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1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1996 №1

Contents:
Economics and Information
Land Caltivation and Plant Growing
Livestock production, fishery and veterinary medicine

UpEconomics and Information

Full textGusakov V.
The problems of perspective development of agro-food.
Totality of the problems requireing of the paramount decision to get over economical crisis and to stabilise of the agrarian complex development are defined in the article. The measures to improve of the agrarian economics and decisions of the actual tasks are presented. Accent is done to acceleration of the reform complex of accomplished measures and resolution of the activities for realisation of the mechanisms of macro and micro economics of market type.

Full textBychkov N.
The problems of the juridical ensuring of reforming kolkhozes and sovkhozes to market structures.
The juridical basis of reforming of the kolkhozes and sovkhozes of the Republic of Belarus to market structures is analysed. The problems and ways of their deciding are shown. The necessity of changes and supplements to the existing legislation regulating the reformation of the property relations in agriculture is argumented on facts.

Full textGusakov V., Shapiro B.
Conception of the property and reformation in agriculture.
Theoretical aspects of property were considered by the article taking into cjnsideration the reforming of the agricultural enterprises. The specific attention was given to collective shared property as variety of the private one. Recognition of the collective shared property is the base to consider the recognised traditional farms (collective and state) as private market structures with corresponding conditions for funcitioning. Formation of the production and services cooperatives of the new type is going to be as the main way of reforming of the agricultural enterprises in the country's conditions. Cooperatives as organisational and legislative form of farming are themost correspond to the mentality of the rural employees, supply with the social justice and reflect the democratic principles of management as well. Cost accounting is the main economical mechanism supplying with the rational functioning of the cooperatives of a new types as the fully independent production structures.

Full textSemashko V., Shakhotko O., Kozyreva N., Krotova N.
Farms development: results, problems, outlook.
Restructuring of the agrarian sector of the country's national economy directed to its demonopolisation and transformation to the market relations caused the origins of diversed forms of property and farming, appearance of independent and free commodity producers. Side by side with the large public production so - called "small peasant sector" represented in particular by the peasants and farmers farms is formed. They have a small specific proportion in the total volume of produced and realised agricultural products till the present time. However the most important structural elements of the market economics were formed here. So important acts of the transition period to market economy as land reform, property privatisation e.t.c. are realised through these elements. The estimation of the farmers process development in the country is done by the article. The mechanism of functioning of the peasants and farmers farms and the problems and perspectives of their development are shown here. Presented paper directes to reorientation of the modern farming structuries from the simple to extended reproduction and to formation more comfortable environmental infrastructure for their farming activity as well.

Full textKravtsov M.
Multycriterium model of transportation of agricultural cargos.
Economical and mathematical models both one criterium and multy criteriums was elaborated to decide the task of transformation of the agricultural cargos. Calculated difficulty of the multicriterium task and possibility of its linear criterias application to finding of optimal decisions was researched. Polinominal algoritm transformation of any of multycriterium task with one linear criterion and some criterions MINMAX type to equivalented task decided by means of linear criteriums was suggested.

UpLand Caltivation and Plant Growing

Full textBerestov I., Stolepchenko V.
Efficiency of the complex application of liquid fertilizers under barley.
In the result of the fulfilled research was determined that joint and separate application of complex nitrogen and liquid potassium fertilizers exerts to barley capacity identically. The crops productivity was not reduced in the case of transfer of part of LPF/N3P10 , N4P15/ from the main pieces of land enrich with fertilizers to out of root feeding during phase of bush formation. Out of root feeding of barley /N20/ during phases of bush or steam formation has increased the crop capacity accordingly by 3.5 and 3.2 c/ha and positive influenced to albuminous of grain and its capacity per 1 ha.

Full textDaderkina D.
"Gold" proportion to blue lupine (Lupinus Angustifolius) structure.
The structure of the blue lupine (Lupinus Angustifolius) with simpodiallel type of branch was studied, mean values of the morphological signs were defined and their proportions were calculated. Received proportions testify that blue lupine is formed according to the principle of the "gold" proportion which is looked through to correlation of the elements of the crop capacity structure as well. It was revealed the possibility to use the "gold" proportion for modelling of the blue lupine.

