of the used techniques effect on development of black scab was performed on natural backgrounds in conditions of forest-steppe zone of Priobye in the Novosibirsk region. The seasonal dynamics of the Rhizoctonia solani fungus in the soil has a characteristic increase in the number at the end of plants growing season. In the conditions of Western Siberia, in the course of pathological process of black scab, the soil infection (proportion of the factor effect - from 50 % during the phase of full germination to 90 % to the flowering phase) plays the most important role. Oats and tendergreen had been affecting on the agent of black scab disease during two years after cultivation as a precursor, and oats affected the pathogen more strongly in the second year of potato cultivation. On average according to factors, oats and tendergreen with mineral fertilizers (N40P40K80) reliably reduce development of black scab on plants 1.1-1.3 times as compared to potatoes cultivated in monoculture, and mineral fertilizers significantly (1.3 times) increase the plants performance. The predecessors (on average) had practically no effect on this indicator. The yield of potatoes in monoculture and after oats is almost the same, and after tendergreen it is insignificantly higher (1.1 times). Mastering environmentally friendly technologies for protecting potatoes from soil and tuber infections and implementation of those into production will contribute to obtaining stable crops of a high quality culture, and, as a result, formation of efficient agro-industrial complex ensuring the country’s food security.

Full textShashko Y. K., Dolgova E. L., Shashko M. N.
Direct and indirect losses determining harmfulness of fungi p. Fusarium, causing Fusarium of wheat spike and grain
Fungi p. Fusarium is one of the most harmful pathogens of wheat diseases. Their harmfulness is caused both by direct losses due to decrease in yield, and indirect - as a result of infection of the obtained products with mycotoxins and decrease in process, baking and sowing parameters of grain. Due to high potential losses, analysis of quantitative parameters of harmfulness of fusarium pathogens of spike and grain is relevant. The paper presents data showing the harmfulness of Fusarium of spike and wheat grain. The causes of direct and indirect losses in case of damage to wheat spike by fungi of p. Fusarium. Direct losses of crop yield are shown in the natural conditions of Minsk region and with the epiphytotic development of the disease in case of artificial infection, which can reach over 50 %. The effect of Fusaria on baking properties of wheat is analyzed. It was determined that grain damage causes decrease in weight of 1000 grains and the flour yield when it is used in the milling industry, as well as deterioration in its quality due to decrease in protein and crude gluten level. The effect of pathogens on sowing parameters of grain is determined. It is concluded that for use as seeds in terms of laboratory germination capacity, batches of grain infected with Fusarium only up to 15 % can be accepted. The data obtained will allow us to adapt protective measures against Fusarium of spike and grain and reduce its negative impact on crop yield and quality of the products obtained. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the project 6.74 “Identification of sources of resistance and tolerance to spike and wheat grain Fusarium” of the State Research Program “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production for 2016-2020”, subprogram “Agriculture and Breeding”.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textSheiko I. P.
New ways and methods for pig breeding in Belarus
The Republic of Belarus has a well-developed pig breeding industry. The main goal in pig breeding in Belarus is to obtain, in a short time, competitive breeds, types and hybrids of pigs adapted to the conditions of industrial pork production and not inferior to analogues of the world breeding. Currently, in the pig industry, effective variants of interbreeding hybridization are widely introduced, and mating of specialized maternal breeds (BLW x BM) and (Y x L) with boars of specialized paternal breeds (D, P). Piglets obtained during interbreeding hybridization have a heterosis effect in feeding and meat traits 9-11 % higher compared with purebred parents. In connection with the need to increase the efficiency of domestic pig breeding, scientists at the Research and Practical Center of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus for Livestock Breeding have developed a new effective system for raising and breeding pigs, based on obtaining competitive parental forms of sows (F1) and paternal forms of boars for hybridization. It is shown that structural transformations in the pedigree and industrial pig breeding of the Republic of Belarus in 2020-2025 and for the period until 2030 will be aimed at further improvement and increase of performance and breeding traits of pigs based on the latest methods of genetics and selection, as well as at construction and commissioning of nuclei farms for maternal and paternal breeds with a total capacity of 3400 breeding sows, as well as 5-6 sow breeding farms with total capacity of 22100 sows. Commissioning of new high-tech capacities will allow to increase the production of high-quality pork within 5 years to 500 thousand tons, or 15.0-18.0 % higher compared to the current level. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of agrarian business development in the Republic of Belarus for 2016–2020, subprogram “Breeding Business Development in Livestock Breeding”.

