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ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



2005 №2

Contents:
Economics and Informatics
Agriculture and Plant Cultivation
Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine
Mechanization and Power Engineering
Scientists of Belarus

UpEconomics and Informatics

Full textGusakov V.G., Svyatogor A.P.
Essence facilities and factors of agricultural intensification
Essence and peculiarities of agricultural intensificaton have been revealed under new conditions. Factors and facilities of intensificaton have been characterized. The indexes of the level and effectiveness of agricultural intensificaton have been given. An argued conclusions and propositions have been done on use of factors and facilities in a complex, on application of only economy expedient intensificaton methods contradicted not to natural and ecological equilibrium.

Full textBelskii V.I.
Analysis of obligations pledged republic of Belarus on State support of agriculture at entering to WTO
Scientific analysis of structure and results obligations pledged republic of Belarus on State support of agriculture at entering to WTO has been done. Recommendations for correcting of negotiations positions and improving of agrarian subsidies have been elaborated.

Full textZapolskii M.I.
Interaction of property, labor and capital in integrated agro-production formations
Characteristics of principles of development of agro-production integration of economical developed countries and countries having tran-sitory economics has been done. Degree of adequation of existing principles to conditions of present stage of development of native APC has been determined. Principles of creation and function of integrated agro-production formations at conditions of transitory economics have been proposed.

Full textPushchayenka A.V.
Organizational-economic mechanism of enhancing of efficiency of use of diary industry enterprises capacities
Improvement of use of industrial capacities of reprocessors is one of the most important tools of its revival, strengthening and develop-ment. Some experts believe that to decide this large-scale problem is to start from macro-level. So the state have to create favorable conditions for its carrying out. Others sure that it is expediently to start decision of such tasks from micro-level — from every enterprise. In our opinion it is extremely important to decide this complex task on two levels simultaneously. Main directions and ways of enhancing of efficiency of use of diary industry enterprises capacities. It, s combined and consecutive appli-cation shall form the organizational-economic mechanism.

UpAgriculture and Plant Cultivation

Full textShlapunov V.N., Radovnya V.A.
Influence of nitric fertilizers onto growth, progress and productivity of spring rape in conditions of sandy loam soils of Polesye
Results of the investigations of influence of nitric fertilizers onto growth processes and productivity of spring rape at sandy loam soils of Belorussian Polesye have been shown. It has been stated that application of N120 increases the output of oil from 1 ha to compared with PK at 42—57%.

Full textLukashevich N.P., Shloma T.M.
Formation of crop capacity of peas in dependence of nitric feeding in conditions of Vitebsk region
Level of agricultural production of the republic of Belarus increases constantly, hence it needs in new technologies which give high eco-nomic profitable output of vegetable production. Peas cultivation promote enhancing of quantity of planting albumen and decreasing of its deficit at forage production. Influence of addition of mineral nitrogen under its crops has not studied presently. Investigations carried out at 2001—2003 at medium loamy soils at Vitebsk region have been shown that modern sorts of peas form high seeds productivity (65 c/ha) at introducing of min-eral nitrogen of 44—66 kg/ha. Compensation of expenditures for use of nitrogen fertilizers is high.

Full textTsybulka N.N., Yukhnovets O.V.
Role of fertilizers in formation of agronomy valuable structure of sod-podzolic soils formed at moraine loams
Results of studying of organic and mineral (NPK) fertilizers action onto structural-aggregate composition and parameters of anti-erosion stability of sod-podzolic soils of a different degree eroded on moraine loams have been discovered. It has been established that organic fertiliz-ers promote formation of agronomy valuable soil structure even in a low dozes (40t/hectare). The mineral fertilizers used under agricultural crops in optimal dozes (N60—90P60—70K60—110) improve structural-aggregate composition and increase of anti-erosion stability of soils due to addi-tional feeding of vegetative (root and stubbly) rests.

Full textBosak V.N.
Comparative effectiveness of fertilizers application at cultivation of annual leguminous and cereals grass mixtures
At cultivation of annual leguminous and cereals grass crops (pea-oats, vetch-oats and field pea-oats grass mixtures) in sod-podzol light-loamy soil an application of N60P30K60 mineral fertilizer before sowing was most effective. Use of the fertilizer has resulted in yield of wet grass 453—510 centners/ha at addition of 73—119 and 119—173 centners/ha due to application of nitric and total mineral fertilizers respectively. Covers of expendi-ture have were 21,8—31,8 FU for 1 kg of nitrogen and 143,3—18,5 FU for 1 kg of NPK having profitability from 72 to 89%.

