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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2008 №4

Contents:
To the 80th Anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpTo the 80th Anniversary of the National Academy of Sciences

Full textGusakov V.G.
History, stale-of-art and perspectives of the agricultural science of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textGusakov V.G.
Basic conceptional approaches of the perspective agriculture management
Objective scientific estimation of the results on development of domestic agroindustrial complex for the last years is made. The dynamics of coming into being the management-production structures adequate to new conditions is shown. Norms of stable development of agroindustrial production on the principles of self-repayment and self-financing are presented. The most important priorities for a stable increase of the efficiency and competitiveness of domestic agroindustrial complex are formulated.

Full textShapiro S.B.
Current problems of agroindustrial complex of Belarus
The article describes the dynamics of development of agroindustrial complex of the Republic on the basis of performing the State Program on the Revival and Development of a Village for 2005–2010 years. The basic directions of the innovation line of increasing the economic efficiency of agricultural organizations are outlined. Among them are: decreasing the expenses in farming and plant growing, creating and introducing sorts of plants and breeds of agricultural animals of new generation into production, technical modernization of the agricultural branch, improving the organizational structure of agroindustrial complex and the system of payment for work, changing the practice of reckoning up the results of functioning of agricultural organizations and regions of the Republic.

Full textIlyina Z.M., Hanush H.I.
Innovations and stability of development of food complex
The article considers the conceptual interpretation of the category “innovation”, the essence, tendencies and features of manifestation of innovation processes in the world economics, and also directions, on which the innovation development (creation of new knowledge, diffusion of innovations, the academic, high school and factory science) is carried out. In the context of classical definition the innovation development of food complex is considered as the directed quantitative and qualitative influence on the whole system or separate elements whose final goal is the increase of stability and efficiency of its functioning.

Full textBaigot М.S.
Methodical proposals on the perfection of measures of non-tariff regulation in the field of trade of production of agrarian and industrial complex of Belarus
In the article the methodical proposals on the perfection of measures of non-tariff regulation in the field of trade in agriculture, definitions of damage of the branch of national agriculture, including the algorithm of the increased, damping both subsidized import of the goods and a matrix, including the basic economic parameters demanding the all-round analysis in the course of investigations are presented. The conclusion is made that in the conditions of integration of Belarus into the world economics, the use of non-tariff restrictions should be proved and weighed as the excessive protectionism can lead to the passivity and a decrease in the competitiveness of domestic production and application of return economic sanctions by country-partners.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textNikonchik P. I.
Problems on ecologizing agriculture in Belarus
Main tendencies in ecologizing agriculture in Belarus are presented in the article. These are a) integrated land utilization based on a combination of active intensification and ecologization; b) landscape land utilization taking into account local soil and ecological conditions; c) economically and ecologically grounded technologies of agriculture crop cultivation; d) optimization of the sowing area structure and the crop rotation system; e) soil protecting agriculture on erosion-dangerous soils; f) improvement of utilization systems of reclaimed lands.

Full textLikhatsevich A.P.
Criteria for estimation of soil water regimes
The similarity criteria of crop water regimes (zonality, soil water capacity and moisture exchange in soil) are determined on the basis of similarity theory with the use of π-theorem. The example of similarity conditions evaluation of crop water regimes in different conditions is presented.

Full textMikhailouskaya N.A., Mikanova O.
Relationship of the enzymatic activity with the humus content in luvisol loamy sand soil
A relationship of the enzymatic activity with the humus content in Luvisol loamy sand soil was studied. It was found that the activities of cellulase (R2 = 0.71–0.91), invertase (R2 = 0.88–0.92), peroxidase (R2 = 0.81–0.93) and polyphenoloxidase (R2 = 0.61–0.73) closely correlated with the humus content in Luvisol loamy sand soil. The closeness of the established correlations indicates that enzymatic parameters ensure the objective information on the transformation intensity of important carbonic substances in soil. Cellulase, invertase and peroxidase activities are considered as specific biochemical criteria of different constituents of the carbon cycle in soil.

Full textTsyganov A.P., Wildflush I.R.
Efficiency of application of mircofertilizers and growth regulators of plants when cultivating grain feed cultures
The article presents the results on the influence of microfertilizers and growth regulators on the crop yield and quality of oats, barley, spring and winter triticale in soddy loamy soil.

Full textTaranukho G.I.
Applied importance of fundamental stdies in selection and seed growing
The article presents the results of the genetic analysis and the revealed regularities of manifestation of the combined variability in the first, second and subsequent generations of hybrids, through which it is possible to forecast the number and the ratio of pulling out forms and to plan a selection of pair for interbreeding and a volume of hybridization. Theoretically grounded methods of working with hydride material enables one to obtain constant genotypes of different varieties already in the third generation when making individual estimation of descendants of the selected pulled out phenotype-identical but genotype-different homo-and heterozygous forms of structures under investigation. A relationship of selection and seed growing with genetics, cytology, anatomy, biotechnology, and gene engineering is shown.

