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1996

ROCEEDINGS

of the NATIONAL ACADEMY of
SCIENCES of BELARUS.

AGRARIAN SCIENCES SERIES

ISSN 1817-7204

Русский
The National Academy of Sciences of Belarus

National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus
Editor-in-chief V. Gusakov, vice editor-in-chief P. Kazakevich, V. Azarenko
40 F.Skaryny St. Minsk 220141 Belarus phone +375 17 3697700 fax +375 17 3698618 e-mail: belnauka@infonet.by
Information about the titles change:
1963-1992 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of  BSSR. Agrarian series»
1992-2002 гг. – «Proceedings of the Academy of Sciences of Republic of Belarus. Agrarian series»

 



1996 №2

Contents:
Economics and Information
Land Cultivation and Plant Growing
Livestock production and veterinary medicine

UpEconomics and Information

Full textBaranovskij S.
Co-operation in Agro-Food sectors of developed countries.
The experience of developed countries concerning of the agricultural cooperation which become the organic and component part of their agrofood sector has been generalised in the article. The main forms of cooperation in agro-food sector of such developed countries as USA, France, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Japan have been shown. The development of cooperation is being realised depending from the specific features of the economical and natural conditions of the developed countries and therefore the different ways have been applied.

Full textValuev V., Iljina Z.
Sugarbeet production of Belarus.
The ways of further formating of the market mechanism of the sugarbeet production, the tendencies of both this branch and processing industry development in market conditions have been defined in the article. The economical efficiency as compared to the world prices have been shown in it.

Full textRastorguev P.
Marketing in formating of the Quality of produce.
The mutual relations of the Marketing and Management of the quality of produce, its necessity for production of competitive produce in Belarus conditions is analysed in the article. The main functions of marketing in formating and realising of the quality of agricultural produce are shown in it, as well. The main tasks of marketing for production of the competitive produce including in Belarus conditions have been distinguished.

Full textShapiro S.
Marketing as the function of management in agro industrial complex.
Five alternative conceptions proceeding from which the enterprise performs the marketing are reflected in the article. These are: commodity, realisation, production, social ethics marketing. The conception of marketing foresees as following: — to meet the demand of the separated groups of consumers; — to perform the complex of marketing research to find the requirements; — to permanent control and analyse of marketing activity of the enterprise; — to assure of the enterprise that the results of its activity will meet the consumer's demands and will lead to repeated purchasing of the produce and positive public opinions as well.

Full textKuzmenko M., Moisjuk N., Turban L.
Information and calculating supplying of complete mineral nutrition of plants, placed for separated research fields.
The characteristic and possibilities of the programming complex with utilisation of powerful and reliable PC for calculating of well grounded doses of macro and micronutrient fertilizers basing from the results of research on the separated fields and working places and their distribution proceeding from the terms of fertilizing have been presented in the article. Such approach allows to move to wide utilization of the quantities models of the soil's quality and plants productivity, increasing of efficiency reducing of losses and unproductive fertilizing in agronomy. Programming complex had been tested in 1995, recognised as efficient and recommended to put into practice through all the provinces of Belarus.

UpLand Cultivation and Plant Growing

Full textKlochkov A.
Byometry of plants and agrotechnics requirements.
The interrelations between byometry, agrotechnics factors and crops have been expressed by researchers. These interrelations as an integral curve with four specific stages of influence of agrotechnical factors to cropsyield have been shown by presented graphic. The full requirements to agrotechnics can only be adopted after receiving all tendencies of the interrelations development. The choice of rational ways of agrotechnics will be based proceeding from both the expenses of the fulfilled work and their efficiency for plants.

Full textKalmukov V., Bober N., Bud V.
The research of influence of spaced factors to power engineering efficiency of cultivating of winter cereas.
The results of research have been tested that the angle of slope, the rate of field cutting by the obstacles and the length of run have the highest influence on energy spending. As it have been defined with this, the changing of the angle of a slope by 2-3 degrees under the grain crops will allow to save up to 1500 mj/ha (8-10 % of total spending), the rate of field cutting by obstacles by 10-15% up to 2000 mj/ha (12-15%), the length of the run by 100-200 m. up to 700 mj/lia (near 5% of total energy spending. The optimisation of combination of the above-mentioned factors will allow to save up to 30% of energy under cultivating of cereals in the framework of the territory organising.

