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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1998 №3

Contents:
Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Lapa V., Ivahnenko N., Baranovsky A., Kotovich N.
Animal Breeding and Veterenary
Processing of agricultural produce
Mechanisation, automation and energy
Publications

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textGusakov V., Daineko A.
The factors of the efficiency of agricultural production
The article gives classification and brief characteristics of the factors influencing production efficiency in market conditions. Along with organisational, economic and operational factors for the first time the new market related factors are pointed out. The due regard to these factors makes it possible to ensure efficient operation and competitiveness of the enterprises at selling agricultural produce and establish partner relations between them. The study of the factors helps producers to quickly get aware of the market competition, set up their business oriented to consumer demand and ensure necessary revenues.

Full textBelsky V.
The governmental modelling of the agrarian policy
The article deals with the problems of forming national agrarian policy of the republic of belarus in the context of current social and economic situation: methodologies of the macro economic analysis of the efficiency of alternative food supply schemes, forms and volumes of the state support to agro industrial complex depending on the economic self sufficiency, short and long term stability of the agrarian market, interrelation of different elements of agrarian policy (price formation, subsidies, custom regulation, financial policy, rents etc).

Full textVorobiev V.
The problems of methodology and the theory of positive analysis of agrarian policy
The modern positive analysis of agrarian policy is based on the understanding of the fact that the political decision in economics is determined by the efforts of various groups of people, lobbyists, electors, administrators pursuing their own goals. As a result state regulation of agriculture sometimes runs contrary to public interests and there might be a big gap between proclaimed goals and achieved results. It is impossible to solve the problem by forbidding the activities of so called influence groups (lobbyists) or by erasing red tape or by trying to outlaw the political struggle for electoral support. It seems to be more realistic to reduce the negative impact of political process on economy by improving the role of economic science in the process of forming the economic policy which should be aimed at curbing (by legislation means as well) the inefficient state interference in economy and developing altruistic motivation among politicians.

Full textKrylovich T., Krestovsky V.
State regulation in the system of agrarian business
The article deals with concept backgrounds of private entrepreneurial initiative in agro industrial complex; principles, methods and ways of state regulation in agriculture; forms of support to corporate business; support to small and medium business in agriculture.

Full textDaineko A.
The problems of the belarusian agrarian sector in joining the world trade organisation
Forming legal, economic and information environment of the activities of national producers on international markets greatly depends on the participation of the republic of belarus in world trade organisation. Joining the wto will ensure the regime of most favoured nation to our country in its trade activities with over 130 foreign states. However the difficulties of the transition period, peculiar features of national agriculture require a more thorough justification of the obligations accepted, availability of privileges and developing the mechanisms of contacts when signing bilateral and multilateral agreements.The article outlines the most difficult problems of national agro industrial complex and its joining the wto. It also proposes a rational model of systematic application of some legal wto norms aimed at reducing the negative economic impact of joining the wto.

Full textKonstantinov S.
Developing the forms of ownership
The article analysis ownership as economic category and as legal subject. Private ownership of land is the strongest motivation for the agricultural workers in terms of economic efficiency. In belarus private ownership of land is restricted to 1 hectare. Peasants or farmers can get up to 100 hectares of land which can be inherited. The article proposes the justification of the 10 year period between the land at personal disposal and private land. For the state and collective farms it is proposed to go on from collective ownership to share ownership as an interim form in the process of transforming state property into private.

Full textMirenkova G.
The reserves for improving the efficiency of the flax producing sub complex
The article deals with technologies of flax growing and processing as well as with their impact on the integration process in flax branch from the point of view of finding the reserves for improving the efficiency and stabilising the market of raw materials in flax industry. A special role in improving processing technology in terms of its impact on integration structure is given to setting up the production of cottonised fibre. An investment scheme for setting up a cottonised line in goretsky district is proposed.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textKlebanovich V.
The influence of the sod-podzolic soils on the content of movable forms of micro elements
Five field and vegetation experiments on sod-podzolic subloamy and subsandy soils have been put as the basis for the study of the content of movable forms of nine micro elements depending on soil acidity level. It has been determined that the indicators under study were almost independent of the ph ranging between 3,9 and 7,4. Liming substantially reduces only the content of exchangeable manganese. The article states that the traditional soil mn tests are not suitable for assessing the requirement of the plant in this element.

UpLapa V., Ivahnenko N., Baranovsky A., Kotovich N.