Full textKadyrov M.
To conception developing of adapted crops production (selective - breeding, genetics - phito - pathologies aspects).
The main strategical tasks of the modern crops production i.e. — energy and resources economy, ecologycal security proceeding from the possibilities of selective - breeding, genetics and phito - pathology were analysed.

Full textKoptik I., Trompel A., Koptik N.
Ecological plastic of sorts of winter wheat in connection with zones of distribution in Belarus conditions.
In Belarus conditions of the sorts of winter wheat are created for different level of land cultivation, agrotechnics, predecessors crops. The main morphobiotypes of sorts which have the different ecological plastic were presented. Plastic coefficients were calculated according by E.Gregorijan and B.Anoshenko. The conclusion about ecological plastic of sorts system of winter wheat for defined level of land quality was made proceeding from both these conditions and the country conditions.

Full textKandyba J., Samusik D.
Influence of doses and terms of nitrogen fertilizers application to winter rye capacity in dependence of density of crops.
From the economical point of view N90 is well founded rate of nitrogen fertilizers as feeding up during spring period brought in one or two steps independently of the technology of cultivation on sod - podzolic sandy loam soil of Grodno province. The sowing rates of seeds of winter rye kinds "Kalinka" have to be 4-5 mln. sprouted seeds per ha in the case of provision with the elements of fertilizers and observance of technology.

Full textShuglja Z., Rybak A.
Winter rye capacity under different systems of fertilizers.
The influence of the different systems of fertilizers to crops capacity (oats, winter rye, potatoes, barley) using sod - podzolic sandy loam soil was being studied during long term stable experience realised by Grodno zonal scientific research institute of agriculture on territory of the experimental farm "Shchuchin" since 1961. The experimental data concerning influence of fertilizers to winter rye capacity and taking out the elements feeding an average for two years of the eight crop rotation were presented in the article.

Full textSoroka S., Soroka L., Alexandrova I.
The efficiency of the early spring application of herbicide "Arelon" to struggle with the annual weeds in winter wheat sowing areas.
It is possible to apply 75% herbicide "Arelon" as standard of 1.5 - 2.0 kg per ha successfully for destruction of the annual weeds at phase of the early spring bush - formation of winter wheat in Belarus proceeding from the results of the research 1989-1993. Biological efficiency of "Arelon" to the main kinds of the weeds is higher than "2.4-D" or "Dialen". "Arelon" is also effective against both of the annual grasses: horse daisy (Matricaria Inodora), violet (Viola), basket flower (Centaurea Americana) and cereals weeds: annual meadow (Poa Annua), silky bent (Apera Spica - Ventis). "Arelon" application is preferable for the fields where abnormally high obstruction was noted by these weeds.

Full textTsyganov A. , Kal V., Rjabtsev P.
Infra red express method of definition of the main biologicalquality indices of winter wheat grain.
Infra red express method was performed to define of biochemical quality indices of winter wheat grain. Callibrie equations have received to analyse quality indices of winter wheat grain that is the main task in the case of development of the programms of infra red method analysis. Chemical analysis have fulfilled as regards availability of albumen, fat, cellular tissue, ashes, calcium, phosphorus, potassium in the framework of these programms developing. Comparison of the results both chemical and infra red analysis of quality of winter wheat grain has shown their high simularity. The efficiency of infra red express method application is grounded by quite good correlation between optical and analytical and quality indices.

Full textYaroshevich M., Vecher N., Savuk M.
The basis of possibility stabilisation of cenotical relations of beans component of "Galega Vostochnaja" in perennial legume-grass agrocenosis.
It is presented the quantitative estimation of "Galega Vostochnaja" capacity and its biomorphoiogical indices in cultural cenosis under the different ways and rates of sowing components of grassmixture on basis of which its optimal structure for actual conditions is suggested. The stability of "Galega Vostochnaja" in perennial legume-grass cenosis was proved. The crop was recommended to agricultural production for laying of perennial legume-grass grassmixture of hayland utilization as beans component.