Full textShishlova N.P., Lubochkina T.V., Krylova T.M., Pilipenko J.S.
Varietal specificity of the productive process of spring triticale (Triticosecale Wittmack) and its resistance to pre-harvest germination
Biochemical aspects of the production process (dynamics of accumulation of dry matter, starch and protein) in the spring hexaploid triticale of Lana, Lotas and Uzor cultivars have been studied. The genotypic specificity of the accumulation process of assimilates by the stages of seed ripening with regard to the influence of abiotic factors have been found. The results on the dynamics of changing the “falling number” parameter are presented: maximum values were at the early stages of kernel ripening in all of the studied cultivars in different climatic conditions. By the moment of complete ripening the parameter values decreased significantly due to the high activity of amylolytic enzymes characteristic of triticale crop. Spring triticale cultivars are presented from the viewpoint of realization of the production potential and resistance to pre-harvest germination.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textPopkov N.A., Sheiko I.P., Loban N.A., Vasiliyk O.Y., Chernov A.S.
Use of molecular gene diagnostics methods for improving meat and fattening traits of Belarusian big hite breed pigs
The influence of IGF-2, POU1F1 and MC4R gene polymorphism on fattening and meat traits of Belarusian Big White Breed pigs was studied. It is stated that the frequency of presumptive preferable alleles appearance was: C of POU1F1 gene – 39%; Q of IGF-2 gene – 22%; B of MC4R gene – 90%. Pigs with CC genotype of POU1F1 gene, Qq of IGF-2 gene, and BB of MC4R gene had a tendency to overcome its analogues on fattening traits. POU1F1, IGF-2, and MC4R genes can be considered as genetic markers of the growth speed of Belarusian Big White Breed pigs.

Full textKorshun S.I.
Economic – useful qualities of cows of Belarusian black – motley breed of various lactic types
The article presents the results on studying productive qualities of cows of Belarusian black-motley breed of various lactic phylums. The research carried out has shown that the best parameters on a milk yield, percent of fat and quantity of a milk fat among the investigated cows of the fourth lactic type had 7897.9 kg, 3.82% and 301.9 kg, respectively. The presence of a negative relation between the size of quotient of the intensity of decreasing milk yields and parameters of milk efficiency of cows of black-motley breed is found.

Full textChernik P.K., Osnovin S.V., Osnovina L.G., Dubrova Y.N.
Ways of decreasing ensilage losses in horizontal storehouses
The article describes the improved technologies of ensilage fodder preparation in horizontal storehouses. We show how to protect the quantity of the ensilage fodder being prepared traditionally in the horizontal storehouse from the influence of negative factors.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textSamosyuk V.G., Stepuk L.Ya.
Real energy saving in agriculture
Basic reasons for high energy capacity of crop and stock production in comparison with the agrarian-developed countries are revealed. The unsolved problems, causing this index, are considered. The structure and volumes of losses of harvest of basic agricultural crops and cattle-breeding production are presented. The reasoned proofs of the necessity of working out and adopting the law of the Republic of Belarus “Technical Equipment of Agriculture” and two government programs “Liquidation of Losses in Agriculture” and “Priority Agricultural Engineering” are outlined.

Full textSharshunov V.A., Chervyakov A.V., Kurzenkov S.V.
Study of the parametres of a loose material stream in the mixing chamber of the installation for grain conservation
The article presents the analysis allowing the definition of the parameters influencing the process of formation of a grain material stream in the mixing chamber of the installation for grain conservation. The mathematical models defining the dynamics of movement of a grain material over a surface of a distributor, and also the dependences allowing the calculation of material supply, designing and geometrical parameters of working body elements are proposed. The results of the work done will be used for planning experimental researches of the studied process and for calculating installations of offered design.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textLovkis Z.V., Dernovich A.V.
Republican control-testing complex on product quality and safety as the element of the state system of food quality and safety in the Republic of Belarus
Under the conditions of the transition period between the centralized model of economics control and market relations the reforming of the acting state control system of food products and foodstuff is required. These measures would allow one to decrease and in perspective to block the access of products with low consumer properties to the domestic food market. Nowadays the effectiveness of this system is provided first of all by the effective work of its sections and structures. Experimental departments of different establishments, including laboratories of the Scientific-Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus are the basis of the state control system of food products. In this article the authors evaluate the functioning organizational structure of testing departments of the Scientific-Practical Center for Foodstuffs of the National Academy of Sciences of Belarus. The creation of the Republican control-testing complex on food quality and safety and the ways of structure reforming are proposed.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Moisei Kalinnikovich Yuskovets (To the 110th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Mikhail Efremovich Matsepuro (To the 100th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Sergei Ivanovich Nazarov (To the 80th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Vladislav Filippovich Karlovsky (To the 75th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Grigorii Ivanovich Taranukho (To the 75th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Aleksandr Pimmovich Tsyganov (To the 55th Anniversary of Birthday)

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