Full textSheljuto., Sheljuto A.
Agrotechnics of the red clover and its winter-enduring.
The results of many-years research performed at Belarussian Agricultural Academy devoted to studying of influence of the different agrotechnic methods towards to winter-enduring of red clover (Trifolium pratense) and its productivity have been considered in the article. It have been found out that the number of clover's cutting during the first year of utilization of grasses, methods and terms of cutting, including last (autumn) one, and availability of timothy grass (Phleum pratense) as component have a great influence towards to winter-enduring of red clover. These factors should be taken into consideration under placing of clover into crop rotation and its utilization during two years cycle.

Full textBosak V., Zarei M., Stahr K.
The weathering of rockforming minerals on account of anthropogenic carried acides.
This paper discusses the results of a model experiment on the weathering, new mineral formation and decomposition of rock-forming minerals through anthropological acid deposition. The results show that a decline in pH values led to an increase in leaching losses of elements. On the other hand, an increase in pH values led to a lower leaching losses of acidic cations (At, Fe, Mn) which in turn resulted in more new mineral formation. In addition, the mineral weathering is also dependet upon the particle size characteristic and the mineral composition.

Full textNevgen I.
The efficiency of the differed methods of soil's cultivating within the system of nonmoldboard one for barley in spring.
Spring soil's cultivation for barley should perform by heavy-duty harrows following cultivation in unit with harrowing or by heavy-duty harrows following cultivation in unit "PBK- 3,6" in case of changing of autumn ploughing of sod podzolic loamy sandy soil towards to chiselling.

Full textHadi Raad M.
The influence of phytoregulators to growth processes of spring wheat in drought conditions.
The results of the influence of phytoregulators to growth processes of spring wheat with different drought- resistance have been shown. It was defined that "Leningradka" kind is more reacted to cultivating by the growth regulators which are positive influencing to its physiological processes and increase its drought- resistance as compared to others non drought- resistance kinds.

Full textPilipenko M., Savoshenko Z.
Utilization of the straw's surpluses in combination with the oil radish for green fertilizer.
It has been shown by research that the utilization of the winter rye's straw in combination with additional planting of the oil radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera) for green fertilizer under the barley in combination with additional planting of clover did not supply with the increasing of barley for grain during the first year. But the straw of the winter rye under barley in combination with the oil radish have only supplyed with the increasing as compared to control by 3,2-4,4 c/ha during the second year. It was received the same harvest of clover's dry substance on liquid manure and mineral fertilizers applyed in feeding (P30K45) that allows to change the expensive mineral fertilizers by the liquid manure at 30 t/ha rate. Nitrogen of the mineral fertilizers N52 for decomposition of the straw is changed by the liquid manure in 30 t/ha rate.

Full textLoiko R., Krivorot A., Matus V., Yarokhovich L.
Endogenous ethylene is the effective criterian of forecasting of apple-tree fruit terms of harvesting.
The conformities of collecting of endogenous ethylene gave off the closed vessels by the different kinds of fruits harvested 2-3 weeks before average long year date of harvesting have been researched. It was found out that the method of the establishment of the optimal terms of harvesting proceeding from accumulation of ethylene allows to calculate forecasted date of fruit harvesting with accuracy to one day and quite effective in Belarus conditions as well.

Full textBuga S., Ushkevich L.
Rhynchosporioz of winter rye and ecologo-economical grounding of technology of chemical defence of decease.
The results of studying of Rhynchosporioz (Rhynchosporium secalis) of winter rye in The Republic of Belarus have been generalized, the signs of infection and perennial dynamics of ringspot's developing have been described. The thresholds of harmfulness of desease under the different conditions of winter rye cultivating have been defined. The models of the short-terms forecasting, the thresholds of profitability required for performing defence of crops in optimal terms with maximal economical efficiency have been elaborated.

Full textIvartjuk V., Aleksandrov O.
The efficiency of agrotechnics measures directed against rhizoctoniose of potato.
The increasing of organic and mineral fertilizer's dose reduce significantly the development of Rh. solani (Rhizoctonia) placed on underground roots of potato. The best potato's predecessors from the phytosanitary are oats, barley, winter rye, winter wheat, maize, perennial grasses, flax, winter rape. To reduce the influence of potato's rhizoctoniose its tubers planting should perform for 6-8 centimetres of depth in the first decade of May (central zone of Belarus). It is worthwhile to increase the depth of planting up to 12-20 cm to receive the seed kinds which are free ofphotogene's sclerocia. The optimal density of planting is 50 thous. plants per ha using seed potato tubers in 71-90 gr. with poor degree (1 ball) of sclerocia Rh. solani. Herbicides application such as: zenkor, rejser, raundap, targa, topogard does not influence significantly to rhizoctoniose development.