Full textAgeyets V. Y., Lovkis Z. V., Koshak Z. V., Koshak A. E.
Raw materials and feed production technology for valuable fish species in the Republic of Belarus
The paper raises problems of production of domestic compound feed for valuable fish species. The following representatives of valuable fish species are reared in the Republic of Belarus: rainbow trout, sterlet sturgeon, sturgeon, European and African catfish. All these types need high-quality and inexpensive compound feeds. Production of such feed is developing in our country. All the feeds for valuable fish species are extruded in the modern world. A range of raw materials has been studied that can be used as part of compound feeds for valuable fish species, such as Belarusian made fish meal, dry hemoglobin, soy concentrate, and whey fat concentrate. It has been determined that Belarusian fishmeal is of high quality and not inferior in balance to the amino acid composition of imported fishmeal made in Mauritania, and in terms of leucine and isoleucine level, over 2 times exceeds the imported one. Amino acid composition of dry hemoglobin was studied. It was determined that this feed additive can be used only for balancing feed for crude protein level and practically does not contain such an important essential amino acid as methionine. Valuable fish species are predators, for this reason compound feed contain high amount of protein (up to 50 %) and fat (up to 30 %) depending on the type and age of the fish. Therefore, soy protein concentrate can be used in terms of protein content and absence of anti-nutritional substances in compound feed, and whey-fat concentrate can be used for balancing the formulation for fat content. At the same time, the need for development of such deep processing industry in our republic is noted. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of a separate research project of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus “Research of the basic process operations for production of compound feed for freshwater fish species with the development of laboratory equipment for testing the technological process”.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textLi Qingzhen, Leonov A. N.
Modeling and optimization of technological process and means of mechanization of grain production for middle China based on Belarusian technology
One of the main problems in grain production in China is the high level of unit costs (high cost price). The main reason is the low level of mechanization. Development of efficient technologies and means of mechanization is a promising area allowing to decrease the level of unit costs at a given labor efficiency and maintaining the achieved yield. Grain production is a complex system associated with a large amount of information: agrotechnological (crop variety, crop yield, physical-and-mechanical parameters of land plots, terms of operations, permissible speed range for specific operations, etc.), technical-and-economic (power and traction parameters, throughput, working width, operating weight, hopper volume, cost). At present, efficient methods for studying complex systems have appeared as a result of development and widespread implementation of computer mathematics systems, which allow us to study mechanization technologies and tools using multi-factor modeling and multi-criteria optimization. The paper presents a multi-factor mathematical model, peculiar for the fact that the three groups of simultaneously varying factors are taken for the first time - engine power, MTA speed, timing of the main energy-intensive operations – plowing, harvesting, and as conflicting optimization parameters - unit cost level, coefficient of crop losses, labor efficiency, which allowed a comprehensive study of the grain production process in any natural-production conditions. A technological process has been developed (units speed and timing of the main operations (plowing, harvesting) and the corresponding range of machines and equipment, ensuring minimum level of unit costs at a given labor efficiency and maintaining the achieved crop yield, taking into account the specifics of the Middle China (2 crops per year).

Full textLipnitski L. A.
Improvement of specifications of controlled three-phase asynchronous motor of axial fan in henhouse air exchange system
To ensure air exchange in henhouses, ventilation systems equipped with axial fans with three-phase asynchronous motors with speed control for continuous smooth removal of contaminated air are used. The paper presents the results of studies of the effect of power of a three-phase asynchronous motor of an axial fan on specifications of the motor when controlling its speed by changing the value of the supply sinusoidal voltage. It is determined that in the rotation range of 950–1000 rpm in this motor, the phase current of the stator winding exceeds the rated phase current by 1.5 times, which leads to overheating and getting the motor out of order in case of prolonged operation. For reliable and stable operation of the adjustable motor, the fan load power was 2 times reduced, while the maximum phase current became less than the nominal phase current of the motor, which increased the stability and reliability of the motor. However, the linear range of the control parameters was significantly narrowed, a number of engine parameters deteriorated. As a result, it was proposed to upgrade the three-phase asynchronous motor by increasing the number of coils of the stator winding, which led to decrease in power of the motor studied. As the study showed, the upgraded three-phase asynchronous motor with a fan load has improved specifications, including expansion of the linear section of the control parameter, the average values of power factor and efficiency, decrease in the average phase current of the stator winding of the motor, the lower steepness of change in the motor rpm from voltage changes. High reliability and stability of the motor were achieved and its thermal operating mode was improved. The research results allow to recommend the upgraded three-phase asynchronous motor for axial fans drives of henhouse ventilation systems for continuous smooth removal of contaminated air.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textMeliashchenia A. V., Kaltovich I. V.
Development of formulations for emulsions and dry mixes for production of semi-finished products using additive technologies
Study of possibilities of using various types of raw materials as fillers for food 3D printers is relevant for development of additive technologies in the field of food production. Currently, the properties are studied to the greatest extent and the ingredients are widely used for confectionery production in the world and, at the same time, the process properties of raw materials of animal origin, in particular meat raw material, as one of the main sources of protein are of greater interest. Process capabilities of meat raw material were studied for this purpose for formulating emulsions or mixtures suitable for use as a raw material for food 3D printer. Formulations of emulsions and dry mixes are developed based on broiler chicken meat, as well as combinations of broiler chicken meat and pork, pork and beef (ratio 1 : 1) for manufacture of semi-finished products, as well as production technologies. It was determined that it is advisable to add structure-forming components to formulations of emulsions in a dry form, which provides improved functional-and-process and structural-and-mechanical indicators in comparison with hydrated and gel forms. It was determined that 15% of hydrolyzed connective tissue or 10 % of hydrolyzed pork skin can reduce the level of structure-forming components in emulsion formulations, and also has a positive effect on reducing the cost price of emulsions while maintaining rational functional-and-process and structural-and-mechanical parameters. It has been revealed that adding 6-12 % of WPS-UF-80, 5-10 % of dry whey or 4-8 % of fat free milk powder into emulsion formulations allows reducing the level of structure-forming ingredients in the formulations. These mixtures and emulsions used as raw materials for food 3D printers will ensure production of innovative group of meat products using additive technologies in the Republic of Belarus. Acknowledgments. The research was carried out as part of the state program of scientific research “Quality and Efficiency of Agroindustrial Production for 2016-2020”, subprogram 3 “Food security”.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Kazakevich Petr Petrovich (To the 65th Anniversary of Birthday)

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