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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2017 №1

Contents:
Economics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Processing and Storage of Agricultural Production
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics

Full textBychkov N. A.
Structural transformation of agricultural organizations in the Republic of Belarus
Transition to market economy has stipulated fundamental changes in organization and management of agricultural production. Organizational structure of AIC has undergone a significant transformation, as well as management system, property relations, principles of macroeconomic and microeconomic regulation of organizations activities. As a result of structural changes in the country for the last 15 years the number of agricultural organizations has decreased almost 2 times, and as of 01.01.2016 amounts to 1469 business entities. In recent years, there has been a tendency to reduction of the number of state unitary enterprises, agricultural production cooperatives with the increase of the number of open joints stock companies. There are 593 organizations with the state share in their capitals in the Republic of Belarus, 65 joint ventures and 40 foreign companies. Since 2006 the number of joint ventures and foreign companies has increased 3 times. 46 co-operative integration structures are created and functioning in the agro-industrial complex, with the production of agricultural raw materials, processing and marketing of the final products, implemented within these structures. 14 holdings are functioning in the agro-industrial complex system, and 12 of these holdings are state based. The key problem of structural reforms in the agro-industrial complex is the financial recovery of insolvent organizations operating in the field of agriculture, with the persistent insolvency. The number of such organizations in the agricultural sector as of January 1, 2016 is about 400. In this regard organizational and economic measures of pre-trial financial recovery and crisis management are taken for organizations with difficult economic situation, established by governmental bodies in the context of implementation of the State program for development of agricultural business in 2016–2020.

Full textBaihot L. N.
Methodological approaches to obligations substantiations for access of imported agrofood products to the domestic market of Belarus in the framework of joining WTO
The problem of joining of the Republic of Belarus to WTO and the impact of this process on the economy of the country as a whole, including the agrofood sphere is considered in the article. The WTO requirements on access of imported products to the domestic market were investigated for this purpose, the experience of WTO member states of the Eurasian Economic Union was studied, and peculiarities of Belarus joining to the WTO in conditions of EEU were determined. Research and methodical approaches were proposed and the evaluation of the level of sensitivity of agricultural products of the Republic of Belarus to import was carried out on the basis of identifying the level of self-sufficiency, import growth and the level of protection of the domestic market of Belarus. The effect of liberalization of import duties on the competitiveness of certain types of products was determined, as well as dependence of export profit from changes in the level of the Common Customs Tariff of EEU. It was established that the consequences would depend on a number of factors: firstly, how appropriate will be the obligations of the Republic of Belarus and how possible will that be to defend the most sensitive positions for agricultural sector, and secondly, how competitive will the domestic products be in the domestic and foreign markets.

Full textBelsky V. I.
Issues of agriculture development in Belarus in the context of trans-boundary market of agrofood products
The article is devoted to estimation of prospects of agriculture development in Belarus in the context of modern trends of international economic integration, formation of consumer preferences and competitive advantages. Risks for financial market and agricultural organizations stability as well as agricultural industry of the country are revealed. The author's estimation of the consequences for the agricultural sector of the Belarusian economy, the dynamics of agricultural development in Russia against background of product embargo against states applying sanctions to the Russian Federation is given in the article. A conclusion is made that in the near future the Republic of Belarus will face increased competition in the Russian market in the field of poultry and pig production, and there is a high probability it can lead to escalation of contradictions and barriers in trade. It is possible to save the position of Belarusian producers subject to high-quality production that is safe, natural and authentic. Proposals for strengthening the agro-industrial policy by updating directions of agricultural specialization, adjustment of financial and credit mechanisms, development of effective agribusiness motivation with incentive payments from revenues and profits, as well as property endowment are presented. Recommendations for training the agrarian and industrial complex specialists on the basis of a balanced combination of theoretical and practical training are proposed. Implementation of these measures will create a basis for flexibility of agricultural economic mechanism, self-development, state and private partnership, adaptability in relation to the rapidly changing conditions in the Eurasian market.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textLoginov V. F., Khitrykau M. A.
Spatiotemporal changes of bioclimatic potential of the territory of Belarus
Bioclimatic potential (BCP) is one of the most universal and practical comprehensive indicators used for estimation of agricultural crops growing conditions and agroclimatic zoning. BCP assessments were one of the major lines of agroclimatic research in the end of XX century, but in recent years the number of works dedicated to the problem decreased. Due to significant changes of climate, which began in 1980s, and, consequently, changes of agroclimatic conditions, the assessment of current values of BCP becomes more relevant. Calculations of bioclimatic potential of the territory of Belarus according to methods developed by D. I. Shashko were performed for the period of 1977–2015. The BCP values obtained were specified by the effect of soil temperature at a certain depth and amount of solar radiation on the underlying surface according to methods developed by Z.A. Mishchenko and own approaches. Comparative analysis of BCP changes was performed for different periods of time. The analysis identified significant growth of BCP on the territory of Belarus during the last decades. Degree of increment of BCP was defined by spatiotemporal features of changes of temperature and precipitation. Introduction of soil temperature at a certain depth correction coefficient caused significant increases, and introduction of solar radiation correction coefficient caused minor decreases of BCP. Integral indicator of quality of growing conditions of agricultural plants on the basis of BCP and soil bonitet was calculated. Analysis of the results obtained showed that the role of soil bonitet in final values of integral indicator is more important than the role of BCP. The results obtained show positive conditions for development of practical recommendations for cultivation of diverse agricultural crops, taking into account the spatial differences of agroclimatic conditions and changing climate in the last 2–3 decades.