Full textBoyar D.M.
Improving of monitoring of dynamics of quantity and structure of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum narris) population
Pea aphid population structure is an important parameter characterizing its state and stage of the dynamics development in the current season. In a year of depression females and preimago stage larvae are more than 45% that indicates suppression of female reproductive func-tion and a significant death of small instar larvae; in a year of mass pest development larvae prevail in the population, 1-instar larvae are more than 40% among them. Based on the results of 2000—2002 researches a method of the entomological net cutting does not fully depict a structure of the pea aphid population. In biological researches it is preferable to use a modified method of aphid number record — aphid shaking on cartoon plane-table with subsequent plant examination. Main factors influenced onto the dynamics of quantity and structure of pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum harris) population are an air tem-perature and rainfall.

Full textNalobova V.L.
False powdery mildew (Peronospora cubensis (Beek. et Curt.) Rostowsz.) of cucumber and intensity of its manifestation at the republic of Belarus
Data of spreading and damage of false powdery mildew (Peronospora cubensis (Beek. Et Curt.) Rostowsz.) of cucumber in different countries have been presented. Data of intensity of development of disease and many-years dynamics of its development at plants of cucumber in the open soil at republic of Belarus have been given. It has been stated that intensity of the disease depend on terms of its beginning, favorable hydro-thermal conditions for it and presence of receptive to disease genotype.

Full textPodolyak A.G., Arastovich T.V., Zhdanovich V.P.
Radiological estimation of agrochemical practices of improvement of meadows contaminated by 137Cs and 90Sr as a result of the accident at Chernobyl NPP
At development of strategy of rehabilitation of basic types of the Belarus Polesye meadows contaminated as a result of the accident at Chernobyl NPP and at substantiation of application of the most effective practices of their improvement (protective counter-measures) it is necessary to use not only parameters of radio-ecological estimation (multiple of 137Cs and 90Sr concentration reduction in forages after intro-duction of counter-measures) but also it is necessary to take into account parameters of radiological estimation (value of the prevented collec-tive doze — man. Sv/year) and economic-radiological estimation (cost of decrease of unit of the prevented collective doze — thousand US $ per 1 man Sv in a year) as a result of application of protective actions. It has been established that application of agrotechnical and agrote-chemical protective actions at low-lying (waterlogged) meadows being peatbog soils during remote period after the accident at Chernobyl NPP (2000—2010) is more effective (cost of prevented collective doze < 5000$/man Sv) in comparison with water-meadows (12000—20000 $/man Sv) and waterless meadows at mineral soils (about 20000$/man Sv).

UpAnimal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine

Full textYushkovsky E.A.
Natural resistant and immunity of cows with calves at vitamin-mineral insufficiency
It has been established that microelements of iodine, cobalt, copper, zinc and manganese entered as individual additional forage to cows with calves during 2 months before calve and vitamin A injected in a doze of 200000 IE/100 kg of alive weight 3 times at 60, 40 and 20 days before calve have had positive influence onto natural resistant and immunity of these cows.

Full textBelousova E.L.
Cow productivity, composition and technologic properties of milk at parenteral introduction of complex mineral medication
It has been shown that parenteral introduction of complex mineral medication containing iron, magnesium, iodine, selenium and methion-ine has influenced on enhance of milk productivity of cows, composition and technologic properties of milk. On this reason expenses of forage per 1 kg of milk have decreased and additional profit has obtained.

Full textGuminskaya E.Yu.
Medium for diluting of sperms of bulls
Lactose-yolk-glycerin medium is used for diluting of sperms of bulls in Government center for artificial insemination. It has developed for freezing of sperm in granules. Two-fractional environments are more effective at packing of sperm into culms. We have developed a medium on a base of citrate buffer and lactose. Sperm diluted with citrate-lactose-yolk-glycerin buffer and cooled in granules or culms had reduced percent-age of spermatozoids having damages in the micro- and macro-structure. Use of the sperm for insemination of cows promoted accumulation of greater quantity of spermatozoids in the top layers of horns of uterus and their survival. High level of fertilization has been obtained at insemina-tion of cows and heifers in farms.