Full text
The efficiency of mineral fertilisers in growing barley on sub sandy soils
Оп the basis of two-year data of stationary field experiment with the rates, terms and correlations of mineral fertilizers on the back-ground of the aftereffect of 80 t/ha of manure of cattle on the soddy-podzolic sandy soil are determined the optimum conditions of mineral nutrition of barley "Visit". The energetic effectiveness of mineral fertilizers, chemical and amino acid composition of grain and straw, protein content are given, the specific (normative) removal of nutrient elements, coefficients of the use of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium from mineral fertilizers and coefficients of compensation of removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium of fertilizers are calculated.

Full textTsybulka N., Semenenko N.
The nitrogen regime of the light loamy soils and the productivity of winter rye
The results of the investigations on regime of available nitrogenous compounds in the soddy-podzolic light-textured soil are presented. It is found that in structure of nitrogenous pool the assimilable nitrogen make up 5,6% and the mineral nitrogen - 3,2%. In the composition of mineral nitrogen of soil predominates the ammonium nitrogen over (60-63%). The dynamics of assimilable N content and nitrate Nin soil depend on the intensity of plant consumption of nitrogen and rates of nitrogenous fertilizer, and the content ammonium nitrogen largely depend on the hydrotermal condition of vegetational period. It is possible prognosticate the conditions of nitrogenous nutrition of plants, determine the need of nitrogen top-dressings and establich theirs rates due to the supply of available for plants nitrogen forms in soil. For obtaining the grain yield of winter rye of 70-75 c/ha the optimum supply of potential assimilable nitrogen in soil layer 0-40 cm in early-spring period must amount to 200-210 kg/ha.

Full textShpaar D., Blotskaya Zh.
Non virus potato seed breeding is the key to efficient potato growing
The phytovirological situation in potato plantings in Belarus is analysed. Wide spread of mosaic viruses and significant decrease of potato yield under conditions of a strong infection background is pointed out. A complex of measures directed to the increase of potato seed production is determined. It is stressed that forgetting high quality planting stock it is necessary to fulfil carefully all the complex of measures. A key link of potato seed production developmentis the performance of control at all stages of seed production by highly sensitive methods of virusological analysis.

Full textGorodilov N., Zabara Yu.
The results and the promising ways of the developments of growing white cabbage in Belarus
More then 400 varieties of cabbage (Brassica oleraceae var. capitata f. alba) from world collection of VIR and other research institutes were studied in Belarusian Research institute of Vegetable Growing from 1930 to 1997. 11 cuttivars and 3 hybrids of cabbage (including 2 hybrids together with Moscow Agricultural Academy) were breeded and introduced. In this paper the metods which were used in selection work with cabbage are described and long-term trends of development of research on this crop selection are pointed out.

Full textSokolov G., Shatikhina T., Prohorov S., Matsukevich D., Striguschi L.
The ecological impact of ammonia saltpetre on the molecular structure of humic acids of peat soils
Yield increase of the humiс acide (HA) dissolved in waters applying ammoniac nitrate in the low moor peat soils is stipulated mainly by HA complexis with iron. Not only peripheral but aromatic parts of HA are enriched by the nitrogen.

Full textPopov F.
The ecological background of the biological control of phytopathogens in the systems of protecting plants from diseases
The article deals with the ecological basis of the biological control over the crops' phytopathogenes. It points out the principles of utilising the antagonist micro organisms for developing biolagical preparation against plants' diseases based on such organisms. A biological characteristic of the microbe preparations and the characteristic of their appliance in biological defence have been proposed The article also deals with theoretical prerequisites for ecologisation of plant protection and with scientific achievements in biological methods.

Full textDenisenko V., Poleschuk A.
The content of the nitrated in water of Grodno and the area
Nitrates have been detected in 144 sources of portable water (wells) in Grodno and its area. 10 "districts" have been outlined in the area studied. In rural areas the tests were made on the basis of 1 per 15-20 houses. Within the city almost all wells were checked. The nitrate level was determined straight after collecting water by means of ion selective electrode эм-по-01. All tests were done in may - june. The analysis of the results demonstrated that the average level does not exceed the maximum permitted concentration, ranging between 13+/-3 and 88+/-4S mg/l. It is determined by the fact that there were no areas were the polluted well would be located compactly. However some cases showed considerably higher level (maximum 5,8 times higher). Consuming water from such wells leads to the not accepted higher consumption of nitrates per 24 hours even regardless of the nitrates coming with the food. The most likely reason for such situation is the utilisation of unnecessarily high dosages of mineral fertilisers on the small private plots and unsatisfactory sanitary condition of the areas neighbouring to the wells.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterenary

Full textTanana L.
The peculiar features of the formation of the hormone status of the organism of heifers with different periods of intra-uterine development
А close interrelation of duration of intrafetal evolution of remounted calves with a functional activity of endocrine glands and thе concentration of hormones of thyroid gland, ovaries and adrenals in the blood of animals which determine thei energy of growth and the development during the period of breeding (rearing) is revealed. These indices can be used in selectedpedigree work for early prognosis of future dairy productivity of cows.