UpLivestock production and veterinary medicine

Full textButkevich S.
Carcass quality of Belarus Black and White cattle and through its breeding.
The rate of changes in carcass quality of Black and White cattle of three genotypes, their phenotypic and genotypic variations were studied. The possibility and efficiency of Belarus servicing bulls breeding on carcass quality of their sons was reflected. As it was defined the holstein origin bulls regarding live, slaughter and carcass weight gave up the leading position to Belarussian and European breeding accordingly by 3,8 kg, 2,6 and 1,4% (P<0,01). At the same time there were not differences between genetically groups through square deviations in carcass quality. Phenotypic's coefficients made up by carcass weight and yield, slaughter yield and fat weight and yield respectively 7,8 and 4,1%, 3,0 and 26,2% . Genotypie's coefficients made up by live and carcass weight, slaughter yield , fat weight and yield respectively 42 and 54%, 69%, 50 and 63% (P<0,001). The breeding quality of the servicing bulls defined proceeding from the carcass quality of their sons will characterise of bulls heredity's features.

Full textGolushko V., Marusitch A., Kovalenko S.
Triticale in mixed fodder for feeder pigs.
It was defined by research that triticale's unprocessed grain up to 40,5% but processed by jetting methods up to 73,5% by weight should add in mixed fodder for feeder pigs. The daily increasing of live weight of animals with this grew accordingly by 8,5 - 10,6% but feed expenditure per 1 kg of live weight reduced by 7,4 - 9,0%, the quality of slaughtering indices and pork carcass improved as well.

Full textTrofimov A., Aleshin A., Timoshenko V., Brovko A., Nagornaja Z.
The influence of the methods of heifer's growing to their growth, developing and following milk productivity.
The results of experiments concerning studying and comparable estimation of heifer's placement both in groups cages and individual isolated boxing and influence of the different ways of their placing to milk productivity of first claviers have been reflected. It was defined that in the case of isolated growing the productivity of the first claviers exceeded by 615 kg or 18,2% than that of the groups cages way of.

Full textSeriakov I.
Coenzyme B12 in piglets' rations.
The results of changing of vitamin B12 in piglets' rations on coenzyme B12 have been reflected in the article. It has been found that the most optimal doses are coenzyme B12 in 45,0 and 55,0 mkg per head per day. Live weight with this was by 11,0-8,8% higher, then under the control, methylene activity of their liver increased by 11,4-9,6%, haematological indexes improved as well, feed consumption decreased up to 3,92-4,34 feed unit per 1 kg of weight increase at the end of the experiment.

Full textMaisjuk V.
The efficiency of feeding of the different kinds of silage to growing bulls.
Influence of feeding of the maize silage prepared by means of additives of synthetic nitrogenkeeping substance (SNS ) and sulphur, legume-grass silage and grain fermented forage to bulls growing intensively was studied by the scientific and farm experience. It was established that oats and peas silage does not yield to maize one proceeding from its activity. But the quantity of fodder per pieces of produce is grown. Addition of the grain fermented forage to ration have led to decline of the energy of cattle growth by 5% but it supply with the possibility to save concentrated fodder almost by 75 %. The high economical effect have been received by means of concentrated fodder economy.

Full textHitrinov G., Dmitrieva P., Krasko V.
The efficiency of the only lactose's feeding to caifs or its availability in mixed fodder.
It was defined by the research that the partial substitute of the skimmed-milk by the feeding of crystalline lactose and paprin's avtolizat in kind of mixed fodder exerts positive influence to growing calfs. So, the growth energy of the first and the second experimented groups of calfs was higher than that of controlled one by 2,0 and 4,3% accordingly. It is worthwhile to feed the calfs by lactose solution in dose of 125 gr. per head to preventing of their stress. The lactose feeding instead of sugar in special mixed fodder increase the intensity of calfs growth by 6,7%.

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