Full textSemenenko N. N.
Innovative farming system on anthropogenically transformed soils of Polessye
The results of years of studies aimed at evaluation of the effect of combined application of different precursors, methods of the basic cultivation of anthropogenically transformed peat soils and fertilization systems on performance of crops in fodder crop rotation. It was determined that application of soil protection method for agricultural crops cultivation, including green manure cultivation in the form of strip crop of oil radish, and application of fertilizer doses balances with crops combined with trace elements and growth regulators, provides the same fodder crop rotation performance as the base one (autumn plowing of soil, application of increased mineral fertilizers dozes, etc.) – 11.5 and 11.6 t/ha per year to the unit, respectively. However, in case of soil protection technology, the need for autumn plowing of soil is eliminated, loss of soil OM and migration into underlying nitrogen, potassium, calcium and other mineral nutrients layers are reduced to minimum, its water regime and phytosanitary condition of crops is improved, the profit increases by 190 USD/ha and the prime cost of produce is decreased by 27% compared to the basic technology. The positive aspect of soil protection technology for crops cultivation in rotation is possibility to use it in remote fields. The cultivation of green manure in the form of a strip crop and introduction of differentiated dozes of mineral fertilizers defined for planned crop yield taking into account the new methods of soil diagnostics, application of trace elements and biologically active substances as fertilizers can be the basis for soil protection resource-saving technology for cultivation of agricultural crops in fodder crop rotations on anthropogenically transformed peat soils of Polessye.

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textKosko I. S., Sheyko I. P., Epishko О. А., Chernov А. S.
Polymorphism of RYR1 gene, associations and polymorphism of ESR gene with reproductive traits of hybrid pigs
Polymorphism of RYR1 gene was studied – ryanodine receptor gene (eng. Ryanodine Receptor 1), which mutation leads to the development of swine stress syndrome, and ESR gene – estrogen receptor gene (eng. Estrogen Receptor), having effect on reproductive traits, in population of hybrid sows of Belarusian Large White x Belarusian Meat (BLW x BM), Belarusian Large White x Yorkshire (BLW x Y) and Landrace x Yorkshire (L x Y) when crossed with boars of Duroc (D) breed and hybrid boars of Duroc x Pietrain (D x P) of German selection. All the tested groups of pigs are monomorphic by RYR1 gene, which indicates absence of species susceptible to malignant hyperthermia in the studied population. By ESR gene, for animals of (BLW x BM) x D and (L x Y) x (D x P) two genotypes were determined: ESRAA and ESRAB; and correlation of (BLW x BM) x (D x P) and (BLW x Y) x (D x P) showed all the three genotypes. Also the effect of ESR gene polymorphism on the number of reproductive traits of sows was studied. Positive effect of ESRB allele was determined with animals of correlations (BLW x BM) x (D x P) and (BLW x Y) x (D x P) on such traits as multiple pregnancy, milkiness, litter weight and piglets weight at weaning in 35 days. However, in the groups of animals not having species of ESRBB genotype, this trend is not traced clearly. The obtained results can be used for implementation in practical breeding by marker genes that will allow to evaluate the frequency of occurrence of desirable and undesirable alleles and conduct further purposeful selection, which will enhance the resistance of animals to stress and increase their performance.