Full textKarput I., Boroznov S.
Bacteria, vitamin e and sodium selenite in correcting the immune station of calves
The peculiarities at formation of immune status in calves at postnatal ontogenesis have been determined. The possibility of bactril, vitamin E and selenium application for prevention of immune insufficiency and gastro-intestinal diseases in calves have been investigated.

Full textYastrebov A.
Virus gastroenteritis in pig breeding enterprises of Belarus
In the report results of clinical, epizootological examination of 75 swine husbandries in the Republic of Belarus, in which gastro-intestinal diseases and mortality of piglets have been recorded, are given. Virological, serological and electron microscopical investigation carried out on the material from piglets with gastroenteritis showed that in swine husbandries viral gastroenterites occur (transmissible gastroenteritis, rotaviral disease and enteroviral gastroenteritis of swine) that appear in consequence of disturbance of nutritional conditions and animal management.

Full textKrasochko P., Krasochko I., Usov S.
The effect of preparation "Apistimulin-A" on immunity and metabolism of healthy calves
The influence of preparation from bee-bread "Apistimuline- A" on the main links of immunity and metabolism of clinically healthy calves was studied. It was established that the optimal therapeutic dose of "Apistimuline-A" was 0,5-1,0 mg/kg living weight and was three times introduced intramuscular with 3 days intervals. The biologically active substances, from which consist this preparation, activise cell and humoral immunity, stimulate the biological synthesis of proteins of organism, activise the function of hepar and kidneys, increase the activity of ensimes of blood serum.

UpProcessing of agricultural produce

Full textDmitriev A.
Emergent properties of multi purpose processing components
The article deals with the studies of the appearance of emergent properties in multipurpose processing complexes created on the basis of processing enterprises. The multi purpose processing complexes were examined both from the point of view of availability and nоn availability of dominating technologies and the common condition for the appearance of emergent properties has been determined. These properties have been the result of the appearance of synergetic relations between the elements of the multipurpose processing complex. The article gives the example of the emergent properties on the basis of processing enterprises of Belarus. It also proposes a conclusion that technical and technological issues should be further studied for the sake of setting up efficient the multi purpose processing complexes.

Full textVasilenko Z., O. Slabko, T. Berezneva.
The impact of the technological factors on some physical and chemical properties of starch and modified acids
Physics-chemical indicators of starches samples excreted from potato masses treated with different acids (hydrochloric, lemon and lactic) under different technological modes were studied in the work. The length of acid treatment has being changed from 30 till 150 minutes, the hydrolysis temperature -from 40 to 60°C, the medium pH has being reduced from 4,75 to 2,6. It is found when increasing the hydrolysis length and temperature and reducing the medium pH the optical density of starch glue samples increases, the optical density index of iodine-starch glue reduces, the amylase content decreases. This dependence is typical for the all starch samples treated with above mentioned acids. The greatest influence on the starch renders hydrochloric acid, the least one - lactic acid. The starch is subjected to the strongest aside influence when reducing medium pH to 2,6, increasing hydrolysis temperature to 60°C and treatment time till 150 minutes. The changed of above mentioned indicators starch samples are maximum under these modes.

UpMechanisation, automation and energy

Full textShilo I.
Methodological aspects of improving the system of agricultural machinery
The article proposes the methods of complex assessment of machinery and technologies keeping in mind the operational impact on the levels of machinery and resource utilisation. The average indicator is based on individual assessments of operational factors with due regard to the importance of these factors. The article determines the dependence reflecting the influence of the yield of main agricultural crops and productivity of animals on the resource extensiveness of the produce. The issues of justification of certain volumes of manufacturing new agricultural machinery are also analysed.

Full textNagorsky I., Perednya V., Gutman V.
The status and solving the problems of mechanising the animal breeding farms
The report presented the problems of mechanization technological processes in branch of cattle and pig production. The basis processes have been definited, that developed BelARMI, and demonstrate new technics, wich cutting resourses for animal production. The directs have been definited, wich schould proved one's own up-to-date technics for animal breeding, proved competetive products and environmental protection surroundinqs cattle and pigs farms and units.

UpPublications

Full textSkoropanov S.
Melioration and its belarusian scenario
The analysis of final results of melioration draws the conclusion that in the conditions of growing intensification of agricultural practices the opportunities to withdraw ecologically most vulnerable sites from agricultural rotation making them swamp forming areas are created Applying soft regime of utilisation to peat areas: suspending the melioration; suspending export of peat and using fuel peat; using meliorated peat areas as meadows; antifire laws and the regime of restricted areas.

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