ISSN 1817-7204

The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail:
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»


2000 №4

Economics and information technologies
Arable Farming and Plant Growing
Animal Breeding and Veterinary
Mechanization and Power Engineering

UpEconomics and information technologies

Full textGusakov V.
Is the western market a real market or the basis and the prospects of the development of the agricultural corporative-cooperative structure
In the article it has been analyzed the tendencies of the agricultural structure development in the countries with developed economy, the strengthening of the role and the significance of corporative-cooperative forms. The recommendations for practical use in Belarus has been done. In near future agriculture should be based on the principles of cooperation and integration of all the elements of management: from raw material production to its processing and the sale of the finished food-stuffs.

Full textVorobiyov L., Glaz A.
Improvement of the economic mechanism of the Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC)
In the article on the basis of the rich foreign and home experience and using the factual examples and numbers' data the author has grounded his own understanding of the problems of the perfecting of the economic mechanism of the Agro-Industrial Complex (AIC). This article is practically significant for Belarus and may be used by managers and leading specialists of the agricultural enterprises, regions, another departments in the agricultural sphere of our republic.

Full textShapiro S., Yunoshev Y.
Reforming of the Belorussian agrarian enterprises as a factor for the increasing of their economic efficiency
Reforming of agricultural enterprises in the Republic of Belarus is one of the most important factors of economical efficiency increasing. The aim of reform process in the rural area has been grounded in this paper. Also there is shown a mechanism of economical efficiency increasing of agricultural enterprises functioning in the period of reforming. The main factors which impede process of economical transformation in agrarian enterprises in the Republic of Belarus are determined.

Full textEfremenko N.
Property management in the private agricultural enterprises of Belarus
In the article a short analyze of the common parameters of the organization structure of the social agrarian sector in our republic has been given. The most typical management methods for the Belarussian agriculture has been estimated from standpoint of bringing the legal organization forms of enterprise into accords with regulations of the new Civil Code of Belarus. In the investigation results it has been considered the participation of the owner in enterprise management: partnership, corporation, cooperation and individual ownership. It has been proposed an institutional approach to the comparative analyze of the legal organization form.

UpArable Farming and Plant Growing

Full textIvanyuk V., Alexandrov O.
Efficacy of pesticides applied against causative agents of rhizoctoniose of potatoes
As a result of large-scale trials and laboratory trials it has been studied the influence of herbicides, fungicides and biological products on the development of the fungus Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn. And the development of rhizoctoniose in potatoed. It has been stated that the herbicides do not impede an infection of sprouts, stolons, roots and tubers by a causative agent of the disease. However they depress intensity of infection of adult plants caused by "white leg". With regards to the pathogen the most toxic among the seed mordants of potatoes were the fungicides Vitavax 200, Tekto 450, Ditan M-45, Monceren, Fundazol, Celest and a biological product on the basis of bacteria Bacillus cereus 494.

Full textNikonchik P.
The reserves of modern farming due to improvement of the system of land using
In the article the directions to improvement of the system of land using in the Belarussian agrarian enterprises have been analyzed and defined. It has been stated the results of scientific researches which have been carried out in long-term stationary test with aim to study productivity and agro-economic efficacy of the different types and kinds of crop rotation. The phytosanitary role of crop rotation in the conditions of farming intensification has been shown. One may save resources and energy and reproduce organic substances in the soil by means of the appropriate crop rotation. It has been stated that due to perfecting of crop rotation structure, improvement of the content and using mode of perennial herbs it is possible low applying of nitric fertilizers a 30% and even more per hectare of crop rotation area without lowering of arable land productivity. Simultaneously, entering of the organic substances into the soil due to the plant's rests has been increased a 15,9 c/he of absolutely dry mass. This quantity is equivalent to 7,9 tones of laying manure per hectare of crop rotation area.

Full textKoptik I.
Optimal parameters of winter wheat morphotypes for soil and climatic regions of Belarus
When developing the new varieties of food use are developed the dominant trend in breeding is adaptive direction to realization of properties complex in genotypes. Using evolution and statistical approach as well as breeding work in the region there were developed optimal parameters of winter wheat morphotypes for the conditions of the Republic of Belarus and were substantiated the indices of development of the properties in new varieties of food use for three productivity levels: middle intensive, intensive and high intensive. These varieties will posses optimal morphophysiological parameters and will be characterized by even foliage, high density of stand, middle and high grain size, high grain content in an ear and intensive grain filling. The decision of ecological breeding in the Republic of Belarus can be used by the example of the system of winter wheat varieties with different adaptivity levels where valuable crop properties are centered. The varieties have been applied in industry and now they cover 80% of crop sown area in the region.

Full textPrishchepa L., Yankovskaya E.
Virulence of the local strains of enthomopathogenic fungi for greenhouse whitefly (Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westsw.)
Results of search in natural bio-coenosis and study of biological and the insecticide properties of entomo-pathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor. and Paecilomyces fumoso-roseus (Wize) Brown et Smith are indicated in the article. As a result the number of M.anisopilae and P.fumoso-roseus local strains is isolated. Their morphological and cultural signs, enthomocidal activity in relation to the laboratory test-object (wax moth Galleria mellonella L.larvi) and to the target object (greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Wstw.larvi) are studied. As the most perspective as producer of biological preparations the strains of P.funoso-roseus P97, 3/1 and 7/5 are selected. For the most active among them (the strain of P.fumoso-roseus 3/1) the values of medium lethal concentration (LC50) for II-III and IV instar larvi are determined.

Full textKozlov V.
The use of species S.andigenum for the breeding of potato parental line resistant to late blight
The results of potato parental line breeding on the basis of resistant to late blight cultivated species S.andigenum are presented. Twenty-two lines were selected on high resistance to foliage and tuber blight which could be used for potato breeding for resistance to late blight.