Full textLetkevich L.L., Gandja A. I., Golubets L.V.
Endocrine regularities of formation of folliclegenesis of donor-cows embryos
Correlation analysis of hormones secretion of hypophysis, ovaries, adrenal gland and thyroid in spontaneous and superovulating cycles of donor cows and between hormones and superovulating level depending on follicle stimulating type of a preparation has been made. It has been found that a high level of polyvulation is connected with testosterone and estradiol positive correlation (r = 0.42) and a low level of estradiol and corti-sol (r = –0.14; r = –0.49) in blood serum during the observation period.

Full textYatusevich A.I., Sinyakov M.P.
Problem of trichonematidosis in horse breeding farms of the republic of Belarus
Distribution and season dynamics of trichonematidosis in horsebreeding farms of the republic of Belarus, species composition have been studied. The efficiency of 1% Avermektin ointment and disinfection properties of the medication of pharmiod have been studied at given infestation. It has been stated that extensiveness of infestation of the horses comes up to 93.2%, it is greater in winter-spring period than in summer-autumn one. It has been determined that 14 sorts of trichonematides parasites at horses. It has been shown that 1% Avermektin ointment, alverm, univerm are highly effective against trichonematidosis in horses and 2% solution of pharmiod has high ovocydic and larvaecydic activity

Full textDremach G.E., Zaitseva A.V.
Stability of biological properties of salmonells at preparation of immune-biological medication
Results of study of influence of nucleic acid salts onto biological, cultural and reproductive characteristics of salmonells used for produc-ing active immune medication for animals have been discovered. It has been stated that use of nucleic acid saltsat a process of salmonells cultivation enhances in large extent their biological, cultural and reproductive activity.

Full textHadleuskaya N.N.
Exogenous enzymes action upon carp body growth
Results of influence of various ferment drugs upon carp body growth have been presented. It has been stated that their addition to forage gives carp mass increase up to 158%. Optimal dozes of ferment drugs for fish forage have been determined.

Full textDokuchaeva S.I.
Technology of cultivation of European catfish (Silurus glanis L.) in pond fish-farms of Belarus
Materials about technologic norms of growing of European catfish in pond fish-farms of Belarus including norms of reproduction by new ecologic-physiologic way and cultivation of current year fry, two years old and three years old European catfish and their living in winter have been pre-sented. Dependence of results of cultivation of different years old groups of European catfish (final weight, survivability and fish productivity) from landing density and forage supplying has been established. Economic efficiency of all stages of cultivation of European catfish in pond fish-farms of Belarus has been shown.

UpMechanization and Power Engineering

Full textSevernev M.M.
On increasing of technical level of farm machinery
Main directions and consequence of re-equipment of farm machinery have been observed. Necessary of modernization of machines for new energy-saturated Belarus tractor have been grounded. Machines for seed sowing must have regulating depth of sowing, systems of control and tuning of needed norms of sowing, and machines for carrying of mineral fertilizers must have devices for calculation of norms of introducing fertilizers and calculation of the machines productivity. Necessaty of «co-ordinate system of agriculture» for elaboration of special markers for wide-seizure machines, elaboration of a system of machines for standard feed ration, air purification in stock-breeding loadings from poisonous gases and microflora has been discovered.

Full textDashkov V.N., Kapustin N.F., Litovsky A.M., Zuikevich D.A.
Calculation of parameters of flowing milk-cooler at connecting with season device on a basis of mathematical modeling of the process
Analysis of various ways, systems of milk-cooling used on dairy-commodity farms of Belarus and expanses of electric power for process has been executed. Special attention has given to renewed energy souces in particularly to a natural cold of atmospheric air as to one of basic way of reduction of expenses of electric power during primary milk-cooling. It has been described a way of reduction of power inputs due to use of flowing cooler in a scheme of milk cooling: capaci-tor of milk cooler — a flowing of milk cooler — the devise for use of natural cold. Calculation and substantiation of optimum design data of a flowing milk-cooler of tubular type have been carried out.

UpScientists of Belarus

Full text
Romanova T.A. (to 80 anniversary)

Full text
Rogovoy P.P. (to 110 anniversary)

Full textKrupich A.I.
Formation of the mechanism of feed agricultural unions
Problems of formation of the mechanism of finance-production groups, economic groups, consumption co-operations and order of formation and operation of associations representativing and protecting common interests of organizations of food sub complexes and holding companies in management of state shares. Present material shall promote to some extent to development and forming food factory-farm structures.

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