Full textDaineko N.
The crop capacity of the pastures agrocenosis in the case of their long utilization.
The crop capacity of three cereals and two bean — cereals grassmixtures was researched on peaty - bog and sod - podzolic sandy loam soil by irrigation and without it by long utilization of pasture at sovkhoz "Oressa" of Gomel province during 1983-1994. Cock's - foot grass (Dactylis Glomerata) is a good element of the cereal grassmixture. However, it may has the damage by spring or autumn early frosts on peaty - bog soil. Meadow grass (Poa Pratensis) is the necessary element for long term utilization of pasture. Beginning from the forth year the crop capacity of meadow grass has increased significantly and it occupied the predominant place in the specific proportion of grasses. White Clover (Trifolium Repens) is the leading element in the structure of bean - cereals grassmixture especially on mineralsoil. Vegetative growth promotes to save the territory occupied by clover that provides with the high crop capacity during the first some years of its existing and will promote to its long term utilization.

UpLivestock production, fishery and veterinary medicine

Full textGrin M., Yakusevich A., Trotsinskij Y.
Farming useful features of the black and white cows of different origin.
The research for comparative studying of farming useful features of cows which were used in pedigree cattle farm У Nacha У of Brest province was fulfilled for all round evaluation of results of the utilization the improving cattle kinds (German, British - Frizz., Danish and Golstein). It was revealed that German black and white cows (the first genetics and ecological generation) had the best indices of milk productivity, good growth to early and close to optimal of service and between calving periods. Use of black and white servicing bulls to improved cattle as a rule have not presented the positive results.

Full textLoban N., Kurak O.
Correlation of the meat qualities and stress stability of pigs of specialised lines.
The results of research dedicated to the studying of the meat qualities of the different genotypes of pigs in dependent on their stress stability was stated. Stress stability of the pigs was studied by means of the method of "galotan" test at the experimental farm "Budagovo". The high dependence for different genotypes of frequency of life reaction of pigs to "galotan" test with deviation physical and chemical quality of meat was fixed. Deviation for meat acid was established at 5— 25 % of samples in dependent on the origin. Expediency of test fulfilment for stress stability of pedigree yong pigs of 2 month of age at the pedigree factory and pigs centres was established.

Full textMuzyka A.
Improving of the technology of giving to drink of colostral to new-born calfs.
Influence of the terms of the first giving to drink of colostral to new-borned calfs on their ability to life, health conditions, growth and development was researched. The dependence of colostral quality of litter sex was tested as well. It was established that the period of giving to drink of the first portion of colostral to new borned calfs during 0,5-1 hour is the most optimal. Colostral of cows borned bulls is the most valuable than of borned heifers proceeding from its chemical composition.

Full textPortnoi A.
Composition and technological features of milk of high productive cows in the case of feeding by aromatic addition.
The results of research of influence of aromatic addition out of "tmin" to productivity of milking cows, chemical composition and technological features of milk were presented. It was established that feeding to milking cows additionally to the main ration of the aromatic addition in size of 50 and 100 gr. daily per cow head have led to increase of cows productivity by 5.0 and 4.4 %, milk fat by 0.32 and 0.25 %, milk protein by 0.04 and 0.06 % accordingly. The specific proportion of dry substance, lactose, calcium and phosphorus in milk has grown as well. The feeding of aromatic addition allows to improve the physics and chemical features of milk and increase considerably its technological qualities. Application of the aromatic addition is profitable proceeding from the economical point of view because of leds to receiving of the additional income.

Full textMarusich A.
Influence of fermented preparations to efficiency of the feed utilisation and productive qualities of sucking pigs in the case of rations with different level of protein and celluar tissue.
The results of fulfilled research testify that enrichment of rations containing 14.7-12.6 % of raw protein and 6.9-8.3 % of raw cellular tissue in dry substance by complex fermented preparations of pectolitical (pectofoetidin G3x) and cellulosiolitical (celloterrin G3x) activity in doses of 0.04-0.06 and 0.01-0.03 % was promoted to : increasing of intensive growth of feeded sucking pigs by 4.3-7.3 %; reducing of feed expenses to receiving of 1 kg. of living weight; declining of its prime cost accordingly by 3.9-8.1 and 3.07-7.3 %; improving of slaughter and meat characteristics of pigs; receiving of the economical efficiency 2.6-11.9 thous. BRB per head (in price of 1993).