Full textLaman N., Buday S., Barnatovich O.
Germinating of small, flat and long-germinated seeds by roll method with the use of ventilator net
It has been offered a variant of modified roll method for germinating small, flat and long-germinating seeds of field and vegetable crops. The paper has presented the data on the comparative analysis of advisable methods for germinating seeds and a new method for germinating rate, germinating ability, germinating index, length and wet weight of axial organs. Germination of seeds by using ventilator net has been shown to exert a positive effect on the rate of morphostructure growth and seedling quality.

UpAnimal Breeding and Veterinary

Full textAndrosik N., Lyakh Y.
Prophylaxis of pasteurellosis in young cattle in the modern conditions
Data of prevalence of pasteurellosis caused by Pasteurella multocida (serovars A and D) and Pasteurella haemolytica in young pigs and calves in the Republic of Belarus are given. Pathogenesis, clinical, pathologic-anatomical picture at pulmonary pasteurellosis is described. The results of production testing of experimental batches of vaccines against pulmonary pasteurellosis of pigs and young cattle are given.

Full textKarput I., Nikoladze M.
Polysaccharide-protein preparation for prophylaxis of the immune deficiency of piglets under alimentary anemia
The affected with anemia piglets were determined to develop the immune deficiency state manifested by the decrease of hemoglobin, erythrocytes and hematokrit index in blood, and the increase of iron, the transferrinum saturation ratio and the increase of ironbinding capability in serum. The immune deficiency state is characterized by decrease of leukocytes, lymphocytes, T- and B-lymphocytes, G- and A-immunoglobulin in the phagocyte activity of leukocytes. The combined application of the ferruginous drug with the polysaccharide immune-stimulant prevents the anemia development and immune deficiency state.

Full textKochko Y., Yakubovskiy M.
Helminthes of the wild hoofed animals of the Belavezhskaya Pushcha
The results of long-term researches of the invasion of aurochs, stags, roes, and wild boars by the different kinds of helminthes. The animal's infection by helminthes in dependence on their age and their habitat has been shown. It has been determined the most often met helminthes of the wild hoofed animals of the Belavezhskaya Pushcha.

Full textBogush A., Ivanov V., Pankovets E., Kuchinskiy M., Golynets V., Sakovich V., Bychkov V., Sharykhina T., Yaroshenko B.
Application efficacy of the complex mineral preparation (CMP) for treatment and prophylaxis of cow's mastitis and the possibility of use of atomic-emission spectroscopy method for the control of the maximum allowing concentration of selenium in milk
The authors investigate preventive and medical effectiveness of the new complex mineral preparation (CMP) at mastitis of the cows, the method of the definition selenium in milk of animals is tested. Is proved, that single intramuscular introduction to the patient of mastitis cows CMP in a doze 15-20 ml renders preventive and therapeutic effect, not reducing thus to excess of ultimate concentration selenium in milk. The searching of effective remedies and prophylactics of post-natal diseases and mastitis at the cows, raise of viability newborn calves is one from actual problems of veterinary medecine.

Full textDadashko V., Tsaruk V.
The efficacy of liquid fermentative feed addition "Fecord B" to hen's food
For the first time the efficacy of use of home liquid multienzyme feed addition "Fekord В " to hen's food has been determined. It has been stated that "Fekord В " improves egg production, digestive stimulation processes quality of dietary and incubator eggs and reduces the expenditure of feeds. Effective recipes of home manufactured feeds, including 0,37%, 0,5% and 1,0% of "Fekord В" are worked out.

Full textMatsinovich A.
Applying of sodium hypocloriti in the prophylaxis measures complex against newborn calves' diarrhea
Оn the base of conducted researches in the article it has been offered the method of increase of efficiency of а соmplех of preventive measures for want of diarrhea of newborn calves, bу inclusion in it pareteneralis of introduction of а solution of sodium hypocloriti.

Full textVoytekhovich I.
Meat productivity of young calves in the dependence on the kind of silage in feed ration
In the trials it has been studied an affect of the different kinds of silage (perennial grain herbs, corn and narrow-leaves lupine) on the meat productivity of young calves. The higher accretions of living mass have been get by using of corn silage enriched by urea during siloing. The quality of calf meat in every trial was high. In the meat of calves which were fed by lupine there were less quantify of fat and more indispensable amino-acids but there was no statistically proofed differences. The common accretion of living mass per 1 hectare of sown area was higher in the trial with narrow-leaves lupine as a basic cultivated crop.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textSharsunov V., Tsyganov A., Chigarev A., Kuzmitskiy A.
Wheel: the reserves of energy saving
In the article it has been noted that the processes in the contact point of wheel with base take the basic place in modem theory of wheel rolling. The definition of the role of pin in the mentioned process was an aim of researches. The simple rolling of wheel without deformation on the hard base has been considered. With trial researches results it has been stated that with increasing of the speed of forward motion of the trial cart from 0,25 to 2,75 m/s rolling strength has increased approximately in 9 times (the rolling of steel's wheels of outer diameter 0,125 m has been realized on the concrete slab. The pin's size was 16, 62 and 92 mm, a dry friction, steel by steel). That considerable strength's increasing is difficult to explain on the known background because under these speeds neither air strength, nor hysteresis can influence to a considerable extent. In accordance with working hypothesis the main factor not taken into account is oscillatory-wave effect occurred in rolling process. The equation of equivalent wheel has been get and its role in rolling process has keen defined. It has been stated that the rolling energy losses are proportional to square speed independent on air strength and hysteresis.

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