Full textDegtyarik S. M., Slobodnitskaya G. V., Grebneva E. I., Benetskaya N. A., Macksimyuk E. V., Bespalyi A. V.
Effect of phytoncides of plants on viability and virulence of etiologic agents of bacterial infections in fish
Bacterial diseases (aeromonas, pseudomonosis, yersiniosis etc.) are among the most common and dangerous diseases of fish. Prevention of these diseases is one of the essential reserves for increasing the efficiency of fish husbandry. Currently it is implemented mainly due to the use of chemotherapy, antibiotics mainly. However, in recent years, widespread use of antibiotics is limited due to their ability to accumulate in fish and possible formation of resistant strains of pathogenic microorganisms. The article presents the results of studies on the effect of phytoncides of plants growing in Belarus on bacteria p. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas. Antagonist activity test of phytoncides of 32 plant species related to bacteria р. Aeromonas were carried out, and 14 species were selected for further researches. As a result of study of antibacterial and bacteriostatic properties of plant extracts, the highest antagonistic activity was shown by Sphagnum palustre L., Allium cepa L., Tanacetum vulgare L., Chelidonium majus L., Berberis vulgaris L., and Allium sativum L. Studies of effect of plant extracts on bacteria р. Aeromonas and Pseudomonas showed that pseudomonades were less sensitive to phetoncides extracted from the plants. The degree of effect of plant extracts on test microbes depends on the reaction time and concentration of the extract. When fish was administered with extracts of 20 and 10% concentrations, the clinical signs of aeromonosis (Sphagnum palustre L.) either disappeared completely, or were decreased considerably (Tanacetum vulgare L., Berberis vulgaris L.). When fish with bacteria р. Aeromonas was administered with single dose of per os tisane, the signs of infectious disease developed in infected fish slower than in the controls, the loss amounted to 10–30%. At three-time administration the clinical infection symptoms disappeared or were weakly expressed, fish loss was not observed. At five-time administration the clinical infection symptoms disappeared after 2–6 days, fish loss was not observed.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textBasareuski A. N., Kravchenin K. A.
Determination of cutting force applied by blades of rotary working body of ditch cleaner
Currently the world's drained land area makes over 210 million hectares. In the United States about 60 million hectares of land is drained, in Europe cultivated lands are 80–100% meliorated. In the Republic of Belarus the area of meliorated lands is about 2.9 million hectares, over the third part of crops are produced on these lands. However, at a long-time use the condition of drained lands has deteriorated, leading to rewetting and change of the soil surface condition. Maintaining melioration systems is one of the most important tasks for the efficient use of meliorated lands. The aim of research – development of theory of interaction of rotary working body with herbal plants and pumps, development of engineering tools for cleaning the melioration channels. Theoretical studies and calculations were carried out based on methods of mathematical analysis and elements of classical mechanics. The structural peculiarities of widely used equipment for cleaning melioration channels and perspective ways of its development are analyzed. Theoretical background for description of cutting processes for plants and cleaning the melioration channels are considered. Based on the research results, the calculated dependence for determining the cutting force applied by the blades of rotary working body of channel cleaner is obtained, taking into account the height of the plants stalks and the distance from the ground to the rotor rotation axis. The results and conclusions can be used as initial data for substantiation of rotary parameters of rotary working body of melioration machines.

Full textKitikov V. A.
Analysis of scientific and technical level of milk production processes
The Republic of Belarus takes the 4th place in the world in production of milk per capita and occupies leading positions in development of dairy industry. However, despite the relatively high quantitative results, the national dairy industry is characterized by high level of expenses and relatively low performance. In this regard, to improve the profitability and hence the competitiveness of dairy products in the world market, it is required to reduce the unit costs and to take the national dairy industry to a new level of quality. Based on the analysis of trends in the dairy industry and new scientific knowledge on the biosynthesis of milk, the paper describes conceptual approach for development of physiologically sparing process of cows machine milking and the corresponding technological equipment for its implementation. A generalized indicator was proposed – the level of unit costs, allowing to assess the efficiency of milk production and evaluate the scientific and technical level of the production processes. It is shown that even with no changes of the overall energy consumption for all the milk production processes and machine milking, and only due to milking process improvement, the level of unit costs can be reduced by over 3 times. The analysis allowed to formulate the basic directions of modernization of milk production processes, deriving from minimization of unit costs level, and which are relevant for dairy farming in any country of the world, as soon as they are objective.

UpProcessing and Storage of Agricultural Production

Full textGrudanov V. Ya., Torhan A. B.
Rheological aspects of macaroni batter flow in channels of matrix of step and variable section
Nowadays the non-uniform formation speed of macaroni products by the matrix cross section is an unsolved problem in both domestic and foreign practice. The matrix construction is one of determining factors having effect on the engineering and economic indicators of the press operation. The matrix consists of a cylindrical body with wells located on concentric circles, liners installed in the wells, with through formation openings grouped in nests, and nowadays the matrices with different heights of forming openings of step and variable section are most widely used in the industry. The article proposes a new rheological model for establishing interaction between the plastic and viscous component of the total flow resistance for macaroni batter in the channel of step and variable section. The method for determining the minimum forming pressure required to overcome the shear yield point (ultimate shearing resistance) of macaroni batter, located in the channels of circular, ring, rectangular and arbitrary cross-section) is proposed. It is shown that contribution of component in total flow resistance dominates due to viscous shearing at flow. The method of approximate estimation of speed and force parameters of macaroni batter flow in the channels of step and variable section using the Bingham model is proposed. The formulae for determining the geometric characteristics of the channels of step and variable section are presented, allowing to align the batter pressing speed over the entire working surface of the matrix. The research results can be used for designing forming equipment, as well as for developing methods of calculation of macaroni batter formation processes.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Mikhail Maximovich Severnyov (To the 95th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Nikolayi Ivanovich Smeyan (To the 85th Anniversary of Birthday)

Full text
Albert Fedorovich Trofimov (To the 80th Anniversary of Birthday)

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