Full textKonchits V., Fedorova V., Chutaeva A.
Characteristic of the food interrelations of carp with silver crucian, grown together with the other kinds of fish in ponds.
Competition in food was established on the base of the food and food interrelations research of two and three years of age carp - crucian, carp, hybrid carp with Amur sazan. The indices of the food likeness of two and three years of age of the above — mentioned types of fish make up an average 97.6 and 93.5 % accordingly. At the same time carp - crucian consumping the natural food more intensively allows to save the concentrated food by 31.9 % and reduce the prime cost of the grown fish by 19.1 %.

Full textKarput I., Rudenko L.
Bakterium preparations as preventive measures of dispepsion of sucking pigs.
Preventive measures efficiency of probiotics of lactobacterin and bacteril and their influence to natural resistance and formation of microbiocenosis of sucking pigs was established. High prophulactic effect of complex bacterium preparation of bacteril application was researched. The sucking pigs received above - mentioned probiotic during all the period of the experience have the specific proportion in blood of total albumen, immunoglobulins, indices of peroxidased activity of neutrophilsand bacterium activity of blood serum and in feces — specific proportion of bifida and lactobacteria was considerably high than tested sucking pigs had. All above - mentioned are positivly influencing to health of sucking pigs.

Full textKirichenok V., Anisim I., Vanteev V., Dragun A.
Influence of "B-activin" to immunomorphogenesis of pigs and calfs in the case of their vaccination against leptospirosis.
The fulfilled research has shown that the immunomorphological reactions are developed in the case of immunization of pigs and calfs against leptospirosis inside the bodies of immune system that testifys about formation of immunity against this desease. "B-activin" stimulates immunomorphogenesis, takes off reactogene features of vaccine and promotes to formation of against leptospirosis immunity with more high tense.

Full textV. Holod, V. Pushnijakov, V. Vanteev.
Comparative estimation of the patoimmunobiochemical manifestations in the case of the cattle and pigs kidney disease.
Post - deadly research of urine albumen structure taken of urocyst of cattle and pigs urocyst in the case of pathology of kidney was performed. It was established that proteinuria is characterised by the types specific features and was variously expressed by these kinds of animals. Usually, proteinuria of cattle is taking its course with more high composition both total albumen and separated albumen faction. Avtoantibodies to kidney tissue were found by the method of the У precipitacioned curves of Uanje У to the number of animals. Avtoimmune breaches of cattle were expressed more strongly than those of pigs as well. Above - mentioned is confirmed by more frequent meeting of cattle avtoantibodies and various versions of precipitacioned curves of Uanje and their more typical changes.

Full textYakubovskij M.
The efficiency of avermektinos in the case of parasitosis of animals.
Avermektinos is the new group of anti - parasitic preparations with the strong activity. They are very effective against nematodes by means of stimulating of gama amino oil acid. The number of the preparations of avermektinos group were tested in Belarus conditions. Their high efficiency to treatment and prophilactic of nematodiasis, mange and others parasitosis of cattle, pigs and horses was established.

Full textPastukhova Z., Sheinina S.
The new kind of milk substitute for calfs on the base of dry milk product (DMP).
The new kind of milk substitute for calfs of early age was received by the result of performed reseach. The product has the high quality specific features thanks to use of dry milk product (DMP) in its composition and its high biological value and emulgating qualities as well. The new kind of milk substitute has the emulating degree by 16% higher, the quantity of free fat by 32% lower but lay aside of fat in it by 56% lower as compared to the checked version. At the same time the dayly increasing of the living weight of calfs has grown by 10% taking into consideration of same cost of compared milk substitutes.

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